Article

Colorectal cancer molecular biology moves into clinical practice

Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington, Washington, USA.
Gut (Impact Factor: 14.66). 10/2010; 60(1):116-29. DOI: 10.1136/gut.2009.206250
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

The promise of personalised medicine is now a clinical reality, with colorectal cancer genetics at the forefront of this next major advance in clinical medicine. This is no more evident than in the recent advances in testing of colorectal cancers for specific molecular alterations in order to guide treatment with the monoclonal antibody therapies cetuximab and panitumumab, which target the epidermal growth factor receptor. In this review, genetic mechanisms of colorectal cancer and how these alterations relate to emerging biomarkers for early detection and risk stratification (diagnostic markers), prognosis (prognostic markers) and the prediction of treatment responses (predictive markers) are examined.

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Available from: washington.edu
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    • "Among these, the AOM model has been extensively used to examine the chemopreventive effect of numerous compounds on colon cancer[36]. Administration of AOM to rodents induces the development of the ACF colonic preneoplastic lesions that may progress into cancer with time[1]. Indeed, ACF represent the earliest identifiable intermediate precancerous lesions during colon carcinogenesis in both laboratory animals and humans[37]. "

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    • "For therapy purposes, anti-VEGF-A antibodies have been employed in addition to standard chemotherapy agents. Despite all the efforts, the prognosis of patients with advanced stage disease has not been significantly improved [54] [55]. hERG1 protein is highly expressed in colorectal adenocarcinomas with respect to hyperplastic lesions of the colon [11] and in CRC cell lines [11] [33] and it was demonstrated that the protein is not expressed in small adenomas and sigma diverticulitis [56]. "
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    • "In CRC, p53 mutation occurs in about 40–50% of cases91011. Mutated p53 loses its tumor suppressive function, which is a critical event in the adenoma to carcinoma transition during colon carcinogenesis[12]. Scientists have been enthusiastic in developing different strategies to reactivate mutated p53 in cancer cells as an anti-cancer therapy[13,14]. "
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