Evaluation of disease modifying activity of Colchicum luteum Baker in experimental arthritis
Colchicum luteum (CL) has been traditionally used in the Unani system of medicine as a chief ingredient of many polyherbal formulations for the treatment of joint pain and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). To evaluate the antiarthritic activity of CL hydroalcoholic extract (CLHE) in formaldehyde and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) induced arthritis. Arthritis was induced by administration of either formaldehyde (2% v/v) or CFA into the subplantar surface of the hind paw of the animal. Joint swelling was measured on days 8, 9 and 10 in formaldehyde induced arthritis and days 3, 7, 14 and 21 in CFA induced arthritis. In order to evaluate the effect of CLHE on disease progression, serum TNF-α level and synovial expression of proinflammatory mediators (TNF-R1, IL-6 and IL-1β) was determined in CFA induced arthritis. CLHE produced a significant and dose dependent inhibition of joint swelling during the entire duration of the study in both, formaldehyde and CFA induced arthritis. Serum TNF-α level was also reduced significantly in a dose dependent manner in all the CLHE treated groups. The expression of proinflammatory mediators (TNF-R1, IL-6 and IL-1β) was also found to be less in the CLHE treated group as compared to control. We believe that the antiarthritic activity of CLHE was due to its modulatory effect on the expression of proinflammatory cytokine in the synovium. Our results contribute towards validation of the traditional use of CL in the treatment of RA and other inflammatory joint disorders.