Sustained Profile of Transmitted Drug Resistance Mutations for More Than 10 Years in an HIV Type 1-Infected Patient
Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain.AIDS research and human retroviruses (Impact Factor: 2.33). 10/2010; 27(1):41-5. DOI: 10.1089/aid.2010.0104
We present an HIV-1-infected patient with a profile of transmitted drug resistance (RT M41L, E44D, V118I, L210W, T215D) sustained during more than 10 years in the absence of treatment. Clonal analysis of different plasma and cellular samples within this period did not reveal any reversion to the wild-type genotype.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract The recent expansion of antiretroviral treatment (ART) coverage in middle/low-income countries has been associated with increasing prevalence of HIV pre-ART drug resistance (PDR). We assessed PDR prevalence, patterns, and trends in Guatemala. Blood samples from 1,084 ART-naive individuals, enrolled from October 2010 to December 2013 at the Roosevelt Hospital in Guatemala City, were obtained. PDR was evaluated using the WHO mutation list for transmitted drug resistance (TDR) surveillance. An overall PDR prevalence of 7.3% (95% CI 5.8-9.0%) was observed for the whole study period. TDR to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) was the highest (4.9%, p<0.001), followed by nucleoside RT inhibitors (1.8%) and protease inhibitors (1.0%). No significant trends in PDR prevalence were observed during the study period. However, higher NNRTI PDR levels were found in individuals with >500 and 350-500 CD4(+) T cells/μl (7.4% and 8.7%, respectively) compared to individuals with <350 CD4(+) T cells/μl (3.7%; p=0.039 and p=0.007, respectively), as well as a tendency of higher levels of NNRTI transmitted drug resistance (DR) in individuals with recent infection determined by HIV incidence tests (9.7%), suggesting increasing trends in time. Clusters of viruses with NNRTI PDR suggesting complex transmission networks were observed. No associations between PDR and demographic variables were found. PDR in Guatemala remains at an intermediate level. Nevertheless, we have shown evidence suggesting increasing trends in NNRTI PDR, which need to be taken into account in national HIV management policies.
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