Potent constitutive cyclic AMP-generating activity of XLαs implicates this imprinted GNAS product in the pathogenesis of McCune-Albright Syndrome and fibrous dysplasia of bone

Article (PDF Available)inBone 48(2):312-20 · September 2010with29 Reads
DOI: 10.1016/j.bone.2010.09.032 · Source: PubMed
Patients with McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS), characterized primarily by hyperpigmented skin lesions, precocious puberty, and fibrous dyslasia of bone, carry postzygotic heterozygous mutations of GNAS causing constitutive cAMP signaling. GNAS encodes the α-subunit of the stimulatory G protein (Gsα), as well as a large variant (XLαs) derived from the paternal allele. The mutations causing MAS affect both GNAS products, but whether XLαs, like Gsα, can be involved in the pathogenesis remains unknown. Here, we investigated biopsy samples from four previously reported and eight new patients with MAS. Activating mutations of GNAS (Arg201 with respect to the amino acid sequence of Gsα) were present in all the previously reported and five of the new cases. The mutation was detected within the paternally expressed XLαs transcript in five and the maternally expressed NESP55 transcript in four cases. Tissues carrying paternal mutations appeared to have higher XLαs mRNA levels than maternal mutations. The human XLαs mutant analogous to Gsα-R201H (XLαs-R543H) showed markedly higher basal cAMP accumulation than wild-type XLαs in transfected cells. Wild-type XLαs demonstrated higher basal and isoproterenol-induced cAMP signaling than Gsα and co-purified with Gβ1γ2 in transduced cells. XLαs mRNA was measurable in mouse calvarial cells, with its level being significantly higher in undifferentiated cells than those expressing preosteoblastic markers osterix and alkaline phosphatase. XLαs mRNA was also expressed in murine bone marrow stromal cells and preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Our findings are consistent with the possibility that constitutive XLαs activity adds to the molecular pathogenesis of MAS and fibrous dysplasia of bone.

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    • "We therefore performed the differential diagnosis between PHP-Ia and PPHP by performing RT-PCR on patient's blood RNA and found the mutation on the paternally expressed A/B transcript. This approach was undertaken previously to determine the allelic origin of GNAS mutations associated with McCune–Albright syndrome and pituitary adenomas141516 but was not employed before for this purpose. Thus, in patients with GNAS mutations for whom the clinical features are not able to distinguish PHP-Ia from PPHP, and when the parental DNA samples are unavailable or lack the mutation, the analysis of RNA from the patient's blood samples can be performed to establish the molecular diagnosis. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Context: Loss-of-function GNAS mutations lead to hormone resistance and Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) when maternally inherited, i.e. pseudohypoparathyroidism-Ia (PHPIa), but cause AHO alone when located on the paternal allele, i.e. pseudoPHP (PPHP). Objective: We aimed to establish the molecular diagnosis in a patient with AHO and evidence of hormone resistance. Case: The patient is a female who presented at the age of 13.5years with short stature and multiple AHO features. No evidence for TSH or gonadotropin-resistance was present. Serum calcium and vitamin D levels were normal. However, serum PTH was elevated on multiple occasions (64-178pg/mL, normal: 9-52) and growth hormone response to clonidine or L-DOPA was blunted, suggesting hormone resistance and PHP-Ia. The patient had diminished erythrocyte Gsα activity and a novel heterozygous GNAS mutation (c.328 G>C; p.A109P). The mother lacked the mutation, and the father's DNA was not available. Hence, a diagnosis of PPHP also appeared possible, supported by low birth weight and a lack of AHO features associated predominantly with PHP-Ia, i.e. obesity and cognitive impairment. To determine the parental origin of the mutation, we amplified the paternally expressed A/B and biallelically expressed Gsα transcripts from the patient's peripheral blood RNA. While both wild-type and mutant nucleotides were detected in the Gsα amplicon, only the mutant nucleotide was present in the A/B amplicon, indicating that the mutation was paternal. Conclusion: These findings suggest that PTH and other hormone resistance may not be an exclusive feature of PHP-Ia and could also be observed in patients with PPHP.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015
    • "GNAS Locus Imprinting in hESCs/hiPSCs threshold cycle of the transcript detection. Primers used for Gsa amplification were previously described (Mariot et al., 2011). PCR amplification efficiency was comprised between 1.85 and 1.97. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Data from the literature indicate that genomic imprint marks are disturbed in human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). GNAS is an imprinted locus that produces one biallelic (Gsα) and four monoallelic (NESP55, GNAS-AS1, XLsα, and A/B) transcripts due to differential methylation of their promoters (DMR). To document imprinting at the GNAS locus in PSCs, we studied GNAS locus DMR methylation and transcript (NESP55, XLsα, and A/B) expression in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) derived from two human fibroblasts and their progenies. Results showed that (1) methylation at the GNAS locus DMRs is DMR and cell line specific, (2) changes in allelic transcript expression can be independent of a change in allele-specific DNA methylation, and (3) interestingly, methylation at A/B DMR is correlated with A/B transcript expression. These results indicate that these models are valuable to study the mechanisms controlling GNAS methylation, factors involved in transcript expression, and possibly mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1B.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014
    • "For cAMP measurements, cells were washed once with PBS and incubated for 15 min at 37°C with IBMX buffer (RPMI medium supplemented with 35mM HEPES pH7.4, 2mM IBMX, 0.1% BSA) (Mariot et al 2011). Cells were then washed twice on cold PBS and the cell number assessed with a Beckman Coulter Counter to standardise. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Poor-prognosis oestrogen receptor-positive breast cancer is characterised by the presence of high-level focal amplifications. We utilised a focused small interfering RNA screen in 14 breast cancer cell lines to define genes that were pathogenic in three genomic regions focally amplified in oestrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, 8p11-12, 11q13 and 20q. Silencing the GNAS locus, that encodes the G protein alpha stimulatory subunit Gαs, specifically reduced the growth of 20q amplified breast cancer cell lines. Examination of a publically available small hairpin RNA data set confirmed GNAS silencing to be selective for 20q amplified cancer cell lines. Cell lines with 20q amplification were found to overexpress specifically the extra long Gαs splice variant (XLαs). Overexpression of XLαs induced cAMP levels to a greater extent than Gαs, suggesting that amplification of the GNAS locus, and overexpression of the XLαs variant in particular, enhanced cAMP signalling. GNAS silencing in amplified cell lines reduced extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation, and conversely overexpression of exogenous XLαs in a non-amplified cell line increased MEK-ERK1/2 phosphorylation, identifying one potential downstream consequence of enhanced cAMP signalling. Our data indicate that amplification of the GNAS locus may contribute to the pathogenesis of breast cancer, and highlight a previously unrecognised role for the GNAS XLαs variant in cancer.Oncogene advance online publication, 10 June 2013; doi:10.1038/onc.2013.202.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013
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