Understanding the Recognition Mechanism of Protein-RNA Complexes Using Energy Based Approach
Computational Biology Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 2-4-7 Aomi, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-0064, Japan. Current Protein and Peptide Science
(Impact Factor: 3.15).
11/2010; 11(7):629-38. DOI: 10.2174/138920310794109166
Protein-RNA interactions perform diverse functions within the cell. Understanding the recognition mechanism of protein-RNA complexes is a challenging task in molecular and computational biology. In this work, we have developed an energy based approach for identifying the binding sites and important residues for binding in protein-RNA complexes. The new approach considers the repulsive interactions as well as the effect of distance between the atoms in protein and RNA in terms of interaction energy, which are not considered in traditional distance based methods to identify the binding sites. We found that the positively charged, polar and aromatic residues are important for binding. These residues influence to form electrostatic, hydrogen bonding and stacking interactions. Our observation has been verified with the experimental binding specificity of protein-RNA complexes and found good agreement with experiments. Further, the propensities of residues/nucleotides in the binding sites of proteins/RNA and their atomic contributions have been derived. Based on these results we have proposed a novel mechanism for the recognition of protein-RNA complexes: the charged and polar residues in proteins initiate recognition with RNA by making electrostatic and hydrogen bonding interactions between them; the aromatic side chains tend to form aromatic-aromatic interactions and the hydrophobic residues aid to stabilize the complex.
Available from: Selvaraj Samuel
- "In addition, we have used a benchmark dataset of 124 protein-protein complexes to validate our results . For comparison, we have utilized a set of 81 protein-RNA complexes  and 212 protein-DNA complexes . "
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ABSTRACT: Protein-protein interactions are important for several cellular processes. Understanding the mechanism of protein-protein recognition and predicting the binding sites in protein-protein complexes are long standing goals in molecular and computational biology.
We have developed an energy based approach for identifying the binding site residues in protein-protein complexes. The binding site residues have been analyzed with sequence and structure based parameters such as binding propensity, neighboring residues in the vicinity of binding sites, conservation score and conformational switching.
We observed that the binding propensities of amino acid residues are specific for protein-protein complexes. Further, typical dipeptides and tripeptides showed high preference for binding, which is unique to protein-protein complexes. Most of the binding site residues are highly conserved among homologous sequences. Our analysis showed that 7% of residues changed their conformations upon protein-protein complex formation and it is 9.2% and 6.6% in the binding and non-binding sites, respectively. Specifically, the residues Glu, Lys, Leu and Ser changed their conformation from coil to helix/strand and from helix to coil/strand. Leu, Ser, Thr and Val prefer to change their conformation from strand to coil/helix.
The results obtained in this study will be helpful for understanding and predicting the binding sites in protein-protein complexes.
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ABSTRACT: Protein-DNA recognition plays an essential role in the regulation of gene expression. Understanding the recognition mechanism of protein-DNA complexes is a challenging task in molecular and computational biology. In this work, a scoring function based approach has been developed for identifying the binding sites and delineating the important residues for binding in protein-DNA complexes. This approach considers both the repulsive interactions and the effect of distance between atoms in protein and DNA. The results showed that positively charged, polar, and aromatic residues are important for binding. These residues influence the formation of electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, and stacking interactions. Our observation has been verified with experimental binding specificity of protein-DNA complexes and found to be in good agreement with experiments. The comparison of protein-RNA and protein-DNA complexes reveals that the contribution of phosphate atoms in DNA is twice as large as in protein-RNA complexes. Furthermore, we observed that the positively charged, polar, and aromatic residues serve as hotspot residues in protein-RNA complexes, whereas other residues also altered the binding specificity in protein-DNA complexes. Based on the results obtained in the present study and related reports, a plausible mechanism has been proposed for the recognition of protein-DNA complexes.
Available from: Yi Xiong
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ABSTRACT: Predicting DNA-binding residues from a protein three-dimensional structure is a key task of computational structural proteomics. In the present study, based on machine learning technology, we aim to explore a reduced set of weighted average features for improving prediction of DNA-binding residues on protein surfaces. Via constructing the spatial environment around a DNA-binding residue, a novel weighting factor is first proposed to quantify the distance-dependent contribution of each neighboring residue in determining the location of a binding residue. Then, a weighted average scheme is introduced to represent the surface patch of the considering residue. Finally, the classifier is trained on the reduced set of these weighted average features, consisting of evolutionary profile, interface propensity, betweenness centrality and solvent surface area of side chain. Experimental results on 5-fold cross validation and independent tests indicate that the new feature set are effective to describe DNA-binding residues and our approach has significantly better performance than two previous methods. Furthermore, a brief case study suggests that the weighted average features are powerful for identifying DNA-binding residues and are promising for further study of protein structure-function relationship. The source code and datasets are available upon request.
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