Effects of Intermittent Hydrostatic Pressure and BMP-2 on Osteoarthritic Human Chondrocyte Metabolism In Vitro
Bone and Joint RR&D Center, Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, California 94304, USA. Journal of Orthopaedic Research
(Impact Factor: 2.99).
03/2011; 29(3):361-8. DOI: 10.1002/jor.21250
This study examined effects of intermittent hydrostatic pressure (IHP) and a chondrogenic growth factor, bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), on anabolic, catabolic, and other metabolic markers in human osteoarthritic (OA) chondrocytes in vitro.
Articular chondrocytes, isolated from femoral OA cartilage and maintained in high-density monolayer culture, were examined for effects of BMP-2 and IHP on gene expression of matrix-associated proteins (aggrecan, type II collagen, and SOX9) and catabolic matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-3) and culture medium levels of the metabolic markers MMP-2, nitric oxide (NO), and glycosaminoglycan (GAG). The results were analyzed using a mixed linear regression model to investigate the effects of load and growth factor concentration.
IHP and BMP-2 modulated OA chondrocyte metabolism in accordance with growth factor concentration independently, without evidence of synergism or antagonism. Each type of stimulus acted independently on anabolic matrix gene expression. Type II collagen and SOX9 gene expression were stimulated by both IHP and BMP-2 whereas aggrecan was increased only by BMP-2. IHP exhibited a trend to decrease MMP-2 gene expression as a catabolic marker whereas BMP-2 did not. NO production was increased by addition of BMP-2 and IHP exhibited a trend for increased levels. GAG production was increased by BMP-2.
This study confirmed the hypothesis that human OA chondrocytes respond to a specific type of mechanical load, IHP, through enhanced articular cartilage macromolecule gene expression and that IHP, in combination with a chondrogenic growth factor BMP-2, additively enhanced matrix gene expression without interactive effects.
Available from: Chi-Chien Niu
- "Conversely, insufficient mechanical stimulus, such as that due to joint immobilization, has also been associated with cartilage destruction . On the other hand, moderate (physiological) mechanical stimulus has been confirmed not only to promote articular cartilage anabolism  but also to inhibit catabolism [5,6]. "
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ABSTRACT: Although the individual effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) and low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) on osteoarthritic (OA) chondrocytes have been reported, the effects of HBO combined with LIPUS treatment are unknown.
OA chondrocytes were obtained from patients undergoing knee replacement surgery. RNA was isolated for real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), type-II collagen, and aggrecan gene expression. The protein levels of MMP-3 and TIMP-1 were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) after LIPUS or HBO treatment. The data are given as mean +/- standard deviation (SD) of the results from three independent experiments. A p value less than 0.05 was defined as statistically significant.
Our data suggested that ultrasound and HBO treatment increased cell bioactivity of OA chondrocytes. Real-time PCR analysis showed that HBO treatment increased the mRNA of type-II collagen, aggrecan, and TIMP-1 but suppressed the iNOS expression of OA chondrocytes. LIPUS treatment increased the type-II collagen and iNOS expression of OA chondrocytes. ELISA data showed that HBO or LIPUS treatment increased TIMP-1 production of OA chondrocyte. MMP-3 production was suppressed by HBO treatment. HBO combined with LIPUS treatments resulted in additive effect in TIMP-1 production and compensatory effect in iNOS expression.
HBO combined with LIPUS treatment-induced increase of the anabolic factor (TIMP-1)/catabolic factor (MMP-3) ratio may provide an additive therapeutic approach to slow the course of OA degeneration.
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ABSTRACT: This study examined the effects of intermittent hydrostatic pressure (IHP) and transforming growth factor-beta 3 on chondrogenesis of adult human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in vitro. Chondrogenic gene expression was determined by quantifying mRNA signal levels for SOX9, a transcription factor critical for cartilage development and the cartilage matrix proteins, aggrecan and type II collagen. Extracellular matrix production was determined by weight and histology. IHP was applied to hMSCs in pellet culture at a level of 10 MPa and a frequency of 1 Hz for 4 h per day for periods of 3, 7, and 14 days. hMSCs responded to addition of TGF-beta 3 (10 ng/mL) with a greater than 10-fold increase (p < 0.01) in mRNA levels for each, SOX9, type II collagen, and aggrecan during a 14-day culture period. Applying IHP in the presence of TGF-beta 3 further increased the mRNA levels for these proteins by 1.9-, 3.3-, and 1.6-fold, respectively, by day 14. Chondrogenic mRNA levels were increased with just exposure to IHP. Extracellular matrix deposition of type II collagen and aggrecan increased in the pellets as a function of treatment conditions and time of culture. This study demonstrated adjunctive effects of IHP on TGF-beta 3-induced chondrogenesis and suggests that mechanical loading can facilitate articular cartilage tissue engineering.
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ABSTRACT: Osteoarthritis (OA) constitutes a major health problem. Different signaling pathways are involved that impair homeostasis, but the cross-talk between them (although well investigated and partly understood), remains unclear. HIF-1α promotes chondrocyte differentiation and survival, while HIF-2α coactivates with β-catenin and NF-κB pathways to promote chondrocyte apoptosis and endochondral ossification. Depending on the ALK1/ALK5 ratio in chondrocytes, the TGFβ pathway can play an anabolic or catabolic role. TGFβ1 can activate the β-catenin signaling pathway via ALK5, Smad3, PI3K, and PKA pathways. The mediator Axins balance TGF-β and Wnt/β-catenin signaling during chondrocyte proliferation and maturation. However, the biological functions of Wnt/β-catenin signaling are still controversial. Both excessive and insufficient β-catenin levels may impair the homeostasis of articular chondrocytes by enhancing pathological maturation and apoptosis, respectively; loss- and gain-of-functions of β-catenin cause apoptosis at the center of the joint and chondrocyte maturation at the periphery, depending on the vascularity. The NF-κB transcription factor can be triggered by a host of stress-related stimuli including pro-inflammatory cytokines. The recent discovery of functional cross-regulation between these pathways has shown complex roles for HIF-1α/HIF-2α, TGFβ/BMP, Wnt/β-catenin, and NF-κB signaling pathways in the pathogenesis of OA. This has important implications for potential therapeutic agents directed at these pathways. This review attempts to cover the literature of the past three years dealing with the biology and pathology of the HIF-1α/-2α, TGFβ/BMP, Wnt/β-catenin, and NF-κB/cytokines signaling pathways in OA.
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