Effects of Intermittent Hydrostatic Pressure and BMP-2 on Osteoarthritic Human Chondrocyte Metabolism In Vitro

Bone and Joint RR&D Center, Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, California 94304, USA.
Journal of Orthopaedic Research (Impact Factor: 2.99). 03/2011; 29(3):361-8. DOI: 10.1002/jor.21250
Source: PubMed


This study examined effects of intermittent hydrostatic pressure (IHP) and a chondrogenic growth factor, bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), on anabolic, catabolic, and other metabolic markers in human osteoarthritic (OA) chondrocytes in vitro.
Articular chondrocytes, isolated from femoral OA cartilage and maintained in high-density monolayer culture, were examined for effects of BMP-2 and IHP on gene expression of matrix-associated proteins (aggrecan, type II collagen, and SOX9) and catabolic matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-3) and culture medium levels of the metabolic markers MMP-2, nitric oxide (NO), and glycosaminoglycan (GAG). The results were analyzed using a mixed linear regression model to investigate the effects of load and growth factor concentration.
IHP and BMP-2 modulated OA chondrocyte metabolism in accordance with growth factor concentration independently, without evidence of synergism or antagonism. Each type of stimulus acted independently on anabolic matrix gene expression. Type II collagen and SOX9 gene expression were stimulated by both IHP and BMP-2 whereas aggrecan was increased only by BMP-2. IHP exhibited a trend to decrease MMP-2 gene expression as a catabolic marker whereas BMP-2 did not. NO production was increased by addition of BMP-2 and IHP exhibited a trend for increased levels. GAG production was increased by BMP-2.
This study confirmed the hypothesis that human OA chondrocytes respond to a specific type of mechanical load, IHP, through enhanced articular cartilage macromolecule gene expression and that IHP, in combination with a chondrogenic growth factor BMP-2, additively enhanced matrix gene expression without interactive effects.

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    • "Conversely, insufficient mechanical stimulus, such as that due to joint immobilization, has also been associated with cartilage destruction [3]. On the other hand, moderate (physiological) mechanical stimulus has been confirmed not only to promote articular cartilage anabolism [4] but also to inhibit catabolism [5,6]. "
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