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Psychological skills training as a way to enhance an athlete's performance in high-intensity sports

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... Pre-competitive and competitive situations can elevate nervousness and anxiety even in experienced shooters. In this sense, the PT importance in the athletic performance in relation to the pre-competitive and competitive mental preparation, is widely recognized [16]. Regular PT practice is associated with more successful and consistent performances, especially at the highest levels. ...
... Based on the previous evidence, professional psychological support (PPS) would seem relevant to help athletes in the efficient use of PT and to improve performance. The sport psychologist can teach psychological skills and help athletes to improve motor skills, deal with competitive pressures, adjust the level of awareness and stay focused among the many distractions of the competitive environment [8] reducing anxiety and athletes' negative feelings [16]. Moreover, the sport psychologist must know the different sport situations, the psychological resources of the athletes and technical team and evaluate their needs in order to optimize performance [19]. ...
... All 8 shooters from the present study considered PT very important in performance, what agrees with the results from [5,9]. They also manifested that PT could help to regulate anxiety levels, deal with pressure, perform a better technique, increase or have a more regular performance and avoid fears, similar to other authors like [1, 16,19]. Therefore, our results agree with most of the studies that concluded that PT contributes to optimize sport performance [6,8,16,19]. ...
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Psychological aspects like anxiety, injuries’ effects, professional psychological support (PPS), psychological training (PT), or athlete-coach relationships could influence shooters’ performance. This study tried to determine which aspects were critical from the shooters’ perspective. Eight elite shooters were interviewed. After using qualitative methods, the following categories were obtained: importance of PT; anxiety and competition relationship; mental preparation; PPS; stress during training; injuries’ psychological effects and coach’s influence. PT is important for shooter’s performance, being PPS a key aspect. Moreover, anxiety levels are critical, raising during the pre-competitive period and oscillating during competition. Furthermore, shooters considered more effective the stress placed on training by the coach than by themselves. Accordingly, the coach plays a key role. Surprisingly, injuries did not affect shooters psychologically, nor in their competitive performance. We conclude that the combination of PPS, shooter competitive experience and the optimal coach’s work can promote a greater performance in Olympic shooting.
... Furthermore, this review mainly focused on intervention strategies for individual injured athletes. Many intervention strategies that target changes at the interpersonal, organisational, and policy level(s) to improve psychological rehabilitation outcomes, such as increased social support from the team or athletic trainers, or psychological counselling services at the athletic department, were not included (Podlog & Dionigi, 2010;Birrer & Morgan, 2010;Wrisberg & Fisher, 2005;Maddison & Prapavessis, 2005;Santhosh, Rajitha Menon & Jayan, 2008). There is also no Indian researches reported in this review. ...
... Other psychological techniques included in this review, such as microcounseling skills, ACT, and written disclosure, have demonstrated reduced negative psychological consequences, improved psychological coping, and reduced re-injury anxiety. Many of the techniques discussed in this review are frequently used by applied sport psychologists, and there is a plethora of empirical evidence supporting the use of the above psychological strategies to help or enhance athletic performance (Hamson-Utley & Vazquez, 2008;Arvinen-Barrow, Penny, Hemmings & Corr, 2010;Heaney, 2006;Myers, Peyton & Jensen, 2004;Birrer & Morgan, 2010;Wrisberg & Fisher, 2005;Maddison & Prapavessis, 2005;Santhosh, Rajitha Menon & Jayan, 2008;Thelwell, Greenlees & Weston, 2010;Malouff, McGee, Halford & Rooke, 2008;Ramsey, Cumming & Edwards, 2008;Gregg, Hall & Hanton, 2007;Laaksonen, Ainegren & Lisspers, 2011;Sheard & Golby, 2006;Shoenfelt & Griffith, 2008;Rogerson & Hrycaiko, 2002;Terry, Mayer & Howe, 1998). There has been little research on the effectiveness of using psychological interventions with injured athletes during sport injury rehabilitation. ...
... In the latter case, continuous efforts at self-regulation, even if they are effective at first, lead after some time to states of ego depletion (Ong, 2015). Hence, some researchers have promoted skills such as self-acceptance, which create harmony over skills used with change-oriented intentions (e.g., Birrer and Morgan, 2010). ...
... Examples of strategic actions reported in research include integrating into a team's internal culture, displaying good listening skills, understanding the reality that clients face, and encouraging clients to feel safe to disclose their problems (Fortin-Guichard et al., 2018). Targeted interventions, which include diverse strategic actions, address specific problems in sport and exercise, such as coach behavior (e.g., coach development programs, Evans et al., 2015), endurance performance (e.g., music interventions, Karageorghis and Priest, 2012), skill acquisition (e.g., mental simulation practice, Moran et al., 2012), resilience (e.g., resilience-building programs, Galli and Gonzalez, 2015), attention and motivation (e.g., strategic self-talk interventions, Hatzigeorgiadis et al., 2011), or psychological skills (e.g., psychological skills training, Birrer and Morgan, 2010). ...
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The present work contains a personal perspective on what sport and exercise psychology (SEP) is today. It is a global synthesis of research about psychological aspects related to the context and practice of sport and exercise. The intended impact was to positively influence teaching SEP to students, to promote interdisciplinary research and practice, and to assist the development of SEP as an applied science by helping experts develop a more holistic view of the field. Over 650 theoretical and review articles about psychological concepts in connection to sport and exercise were read in the process of creating a conceptual model that reflects the essence of SEP and leads to a conceptualization of SEP based on research topics. The result was a knowledge map of SEP made up of four main research clusters: biopsychological descriptors, external variables, psychological skills, and applied SEP practice. In terms of interdisciplinarity, the present perspective on SEP suggests that sport and exercise can be used as a research paradigm or natural laboratory to study psychological aspects relevant to various scientific fields, and that sport and exercise can be used as a therapeutic framework in response to challenges that researchers and practitioners in these fields are typically addressing.
... When self-management is good, it can be said that "individuals experience a positive mood and increased confidence in coping skills." Self-management encompasses personal, internal, external, and environmental factors and is a psychobehavioral strategy, which means that individuals become thorough in everything, from physical and mental aspects to training and their personal life, to achieve their goals [9]. ...
... In other words, it was found in the same context as previous studies that improvement in athletes' psychological variables would improve performance [27]. Athletes with high self-management skills have a high level of satisfaction with exercise and have high sports coping skills in training or competition situations [9]. In a study by Lee et al. [28], examining the self-management and anxiety of competition in Taekwondo breaking athletes, it was found that the higher the self-management of athletes is, the lower the anxiety and the higher the degree of exercise immersion, which are partially consistent with the results of this study. ...
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This study aimed to investigate the effects of Judo athletes’ psychological function on sports coping skills through self-management: the moderated mediating effect of tension. A total of 124 participants (66 males and 58 females) were included, comprising high school students, college students, and judo team players (age 16 to 30, 20.51 ± 3.17) in the Republic of Korea. The psychological function was measured using the Profile of Mood Test, Athletes’ Self-Management Questionnaire, and Athletic Coping Skills Inventory-28. The results of the analysis of the moderating effect of the athlete’s self-management behavior showed that tension had a moderating effect on the relationship between the athlete’s self-management behavior and sports coping skills. The mediating effect analysis revealed a mediating effect of self-management behavior on the relationship between player vitality and sports coping skills. It was also confirmed that tension had a moderating effect on athletes’ self-management behavior and sports coping skills. Therefore, it was confirmed that the higher the self-management, the more moderated the mediating effect on sports coping skills. In conclusion, it was confirmed that psychological function affects sports coping skills, and thereby, the mediating effect of the athlete’s self-management behavior is regulated by tension. In future research, it will be necessary to study the sports coping ability and performance of judo athletes according to tension control.
... Athletes undertake many behaviours prior to competition that can affect performance (Birrer & Morgan, 2010); (Fullagar et al., 2015). Sleep is one such behaviour that serves important physiological and psychological functions (Krueger et al., 2016). ...
... The time-trial performance of endurance cyclists has been shown to improve following acute periods of sleep extension (increased habitual sleep time) and to worsen following periods of sleep restriction (decreased habitual sleep time) (Chase et al., 2017;Roberts et al., 2019). An athlete's psychological state can also affect their performance (Birrer & Morgan, 2010), with negative emotional states such as anxiety, fear and self-doubt, typically considered detrimental to performance (Neil et al., 2011. To optimise performance, athletes often practise mental preparation strategies prior to competition, including use of positive self-talk and imagery (Dolan et al., 2011;McCormick et al., 2015). ...
Article
This study examined sex differences among endurance athletes in pre-race relationships between sleep, and perceived stress and recovery. Thirty-six athletes completed the Short Recovery and Stress Scale, and had sleep monitored via actigraphy, over four consecutive days prior to an ultra-marathon. Overall, compared with males, females had shorter wake after sleep onset (mean ± SD, 50 ± 23 vs 65 ± 23 min, p = .04) and lower emotional balance (3.9 ± 1.1 vs 4.8 ± 1.1 arbitrary units, p = .001). The day before the race, females scored higher for all stress-related items (p < 0.05). Among females, higher scores for emotional balance (β = -31 min, p = .01) and negative emotional state (β = -21 min, p < .001) were associated with reduced sleep duration. Among males, higher scores for overall stress were associated with increased sleep duration (β = 22 min, p = .01). Across all athletes, longer sleep duration was associated with improved overall recovery (β = 0.003 arbitrary units, p = .02). Females experienced greater pre-race stress than males, and their sleep duration was associated with emotional factors. The SRSS may help identify female athletes at risk of sleep difficulties prior to competition.
... Yu et al., 2008) and provided by EuroLeague during two regular basketball seasons, 2019-20 with an audience and 2020-21 with no audience due to COVID-19 restrictions. As a result, EuroLeague's teams may benefit from the analysis of HAA on the most important game-related statistical TPIs by adjusting respectively their game tactics and building psychological skills, in order to efficiently improve the team's technical performance (Birrer & Morgan, 2010;; E. W. G. Moore & Gearity, 2019). Nevertheless, this article focuses mainly on the scientific evidence for the potential association of HAA and basketball gamerelated statistics of team performance results rather than on understanding the mechanism(s) responsible for this multifactorial phenomenon. ...
... Perspectives It seems that HAA has a strong effect (4.46%) on winning frequency and on reducing Turnovers of home teams in EuroLeague. The determination of HAA with its interaction on the most important game-related statistics increases the knowledge on team performance and may help team personnel and coaches to develop proper training practices and game strategies, while psychological interventions on mood state, cognitiveemotional regulation and psychological skills, provided by sport psychologists, may further improve the teams' technical performance (Birrer & Morgan, 2010;; E. W. G. Moore & Gearity, 2019). Thus, pre-game for the better preparation of the teams, coaches and technical teams should take into account individual factors (e.g., players experience, court position, sex), team factors (e.g., game tactics and strategy) and any other possible factors (e.g., travels, referee bias, season period) related to HA (Mateus et al., 2021). ...
Article
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Our aim was to explore the possible effect of home-audience advantage (HAA) on the most important basketball game-related statistical indexes of team technical performance (TPIs) during the last two regular seasons (2019-21) with an audience and with no audience. The TPIs (e.g., Points, Rebounds, Fouls) derived from the same 17 teams and 112 games that took place in each season based on predefined inclusion-exclusion criteria and provided by EuroLeague's official site. The home teams won significantly more games with an audience (69) in comparison to away teams (43), whereas with no audience they did not. In the season 2019-20 the home advantage was 61.60%, 4.46% of which corresponds to HAA. Most TPIs were not affected by the presence or absence of an audience and were not different between home and away teams. However, home teams with an audience committed significantly fewer Turnovers (11.92±1.95) in comparison to home teams without an audience (13.33±1.26). It seems that HAA has a strong effect on winning frequency and on reducing Turnovers of home teams. This knowledge of the teams' performance may help teams' personnel, psychologists, and coaches to develop proper game strategies, training and mental practices which may further improve the teams' technical performance.
... The use of psychology as an avenue to enhance sports performance has been wellexplored in the literature (e.g., Birrer & Morgan, 2010). More specifically, psychological skills training, or the "systematic and consistent practice of mental or psychological skills for the purpose of enhancing performance, increasing enjoyment, or achieving greater sport and physical activity self-satisfaction" (Weinberg & Gould, 2007, p. 250), has been suggested as an effective means of improving performance within the context of elite sport competition for non-disabled (e.g., Hardy et al., 2010;Vealey et al., 2007) and athletes with disabilities (e.g., Blumenstein & Orbach, 2015;Hanrahan, 2015;Martin, 1999) alike. ...
... Participants considered confidence and belief in one's own ability to win to be central to the successful mindset for elite athletes. This finding is well aligned with previous studies regarding the importance of self-confidence and self-efficacy among elite athletes for performance and ongoing engagement in sport (Birrer & Morgan, 2010;Martin, 2015;Martin & Malone, 2013). In a recent qualitative study of able-bodied and parasport athletes, participants reported that maintaining a positive mindset was central to their success in elite-level competition (Burns et al., 2019). ...
Article
The purpose of this inquiry was to explore and describe the experiences of Paralympic athletes regarding psychological preparation and coping strategies in elite sport. Seven Paralympic athletes composed written reflections regarding their experiences using psychological skills training. Data analysis yielded three interrelated themes: (a) “we use many different tools”: the varied uses of psychological skill training, (b) “mindset is very important – dare I say just as important as skill”: mindset matters, and (c) “I hate to lose, but I also know how to move forward”: learning through losing. Findings indicated that participants considered psychological skills to be an important part of their approach to sports competition.
... Competitive sport environments involve many situations that place high physical and psychological demands on athletes in ways that are very different from the demands of daily life or clinical contexts (Birrer & Morgan, 2010;Swann, Moran, & Piggott, 2015). Athletes' inner experiences (e.g., dysfunctional thinking, unrealistic expectations, fear of failure, perceived stress and pressure) and distracting stimuli (e.g., external events, physical sensations, fatigue) during training and competition can become highly disruptive and undermine their performance (Birrer et al., 2012;Gardner & Moore, 2017). ...
... The beneficial effects of the MBBI program should accordingly be interpreted with caution. In the context of elite sport, the difficulty of establishing a control group that is equivalent in terms of expertise and demographic characteristics should be recognized and taken into consideration (Birrer & Morgan, 2010). A multiple baseline design could have been considered (Birrer et al., 2012). ...
Article
In order to better understand how an integrated mindfulness and acceptance-based intervention works and for whom it works best, study objectives were to examine (i) the trajectories of mindfulness skills and performance-related outcomes during the intervention, and athletes’ perceptions of the impact of the intervention; and (ii) the potential moderating effects of personality characteristics on changes in targeted variables associated with the intervention. The sample consisted of 40 young elite female basketball players (M = 16.33, SD = 0.75 years) from three incoming groups at the French Federal Basketball Center over a 3-year period. All players participated in a 15-week Mindfulness BasketBall Integrated program. They completed online questionnaires measuring personality traits 10 months before the intervention, as well as pre-, mid- and post-intervention measurements of mindfulness skills, intensity and directional interpretation of stress, and performance satisfaction. They also participated in semi-structured social validation interviews conducted one month after the intervention. The results of the multilevel growth curve (MGCA) and thematic analyses revealed how the mindfulness skills and performance-related outcomes evolved over the course of the intervention and how these changes were perceived by the athletes. Specifically, the MGCA showed significant linear increases in acceptance, positive stress direction, and performance satisfaction. The complementary social validation data indicated perceived improvements in mindfulness skills and performance. The MGCA also showed that baseline personality traits moderated the effects of the program on acceptance and experience of stress. These findings may be used to inform the design of more effective integrated mindfulness and acceptance-based interventions.
... Sports psychology research seems to support Patston's position. Birrer & Morgan (2010) suggest that athletes with substantial knowledge of performance psychology benefit from enhancements in their achievement. Later, Patston (2014) also argues for more structured lessons tailored to the individual student and, echoing Kenny (2011), encourages brief but regular discussions on diet and exercise, MPA, and individual's two-or five-year plans within lessons (Patston, 2014). ...
... As mentioned above, sports psychologists clearly recommend mental skills training as a crucial component of developing mental toughness and facilitating high performance in athletes (Weinberg et al., 2018;Birrer & Morgan, 2010) and musicians (Hoffman & Hanrahan, 2012;Nagel, 2017;Cohen & Bodner, 2019b). Mental skills training functions as a form of psychoeducation which consists of several components. ...
Thesis
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Music performance anxiety (MPA) seriously affects nearly all musicians at some point in their lives and may cause musicians to abandon their careers or develop maladaptive coping mechanisms to manage their symptoms. While peer-reviewed studies have explored a broad array of psychological treatments for MPA, a paucity of research exists regarding expert classical guitarists’ recommendations for MPA symptom management. Since all post-secondary guitar instructors at the expert level interact with MPA in themselves and their students, and each instrumental discipline has idiosyncratic presentations of MPA, this dissertation seeks to understand common approaches and MPA management strategies from the perspective of classical guitar instructors at the post-secondary level—a cohort which includes the researcher. The project compares guitar experts’ recommendations with existing treatment protocols from psychology to understand MPA from a deeper scientific and heuristic perspective while providing pathways for novel research in this topic. This research concluded that guitarists’ approaches prioritized performance excellence and complete mental and physical preparation to manage MPA, while psychological treatments prioritized cognitive components of MPA, musician’s well-being, and symptom reduction. An impressive convergence of approaches appeared in the guitar and psychology literature, particularly regarding the use of mindfulness strategies and strategies from sports psychology.
... The inclusion of a psychological element to this research was important, because psychology and the use of psychological practices and interventions are significant to sport and athletes. In high-intensity sports such as badminton, there is a requirement for advanced technical, tactical, physical, and psychological skills (Birrer & Morgan, 2010;Phomsoupha & Laffaye, 2015). Due to the demands, speed, and intermittent nature of the game, badminton players must deal with pressure and a constantly changing environment (Birrer & Morgan, 2010;Phomsoupha & Laffaye, 2015). ...
... In high-intensity sports such as badminton, there is a requirement for advanced technical, tactical, physical, and psychological skills (Birrer & Morgan, 2010;Phomsoupha & Laffaye, 2015). Due to the demands, speed, and intermittent nature of the game, badminton players must deal with pressure and a constantly changing environment (Birrer & Morgan, 2010;Phomsoupha & Laffaye, 2015). Distracting stimuli (e.g., external events, bodily sensations, emotional reactions) can become highly disruptive and disengage athletes from their goals (Birrer et al., 2012;Gardner & Moore, 2017). ...
Thesis
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Badminton has been for many years known by many to be a ‘game’ in which family members can enjoy in their backyards as a form of fun and exercise. However, it is much more than that, it is a thrilling sport that is played by millions across the world. Whilst, many people play badminton recreationally, there is a select or one might even say “privileged” group of people that get to play at the highest, most elite level. These professionals were fortunate enough to either come from countries where badminton is particularly popular, or they possess the necessary resources to invest in it. However, there also exists a large population of badminton enthusiasts who are willing to coach and play the sport at a highly competitive level but are unaware of what is required to do so. Often, in such environments, some glimmers of ‘talented’ players are spotted, but eventually the prospects of developing them are lost. Hence the reason why, research on talent identification (TID) in badminton is needed. This research will create avenues to assist interested persons by pointing them in right direction towards the creation and development of pathways to identifying talent. Thus, this dissertation aimed at identifying what factors and components contribute to the making of a successful badminton athlete, by using a multidimensional approach. This multidimensional approach is inclusive of anthropometric, physical performance, motor coordination, psychological, cognitive characteristics, as well as coach’s views, knowledge and contribution to the sport of badminton. The following is a synopsis of the chosen pathway. In the first study (chapter 1), we provide a comprehensive analysis of a coach’s perspective on talent identification as it relates to anthropometric, physical performance and motor coordination characteristics. A comparison of views was done by coaches from three of the most popular racquet sports in the world (table tennis, tennis and badminton). A total of 177 coaches from around the world at different levels of expertise, shared their views via an online survey where they used a rating scale from 1 (lowest) to 10 (highest). They rated their suggestions and indicated what characteristics they felt were most important for their sport, based on exercises that were part of a generic test battery. In the end, coaches were proven to be knowledgeable about the components required for their discipline as key differences and similarities were identified. This research was helpful in showing that there is importance and value in testing of skill components and such information can assist coaches in future TID processes. In the second study (chapter 2), the focus shifted to identification of benchmarks for talent identification amongst a male youth badminton population. Sixty-one male participants between the ages of 12-18 were divided into different expertise groups (elite, sub-elite and novice). They were asked to execute a battery of exercises that was taken from a generic test battery consisting of: anthropometric, physical performance, motor coordination and also psychological characteristics (PCDEQ2). The inclusion of psychological factors was an important addition to the test battery, as that is often overlooked in such tests. In our statistical analysis, we also took into consideration measures to estimate biological maturity. From this data, we learned that there were significant differences between groups for physical performance characteristics (explosive power, flexibility, speed and endurance), BMI and motor coordination. The discriminant analysis reported 100% of correctly classified participants and 80% were correctly cross validated. This study was instrumental in highlighting data for the gaps that exist in literature pertaining to youth badminton profiles, and also showed that TID can also be achieved by using a generic testing tool. In the third and fourth studies (chapter 3 & chapter 4) we made significant strides by advancing our research into a more badminton specific category. Here we were more interested in learning more about the perceptuomotor (visual anticipation and decision-making) aspect of the sport of badminton. In particular for the third study, we explored the use of contextual information of badminton shots in different expertise levels. Fifty-eight participants were divided into elites, competitive players and novices. We assessed reaction time and anticipation accuracy by the use of badminton specific video-based occlusion tests. Within this, two conditions were created: (1) where only kinematic information was available showing only the last strokes, (LS) and (2) where both kinematic and contextual information was available, showing the full rallies (FR). Results showed that participants had slower reaction times in the FR condition with no differences in accuracy observed between the two conditions. The elite group was further sub-divided into groups of (adult elites, adult sub-elites & young elites). From this we learned that the adult elites proved to be faster at responding in the LS and FR conditions, when compared to the other elite groups. These particular results proved that even at the highest level of performers, anticipation performance can be discriminated between groups. In the fourth study, we continued with our investigations on anticipation. This time we wanted to dig a little deeper to find out what the differences were in expertise levels for anticipatory skill between badminton ‘in game’ strokes (LS) and serves. We examined 58 participants using lab based video occlusion design. Here we discovered that elite athletes were faster and more accurate in the LS condition than they were in the serves condition. This data can be used to assist coaches and athletes alike in improving their anticipatory skills, which are important in the sport of badminton. This research was also unique in that very rarely are two types of strokes analysed in one study as it pertains to badminton and visual anticipation, and the study was made to resemble as closely as possible real playing conditions for the participants. Our findings and insights are brought together in the general discussion where we also included a case study consisting of information from the analysis of a small dataset consisting of seven elite youth badminton players and a reference population consisting of 372 participants. Both groups consisted of boys and girls between the ages of 12-16 and the reference group was composed of persons who were non-athletes or performed some sort of physical activity or participated in sports other than badminton. We used a generic test battery (anthropometry, physical performance & motor coordination) but also included psychological (PCDEQ2 questionnaire) and cognitive (executive functions) characteristics. In this investigation, we wanted to find out what were the individual strengths of the elites. Based on this information, we wanted to find out if their strengths overshadow their weaknesses enough to make coaches select them nonetheless giving validation to the compensation phenomenon in sports. Overall, elite athletes fit the right description with their anthropometric measurements, and excelled in the physical performance, motor coordination and psychological characteristics with average cognitive performances when compared to the reference population. Based on all of our findings, we believe that we were capable of filling some notable gaps in the existing literature in the field of TID in badminton. We have demonstrated the importance of the coach’s knowledge to the sport and saw that their perspectives were later validated in our study on the youth elite. Our research on anticipation and decision-making produced a research design that was different to most of the studies available and the results show exciting and new information. This information can make significant new contributions for badminton aficionados of all backgrounds who are interested in improving their performance standards. Our data on the seven elites, provides further insight into the methods and details that badminton coaches utilise in their selection processes, and how important their input is for the longevity of the athlete and production of successful performance results. For future research, we recommend that more badminton specific talent test batteries be formulated and implemented for TID, and innovative ways be developed to help train anticipation and decision-making skills.
... Research results have consistently supported the idea that psychological skills training (PST) can increase an athletes' sport enjoyment and performance (Martin et al., 2012). The importance of PST in the development of athletic performance is widely recognized (Birrer and Morgan, 2010), even in long-distance runs (Thelwell and Greenlees, 2003). PST better demonstrates its efficacy when used in participants in highintensity sports, as it facilitates the interpretation of cognitive and somatic sensations, helps the athlete to manage pain, and to use associative attentional techniques (Birrer and Morgan, 2010). ...
... The importance of PST in the development of athletic performance is widely recognized (Birrer and Morgan, 2010), even in long-distance runs (Thelwell and Greenlees, 2003). PST better demonstrates its efficacy when used in participants in highintensity sports, as it facilitates the interpretation of cognitive and somatic sensations, helps the athlete to manage pain, and to use associative attentional techniques (Birrer and Morgan, 2010). PST techniques also help in managing the intensity and directional dimensions of competitive anxiety when relaxation techniques are added (Wadey and Hanton, 2008). ...
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Background: The Marathon runners must have the proper technical preparation to reach excellence and to achieve adequate psychological preparation for the race. Against this background, the current study aims to describe the implementation results of a cognitive-behavioral intervention based on psychological skills training for marathon runners. Methods: Fourteen amateur male marathoners with an average age of 30 ( SD = 5.75) were trained with various emotional and cognitive control techniques to enhance their performance in competition. Various psychological variables, related to the subjects level of perceived stress, and to qualitative characteristics of their thoughts were measured before and after the target marathon race. Results were analyzed through non-parametric tests for two related samples. The Cohen's d effect size for single-group pretest-posttest repeated measures were also performed. Results: Statistical analysis reveals that, controlling for age and running experience, the intervention decreased significantly the level of perceived stress and the occurrence of negative thoughts before the race, during, and after the race. Conclusion: Training in cognitive control and relaxation techniques, as part of the psychological skills training could determine the quality of performance of marathon runners.
... Given that lockdown has wide-ranging, substantial, and potentially acute or/and longterm psychological effects (e.g., depression, anxiety, adverse behaviors, smoking, alcohol use, eating and sleep disorders) [73,74], identifying and controlling these consequences should be also a priority for players and coaches, which should motivate the players to seek professional assistance and social support when it is needed [75][76][77]. As mental health and mental preparation of basketball players should not been ignored [78], players may benefit from psychological interventions provided by sport psychologists on cognitive-emotional regulation strategies [79], and develop psychological skills like stress management, attentional focus, communication, goal setting, mental practice, self-talk, and confidence in order to contribute to team performance efficiency and effectiveness [80,81]. ...
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Due to concerns regarding the spread of coronavirus (COVID-19), major sporting events and activities have been temporarily suspended or postponed, and a new radical sports protocol has emerged. For most sports there are few recommendations based on scientific evidence for returning to team-game activities following the lifting of COVID-19 restrictions, the extended duration of lockdown, and self-training or detraining in the COVID-19 environment, and this is especially true for basketball. A post-lockdown return to the basketball court ultimately depends on the teams—coaches, trainers, players, and medical staff. Nevertheless, our current scientific knowledge is evidently insufficient as far as safety and return-to-play timing are concerned. This situation presents a major challenge to basketball competition in terms of organization, prioritization, maintaining physical fitness, and decision-making. While preparing an adequate basketball return program, the players’ health is the major priority. In this article we briefly discuss the topic and propose multiple strategies.
... Meditation has been defined by Walsh and Shapiro (2006) as " … a family of self-regulation practices that focus on training attention and awareness in order to bring mental processes under greater voluntary control … ". In the field of sport sciences, a series of landmark studies were conducted over the last decade to explore the effectiveness of meditation-based interventions in real-life athletic situations (e.g., Birrer & Morgan, 2010;Henriksen, 2015). Frank L. Gardner and Zella E. Moore were among the pioneers in this field to recommend the use of mindfulness as a supplemental approach to enhancing athletic performance (Gardner & Moore, 2004). ...
Article
The present experiment sought to further understanding of the psychological and psychophysiological mechanisms underlying the effects of a single session of audio-guided meditation during moderate-intensity cycling exercise. Twenty-four healthy participants were recruited. A portable EEG device was employed to investigate the cerebral responses associated with the effects of meditation on exercise. Psychological measures were administered at three timepoints during the exercise bout. Two experimental conditions (endurance meditation [EM] and catastrophic meditation [CM]) and a control condition (CO) were administered. Participants were asked to exercise for 8 min (2 min of warm-up performed at 20% below the first ventilatory threshold + 6 min of exercise performed at the first ventilatory threshold) at 60 rpm. The EEG signal from frontal electrode sites was decomposed using Morlet Complex Wavelets, and event-related perturbation was calculated to investigate changes in beta frequency associated with the cycling phase. The results indicate that EM was sufficiently potent to ameliorate exertion and enhance affect to a greater degree than CO and CM. The neural mechanisms underlying the effects of EM appear to be associated with increased beta activity in the right frontal regions. The results of this study also indicate that exertional fatigue can be modulated through an alternative route that is not reliant upon the use of dissociative thoughts and does not require motivation to be up-regulated.
... Once the best home routines are discovered, they can be solidified through repetitive mental imagery rehearsal at school. Some research shows that mental imagery rehearsal has positive impact on skill learning and skill performance (Birrer & Morgan, 2010;Liu, Chan, Lee, & Hui-Chan, 2004;Yahya, Ismail, & Amer, 2016). ...
Article
Children living in disenfranchised communities are at risk for growing up without developing the literacy skills they need to succeed and thrive later in life. The ability to read proficiently is a prerequisite for engagement in a myriad of meaningful occupations, financial success, and optimal health management. This set of practice guidelines provides understanding for school-based occupational therapists to begin to support pediatric literacy for elementary school children reading below grade level. The authors examine the theoretical bases underlying evaluation and intervention, which are organized according to four primary performance areas: (1) attention to teacher-led literacy lessons, (2) engagement in independent reading in the classroom, (3) academic self-concept and attitude toward reading, and (4) habits and routines supporting home literacy participation. Occupation-based intervention embeds literacy experiences in play, sensory and kinesthetic experiences, and meaningful functional and social activities. A case example is provided to illustrate these principles in practice. Pediatric literacy support is an emerging practice area in the occupational therapy profession that can have profound impact on the trajectories of children’s lives.
... This branch of sport keeps developing that can be seen by the number of annual tennis tournaments conducted both at national and international levels. Obviously, this phenomenon has impacted on intense competition among the athletes to participate in the tournaments in which, nowadays, professional and semi-professional sport gives slight potential for them to win; and, it becomes an intense pressure for the couches and athletes [1][2][3]. Therefore, the athletes should be well-prepared and well-trained to compete in every tournament by performing numerous training programs designed to achieve the targets. ...
... Future research should account for the highly contextual and dynamic nature of these constructs by assessing psychological adaptation processes in relation to the objective physical and mental requirements associated with elite sport competition (e.g. Birrer & Morgan, 2010). ...
Article
The present research aimed to provide a more holistic analysis of stressful experiences in sport by examining how stress appraisal, coping and emotion are dynamically inter-related constructs and the extent to which their dynamic relationship is associated with objective performance. Based on process-oriented methods, two studies were conducted with elite athletes in order to investigate the dynamic relationship between these constructs and performance in highly demanding sport situations (Study 1: simulated competitive fencing matches during a training session; Study 2: real-life competitive fencing matches during an international competition). The results of the random coefficient regression models emphasize the dynamic nature of the relationship between stress appraisal, coping behaviour, emotion and objective performance over the course of fencing matches. They allowed identification of additional mediating effects of coping and emotion within dynamic relationships between stress appraisal and performance. These studies contribute to a deeper understanding of psychological adaptation in performance environments. The implications of the findings are discussed in relation to the design of effective coping interventions to support the learning of performance-related coping skills and the attainment of performance goals among individuals in highly demanding environments.
... Previous research suggested that an dissociative strategy can facilitate endurance performance (Gill et al., 2017;Morgan & Pollock, 1977). More recent findings proposed that a dissociative strategy optimizes muscular endurance (Birrer & Morgan, 2010). Gill and Strom (1985) provided initial supportive evidence of the effectiveness of using a dissociative attention compared with focusing attention on body sensations. ...
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Much research has been executed to investigate how altering focus of attention impacts performance and feelings of fatigue. Using a within-participant design, the present study examined how an associative and dissociative attentional in addition to an internal and external attentional dimension influenced the running economy of nonprofessional runners. Twelve women (aged 18–30 years old) ran on a treadmill at 70% of their predetermined maximum velocity. Participants ran in four counterbalanced conditions (dissociative-external, dissociative-internal, associative-external, and associative-internal). Average oxygen volume, respiration volume and breathing frequency, heart rate, blood lactate level, and Borg rating of perceived exertion were measured. Our findings revealed when participants adopted a dissociative-external focus of attention, they consumed less oxygen, had lower blood lactate, and a lower rating of perceived exertion compared with trials completed using an associative attention strategy. The findings of this study demonstrate that running economy is improved and feelings of fatigue are lowest when using a combination of a dissociative-external focus of attention.
... A notable finding of this study is that elite climbers showed good agreement between trials in all holds analysed, which may be related to the lower variability of performance in elite athletes previously observed by Malcata & Hopkins [25]. It may be explained in part by more experience with high-intensity exercise [26], greater mental skills to overcome pain and fatigue [27][28][29] or more flexible movement patterns to adapt to constraints [30]. Overall, such skills would contribute to a more consistent effort and technique regardless of intervening external or internal factors, such as environmental conditions or emotional state [31]. ...
Article
Background The ability to generate high levels of force with the finger flexor muscles and sustain it for the maximum time was reported as a climbing performance factor. This study aimed to answer the question of which is the most reliable edge depth to measure maximum hanging time in non-elite and elite rock climbers: 6, 8, 10, 12 or 14 mm. Methods Thirty-six climbers (10 female, 26 male; 6b-8c redpoint level) were assessed twice, one week apart. Results Systematic bias (95 % limits of agreements) was -1.84 (6.31) for HT6, -0.26 (8.83) for HT8, -1.30 (8.72) for HT10, -4.37 (9.57) for HT12, and -2.94 (9.53) for HT14 at non-elite group (all P values > 0.05 but HT12 and HT14). Among elite group, -1.38 (7.58), 0.68 (12.09), -2.20 (13.35), -0.49 (9.80) and 0.73 (10.44) was found (all P > 0.05) for HT6, HT8, HT10, HT12 and HT14, respectively. No patterns of heteroscedasticity were observed for any of the trials for non-elite and elite climbers. Significance Among all edge depths analysed, 8 mm seemed to be the most accurate edge to evaluate hanging time. Alternatively, a 10 mm hold depth could be recommended for climbers from 6b to 7c, and 12 mm for climbers from 7c+ to 8c.
... limits of endurance performance (i.e., factors that hamper or disrupt endurance performance) and design effective sport psychological interventions, knowledge about the various exerciserelated psychological obstacles that might affect performance is crucial [3]. Accordingly, a growing body of research focuses on the obstacles that endurance athletes have to deal with during performance (e.g., [1,4]) and comprehensive reviews shed light on the characteristics of psychological interventions in sport that allow them to improve endurance performance (e.g., [5]). ...
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Endurance sports pose a plethora of mental demands that exercisers have to deal with. Unfortunately, investigations of exercise-specific demands and strategies to deal with them are insufficiently researched, leading to a gap in knowledge about athletic requirements and strategies used to deal with them. Here, we investigated which obstacles exercisers experience during an anaerobic (Wingate test) and an aerobic cycling test (incremental exercise test), as well as the strategies they considered helpful for dealing with these obstacles (qualitative analysis). In addition, we examined whether thinking of these obstacles and strategies in terms of if-then plans (or implementation intentions; i.e., “If I encounter obstacle O, then I will apply strategy S!”) improves performance over merely setting performance goals (i.e., goal intentions; quantitative analysis). N = 59 participants (age: M = 23.9 ± 6.5 years) performed both tests twice in a 2-within (Experimental session: 1 vs. 2) × 2-between (Condition: goal vs. implementation intention) design. Exercisers’ obstacles and strategies were assessed using structured interviews in Session 1 and subjected to thematic analysis. In both tests, feelings of exertion were the most frequently stated obstacle. Motivation to do well, self-encouragement, and focus on the body and on cycling were frequently stated strategies in both tests. There were also test-specific obstacles, such as boredom reported in the aerobic test. For session 2, the obstacles and strategies elicited in Session 1 were used to specify if-then plans. Bayesian mixed-factor ANOVA suggests, however, that if-then plans did not help exercisers to improve their performance. These findings shed novel light into the mental processes accompanying endurance exercise and the limits they pose on performance.
... [ DOI: 10.52547/hases.1.1.30 ] mental skills (Birrer & Morgan, 2010;Hanrahan & Andersen, 2010). Athletes who experienced a sudden drop in their performance believe that learning and using mental skills is necessary for keeping the current level of performance or enhances it (Thelwell & Greenlees, 2003). ...
... These psychological skills are considered as a series of trainable psychological characteristics [4,11] that are required abilities when athletes have to deal with suddenly difficult situations that help them to improve their performance. These psychological skills also contribute to successful talent development and optimal performance by elite athletes [19] and include coping ability, motivation, and attention [20] or self-confidence and stress adjustment [21]. In addition, several studies have shown that successful athletes demonstrate more motivation [22], greater self-confidence [23], and concentration [24] than amateurs or sub-elite athletes. ...
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Numerous studies have shown that dispositional mindfulness is positively associated with many mental abilities related to sports performance, including psychological skills and mental toughness. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between dispositional mindfulness, psychological skills, and mental toughness among different types of athletes. For this cross-sectional study, 101 college athletes were recruited. Their dispositional mindfulness, psychological skills, and mental toughness were measured by the Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS), Athletic Psychological Skills Inventory (APSI), and Traits of Mental Toughness Inventory for Sports Scale (TMTIS). Pearson’s correlation was used to calculate how dispositional mindfulness is associated with psychological skills and mental toughness. The results revealed that dispositional mindfulness is positively associated with comprehensive APSI (r = 0.21–0.36, p < 0.05), TMTIS overall (r = 0.27, p < 0.01), positive effort (r = 0.26, p = 0.01), and pressure (r = 0.30, p < 0.01). These findings suggest a positive linkage between mindfulness and the two examined psychological characteristics related to sports performance. Other approaches to increase mindfulness may be considered in the future.
... Another area for further exploration is whether the results of our study with young cyclists can be transferred to other endurance sports and other age groups. Furthermore, an extension of the measurement of endurance performance (e.g., long distance races) would be interesting in order to investigate whether psychological factors have a higher or lower impact over longer race distances, as such races may have different demands (Birrer & Morgan, 2010). ...
Article
Endurance athletes attribute performance not only to physiological factors, but also refer to psychological factors such as motivation. The goal of this study was to quantify the proportion of the variance in endurance performance that is explained by psychological factors in addition to the physiological factor VO2max. Twenty-five athletes of the U17 Swiss Cycling national team (7f, 18 m, 15.3 ± 0.5 years) were examined in a cross-sectional study with psychological factors and VO2max as independent variables and endurance performance in road cycling as dependent variable. Questionnaires were used to assess psychological factors (i.e., use of mental techniques, self-compassion, mental toughness, achievement motivation, and action vs. state orientation). VO2max was measured by a step incremental cycle ergometer test of exhaustion. Endurance performance was measured in a cycling mountain time trial (1,320 m long, incline of 546 meters). A multiple regression model was created by using forward selection of regression model predictors. Results showed that higher VO2max values (β = .48), being male (β = .26), and higher achievement motivation (i.e., perseverance, β = .11) were associated with a better endurance performance. A more frequent use of one particular mental technique (i.e., relaxation techniques, β = .03) was associated with a worse endurance performance. Our study shows that a physiological factor like VO2max explains endurance performance to a large extent but psychological factors account for additional variance. In particular, one aspect of achievement motivation, namely perseverance, was associated with a better endurance performance.
... La connaissance de ses points forts et l'utilisation de ces derniers sans s'enfermer dans un mode de fonctionnement apparaissent comme des paramètres tactiques individuels importants. En demi-fond et fond, si l'aspect énergétique est essentiel pour réussir, la connaissance de la discipline ou la capacité à tolérer la douleur et maintenir l'effort, par exemple, jouent également un rôle prépondérant dans la performance [60,185]. La gestion de l'effort, le comportement en peloton, la motivation pour l'obtention de la victoire ou la réalisation de records sont par conséquent autant de paramètres qui sont à prendre en considération afin d'appréhender la performance [191][192][193][194]. Une stratégie d'allure de course optimale peut se définir comme étant « la puissance qui permettrait de réaliser la durée de course la plus courte pour un athlète le jour J » [195]. ...
Thesis
Cette thèse avait pour objectif de présenter les différents travaux réalisés sur la prédiction de la performance en course à pied afin d’aider les athlètes et les entraîneurs à optimiser leur processus d’entraînement. Ces études, en collaboration avec la Fédération Française d’Athlétisme (FFA), se sont appuyées sur le système d’information fédéral répertoriant notamment l’ensemble des résultats athlétiques, les bilans ou encore le nombre de licenciés. La première étude avait pour objectif d’exposer l’évolution des performances françaises des courses de demi-fond et de fond chez les femmes. Les études suivantes étaient principalement destinées à tester la validité, la justesse, et la précision de différentes méthodes de prédiction (i.e., capacité à prédire les performances) sur des performances individuelles réelles d’athlètes de différents niveaux, hommes et/ou femmes. Les résultats se sont avérés valides et précis, quelle que soit la méthode de prédiction utilisée. Enfin, la dernière recherche était destinée à la prédiction du potentiel de performance. Cette étude a notamment mis en avant une analyse du taux d'amélioration des performances en demi-fond et en fond précédant la réalisation de records personnels chez les hommes et chez les femmes. Un index de progression à visée pratique, a également été proposé, afin d’évaluer l’évolution des performances et permettre une éventuelle détection et orientation des athlètes au fort potentiel.
... Finally, the main aim of this study was to provide insights into the stress management strategies currently applied by practitioners in esports. Although sport psychology differentiates performance contexts into pre-performance, performance, and postperformance (e.g., Bertollo et al., 2009;Birrer & Morgan, 2010;Robazza et al., 2004), practitioners in esports are typically restricted in the support they are able to provide players during competition. Therefore, this study specifically aimed to explore stress management strategies used before and after competition (e.g., ). ...
Thesis
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Driven by the need to inform evidence-based intervention strategies for performance and health promotion in esports, this thesis aimed to provide a starting point for future research on esports and, in particular, psychophysiological stress in esports. To this end, this work began by addressing why and how sport and exercise psychology could research esports. Following this, a systematic review of the literature on stress in non-competitive and competitive esports was performed. The results indicated that playing esports in competitive settings–in contrast to non-competitive settings–seems to be related to psychophysiological stress responses, and also highlighted a number of theoretical and methodological limitations with research in this area. To build on this initial understanding of stress in esports, a qualitative study was conducted that explored the subjective experiences of professional players. Here, a variety of stressors, perceived stress responses, and coping strategies were identified. To complete the work, a different perspective and approach was taken, using an online questionnaire to investigate perceived performance factors and stress management strategies utilized by sport psychologists and performance coaches in esports. Overall, this work provided a number of implications for future research and applied practice that are addressed in this thesis.
... Additionally, elite athletes may be exposed to specific sporting and non-sporting stressors that could increase their vulnerability to mental health problems (Palanichamy et al., 2020;Rice et al., 2016). What is more, they may take advantage of specific complementary training strategies, either psychological (Birrer & Morgan, 2010;Kang et al., 2020) or physical (Beattie et al., 2014;Suarez-Arrones et al., 2018). ...
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There is some debate as to whether professional eSports players should be regarded as athletes in the traditional sense. With an eye toward addressing this controversy, this study was undertaken with the aim of analyzing elite eSports players' characteristics and their training and competition routines, and of comparing them with data on their counterparts in traditional sports. Fifty-one elite eSports players answered an ad hoc online questionnaire that gathered data on their basic traits, general training and competition habits, level of regular physical activity, and injuries sustained during the 2018-2019 season. The results indicated that elite eSports players have a considerable training load (38.37±20.33 h/week) and use strategies to improve their performance (i.e., warm-ups, 73.91%; resistance training, 74.19%; psychological training 31.25%). However, some of these activities are not generally designed or supervised by qualified professionals. Meanwhile, some of the players reported injuries (13.04%) that had led to losses in competition time ranging from one day to more than a month. In terms of the comparison with traditional athletes, our findings show that eliteeSports players seem to experience a similar training load and apply comparable strategies to boost their sports results. As such, they can be properly considered professional athletes, but players, the eSports industry, and the teams' staffs should be more aware of the most appropriate strategies to preserve long-term health and avoid burn-out.
... In general, the intensity, type, and duration of a physical activity causes adaptions within the body (i.e., biochemical processes, breathing pattern) to maintain the performance, which in turn leads to changes on the central nervous system (13). In addition to these changes, the sensation of fatigue may change depending on physical exertion, training status (14), and psychological skills (15), which subsequently influences adjustments of the exercise strategy. Recently, a framework of fatigue proposed by Enoka and Duchateau distinguishes fatigability from fatigue. ...
Article
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Alpine skiing is an attractive winter sport that often includes mental and physical demands. Since skiing is often done for several hours, fatigue processes occur that might lead to action errors associated with a higher risk of accidents and injuries. The aim of this study was to investigate the timing of changes in subjective, physiological, and biomechanical parameters during a physically demanding, standardized, non-competitive alpine skiing session. A group of 22 experienced male skiers carried out 10 runs, each lasting between 150 and 180 s, at a turn rate of 80 turns per minute with their best skiing technique. Immediately after the run, skiers reported ratings of fatigue, and other affective states. During skiing, breathing pattern and biomechanical data of the ski turns as radial force, turn duration, edge angle symmetry, and a composed motion quality score were recorded. Analyses of variances on skiers showing signs of fatigue ( n =16) revealed that only the subjective data changed significantly over time: fatigue and worry increased, vitality and calm decreased. Subsequently, individual change points analyses were computed to localize abrupt distribution or statistical changes in time series data. For some skiers, abrupt changes at certain runs in physiological and/or biomechanical parameters were observed in addition to subjective data. The results show general effects in subjective data, and individual fatigue-related patterns concerning the onset of changes in subjective, physiological, and biomechanical parameters. Individuality of response to fatigue should be considered when studying indicators of fatigue data. Based on the general effects in subjective data, it is concluded that focusing on self-regulation and self-awareness may play a key role, as subjective variables have been shown generally sensitive to the physical stress in alpine skiing. In the future, customized algorithms that indicate the onset of fatigue could be developed to improve alpine skiers' self-awareness and self-regulation, potentially leading to fewer action errors.
... Another influential component to be included in an optimal imagery-based intervention is certainly the performer's emotional responses and his own personal interpretation of the scenario [74]. Using video observation combined with PETTLEP imagery and physical practice can enhance not only physical abilities and skills but can also exert an effect on psychological aspects such as motivation [75]. For MI to be efficient in improving sport performance, it has been shown that it should be based on positive images. ...
Article
Citation: Morone, G.; Ghanbari Ghooshchy, S.; Pulcini, C.; Spangu, E.; Zoccolotti, P.; Martelli, M.; Spitoni, G.F.; Russo, V.; Ciancarelli, I.; Paolucci, S.; et al. Motor Imagery and Sport Performance: A Systematic Review on the PETTLEP Model. Appl. Sci. 2022, 12, 9753. https://doi.
... Another influential component to be included in an optimal imagery-based intervention is certainly the performer's emotional responses and his own personal interpretation of the scenario [74]. Using video observation combined with PETTLEP imagery and physical practice can enhance not only physical abilities and skills but can also exert an effect on psychological aspects such as motivation [75]. For MI to be efficient in improving sport performance, it has been shown that it should be based on positive images. ...
Article
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The aim of this review is to critically analyze the evidence provided throughout the years regarding the application of motor imagery (MI) in sport performance, focusing on the PETTLEP approach. Among the different MI approaches, in fact, the PETTLEP model takes into account many different domains for increasing the performance of athletes. These domains include physical features, the environment, task-related aspects, timing, learning, emotion, and perspective.
... Learning. is study uses several of the above machine learning algorithms (SVR, RF, MLR, etc.) to build a training evaluation system. In order to more accurately evaluate the feasibility of the system, first, select a suitable one among various machine learning algorithms to ensure the stability of the experimental results and then verify different algorithms to select the best experimental results [21,22]. Specifically, the data set is divided into 10 equal parts, nine of which are selected for model training, and in the process, the attributes of the next data set are tried to be predicted. ...
Article
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Nowadays, most sports training adopts such a mode, that is, the coach guides and observes the movements of the trainer on the side, or uses the camera to collect the data information in the training video. After the training, the trainer needs to experience and comprehend it according to the coach’s guidance and suggestions, which leads to a poor training effect to a certain extent, and the training movements are not so standardized. The most important thing is that the physical condition of the trainer will change at any time during the exercise. However, the traditional training mode cannot perceive and predict it at all, and it may even lead to the training volume being too large for the athletes to bear, which also causes irreversible effects on the body. Based on this, this paper aims to use the relevant theories and technologies of machine learning to build a system for the training and evaluation of sports-specific skills. This paper automatically determines and guides the movements of the trainer, which greatly improves the training efficiency. The movements are also more standardized, and the workload of the coaches is also reduced. In addition, the system includes explained functions. It uses holographic projection to play various videos of training and guidance, which brings convenience to trainers to observe and understand specific sports behaviors. Finally, the data results of the experimental subjects were analyzed to verify the effectiveness and feasibility of this training evaluation system, in which their special scores increased by 1.51% compared with the previous ones.
... The importance of psychological skills training in athletic performance development is widely recognized (1,2). The central assumption underlying psychological skills training indicates the fundamental mental health of athletes, but it also indicates that they must learn cognitive skills and strategies to overcome different requirements of sports competition (3). ...
Article
Background: Mental training is based on the premise that psychological factors enhance or deteriorate performance and that these psychological factors can be optimized by training. Researchers have developed different methods to measure these factors, including behavioral tests and questionnaires. The Sport Mental Training Questionnaire (SMTQ) is a novel and multifaceted psychometric scale with 20 items developed to assess sports mental training across 5 dimensions, including foundational skills, performance skills, interpersonal skills, self-talk, and mental imagery. Objectives: The present study evaluated the validity and factor structure of the Persian version of SMTQ. It aimed to adapt SMTQ to Persian to present the validation of the scale in the sports context. Methods: The original version of SMTQ was translated and back-translated into Persian based on the established guidelines, followed by a pilot study. A total of 364 athletes (mean age = 26.27 ± 9.27) participated in this research, of whom 218 (59.90%) were male, and 146 (40.1%) were female. The participants were recruited using a web-based survey. Descriptive statistics, Cronbach α coefficient for internal reliability, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and independent t test were used to evaluate psychometric properties. Results: None of the items of the 20-item questionnaire were removed. The results supported the reliability of the Persian version of SMTQ (Cronbach α = 0.84). CFA supported its validity, the model fitted the data well (χ2/df = 2.15; root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.056, Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) and comparative fit index (CFI) > 0.9; parsimonious CFI (PCFI) = 0.751). We supported the Persian version criterion validity of SMTQ by showing that high-level athletes scored higher on all mental training subscales than low-level athletes. Conclusions: The findings support that SMTQ is a reliable and valid instrument to assess mental training among Iranian athletes.
... Nevertheless, consistent with our hypothesis, we found that perceived training and overall athletic performance ratings between pre-test and post-test increased more for the mindfulness group compared to the control group. Similarly, perceived ratings of psychological performance followed the same trend, which supports previous research showing that mindfulness is associated with improved team-cohesion (Baltzell et al., 2014;Piasecki, 2018), motivation (Birrer and Morgan, 2010), and concentration (Chen and Meggs, 2020). This finding highlights the versatility of mindfulness interventions over traditional psychological skills training, that may only equip athletes with tools to self-control their internal states momentarily (Birrer et al., 2012). ...
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Mindfulness can benefit athletes’ mindset and performance. These benefits may be enhanced by sport-specific mindfulness interventions. Accordingly, our objectives were 2-fold: first, to develop a rowing-specific mindfulness intervention, and second, to investigate its effects on mindfulness, flow, reinvestment, and rowing performance. Rowers were randomly assigned to either a 6-week rowing-specific mindfulness intervention ( n = 23), which included generic and rowing-specific practices, or a control group ( n = 21). Rowers completed pre-test and post-test measures of performance, mindfulness, flow, and rowing-specific reinvestment. Lastly, rowers completed an evaluation form following the intervention. The results demonstrated that the intervention group increased flow, mindfulness, and improved performance, additionally conscious motor processing decreased from pre-test to post-test. However, the intervention did not preferentially change mindfulness or reinvestment compared to control. Participants provided favorable feedback and evaluated the intervention positively. Our 6-week rowing-specific mindfulness intervention promoted flow, encouraged mindfulness, and aided performance. Thus, we provide preliminary explorative evidence that a sport-specific mindfulness intervention can benefit athletes. We recommend that future research, with large sample sizes and improved home practice, should examine mediators and moderators of the mindfulness-performance relationship.
... Cognitive flexibility and executive functions are, as an example, known as a broad-spectrum protective factor in preventing mental illness (Crivelli and Balconi, 2021) as well as in sustaining personal development (Keyes, 2007;Robinson et al., 2015). Again, empowerment protocols focusing on PsyF have been devised and applied for performance improvement and enhancement of training outcomes even in the army and in sports (Birrer and Morgan, 2010;Boga, 2017). Individual and team ability to manage the psychological load in complex challenging situations is widely deemed as conferring critical performance advantages (Aidman, 2020;Mellalieu et al., 2021). ...
... Wie beim motorischen Training steht auch beim psychologischen Training die Leistungssteigerung im Vordergrund. Hierbei entwickeln Sportler psychische Kompetenz durch die Vermittlung von sportpsychologischen Techniken und Strategien (Birrer & Morgan, 2010;Vealey, 2007). Unabhängig davon, auf welchen psychologischen Fertigkeiten der jeweilige Fokus liegt, sollte das übergeordnete Ziel jedes sportpsychologischen Trainings die erfolgreiche Selbststeuerung von Sportlern sein. ...
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Mental starke Spieler können in einem Fußballspiel das ausschlaggebende Moment für das erfolgreiche Abschneiden einer Mannschaft sein. Doch wie lässt sich mentale Stärke im Fußball erfassen? Basierend auf dem Fragebogen TOPS-D2, der sportartunspezifisch psychologische Techniken und Fertigkeiten, die Athleten in Training und Wettkampf anwenden, ­erfasst, wurde der TOPS-F entwickelt. Die psychometrische Qualität dieser fußballspezifischen Adaptation wurde anhand der Daten von 102 Nachwuchs- und Profispielern überprüft, die im nationalen Spitzenbereich spielten.
Article
Endocrine and metabolic changes that typically accompany aging on Earth have been consistently observed in space. Support for the role of gravity in aging has mostly come from ground simulation studies in head down bed rest. However, uncertainties remain and have to be resolved in planning for the ambitious enterprise of sending humans to Mars and back. Stress-related corticosteroid changes and metabolic adaptation to microgravity and their relationship with aging are the object of the present review mostly, albeit of course non exclusively, coming from the personal experience of the authors. The picture coming out of it is that of some, not easily proven, stress-induced cortisol increase accompanied by insulin resistance, both of which represent typical aging-like phenomena mediated by chronic low-grade inflammation. This suggests the need for humans to consider the long journey to safely land, live and work on Mars by taking advantage of integrative medicine solutions including synthetic torpor and/or continuous self-monitoring of eating, sleeping, moving to enable remotely supervised self-treatment.
Article
There is a paucity of research examining exercise-induced pain (EIP) management in elite endurance sports. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate how elite endurance athletes experience and manage EIP to help inform the work of Mental Performance Consultants. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 female and three male athletes (Mage = 23.73, SD = 2.31) competing in track and field (i.e., 600–1,500 m; n = 5), swimming (i.e., 200–400 m; n = 5), and canoe kayak (i.e., 500–1,000 m; n = 5). Given the centrality of self-regulation in elite sports and in the management of internal states (e.g., EIP), the social cognitive model of self-regulation was used to guide this study and to derive practical implications. The template analysis generated (a) two themes (i.e., sensations, beliefs) and six subthemes (e.g., tightness, progressive) related to the experience of EIP as well as (b) three themes (i.e., preparation, execution, evaluation) and 17 subthemes (e.g., accept and commit to EIP, direct attention away from EIP, reflect using a training journal) related to the management of EIP. Findings suggest that the experience of EIP is highly cognitive and generally perceived as detrimental to performance if not effectively managed. Athletes used several psychological strategies to prepare to experience EIP, reduce the aversive effects of EIP while performing, and learn from their EIP management strategies to improve their coping capacity. Importantly, combining self-regulation and mindfulness strategies appears to be valuable to successfully manage EIP. Lay summary: This study examined how elite track and field, swimming, and canoe kayak athletes experience and manage exercise-induced pain when training at a high intensity and competing. Beliefs and sensations influenced the experience of EIP and athletes used 17 psychological strategies to manage this prominent psychological demand. • IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE • Mental Performance Consultants are encouraged to: • Emphasize the development of preparation strategies to manage EIP as this phase seems to be a priority. Specifically, accepting and committing to experiencing EIP appears to be essential. • Help endurance athletes focus on performance-relevant cues (e.g., cadence, technique, relaxing, race plan) and the present moment (e.g., one repetition/segment at a time) when experiencing EIP. • Develop a brief guided self-reflection tool that endurance athletes can use to assess the experience and management of EIP.
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The aim of this research was to determine the transformation levels of basic and situational motor skills’ morphological dimensions under the influence of training operators in 14-16-year-old male volleyball players. To this end, on a sample of 50 respondents, 14-16-year-old male volleyball players, data was collected on the respondents’ success in basic motor skills tests, 9 basic motor skills, and situational motor skills tests, registering the results in 7 situational volleyball tests. In order to test the transformation levels between the two trials, a t-test for two dependent groups (paired samples t-test) was applied. When testing the differences between arithmetic means of the initial and final measurements for situational motor variables, statistically significant differences were achieved at the level of sig. = .00, except for the variable Jelka test (SMJET) which determines the speed duration of male volleyball players. In the initial measurement of arithmetic means in 50 volleyball players, the variable repeated volley (SMUOP) had the mean of 20.6 and SD = 4.86, and the final measurement had the mean of 25.98 and SD = 4.86. Testing the differences between the SMOUP means, we found that the mean value is-5.38 and the t-test resulted in the value of-11,39, which is, along with the degree of freedom (df) of 49, statistically significant at the level of sig. = .00. In variables determining the situational motor skills, that is, elements of the technique: repeated bump (SMUOČ), tactical serve accuracy (SMPTS), spiking against the wall (SMSLZ), statistically significant changes were achieved at the level of sig. = .00. The variables Japan test (SMJAT) and Abalakov test (SMABT) were also statistically significant at the level of sig. = .00. © 2020, Drustvo Pedagoga Tjelesne i Zdravstvene Kulture. All rights reserved.
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Type of attentional focus on the physiological and psychological state of people can be effective running time. Although the role of external attention approaches informing optimal movement has been approved several times, the role of associative and dissociative factors with movement has not been known in the case of manipulating the different tasks and individual constraints. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the role of associative and dissociative attentional focus with internal and external dimensions on the running economy of beginners. Twelve beginner women (18-30 years old) ran on the treadmill. To measure the Vmax of participants, the starting speed was set at 6 km/h and increased to 2 km/h per minute. The process continued until voluntary fatigue. The speed used in each of the five test conditions (internal associative, external associative, internal dissociative, external dissociative, control) was 70% of each subject's maximum speed. The results of repeated-measure ANOVA revealed that associative attentional focus with internal/external dimension resulted in higher oxygen consumption and blood lactate, which caused a lower running economy in beginners. The results of internal/external dissociative attention indicated lower consumption of oxygen and less amount of blood lactate (higher economy). Based on the results of the current study, dissociative attention is the most economical method for running in beginners.
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Psychological skills training (PST) is a common and effective form of support provided by sports psychologists. Nevertheless, its use in helping support athletes with perfectionism and some of the problematic issues they can face is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of PST in reducing perfectionistic cognitions and improving emotional experiences in athletes. Using a single-subject multiple baseline research design, we recruited five national-level basketball players (M = 21.8 years) based on their concerns over mistakes (a key dimension of perfectionistic concerns). All participants received eight, one-to-one PST sessions over a four-week period. Participants completed self-report measures of perfectionistic cognitions, cognitive appraisals, pre-competition emotions, and performance satisfaction on a weekly basis, before, during, and after the intervention, as well as 3-months later. Results suggested that PST improved at least some of the cognitive appraisals, pre-competition emotions, and performance satisfaction in most participants. Minimal changes were observed for perfectionistic cognitions. The findings support the general use of PST but other interventions may be required to reduce perfectionistic cognitions. Lay summary: Perfectionistic concerns are related to performance and well-being difficulties in athletes. We used a short PST intervention to examine if it can improve the experiences of athletes selected based on their concern over mistakes. The intervention was effective for some aspects of their experiences, such as pre-competition emotions and performance satisfaction but less effective for the perfectionistic cognitions they reported. • IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE • Sport psychologists are better informed as to the effectiveness of PST when working with athletes. • The effectiveness of PST varies based on the individual and the intended outcome. • There is a need for more expert guidance on perfectionism for training sports psychologists.
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If-then planning (implementation intentions) describes a self-regulatory strategy that helps people to attain their goals across a variety of domains, such as achieving physical activity goals. Based on such beneficial effects, if-then plans are anecdotally discussed as a strategy to enhance sports-related performance as well. However, this discussion currently lacks an empirical basis. We therefore conducted a scoping review to identify experimental research on if-then planning effects on sports-related performance, potential moderators of these effects, the methodological approaches used, and the suitability of the available evidence for assessing the effectiveness of if-then planning in sports. Based on a search of four online databases, we identified a set of eleven studies that investigated if-then planning in experimental research with sports-related performance as outcome measure. Six of these studies focused on if-then planning in endurance tasks, the remaining studies investigated sports performance beyond endurance. The samples were often small and comprised university students, and conclusions regarding the effectiveness of if-then planning for improving sports-related performance were rather heterogeneous. Still, the majority of studies shed light on tentative mechanisms (e.g., perceptions of effort and pain, arousal) and moderators (e.g., athletes’ beliefs about their performance limits, feasibility of the behavior) of if-then planning in sports, guiding future research regarding the question of when and for whom if-then-planning might be a beneficial strategy. Based on these findings, we identify potentials and pitfalls when using if-then plans to enhance sports-related performance, discuss promising routes for future research, and derive practical implications for athletes and coaches.
Chapter
Selbstverteidigung beschreibt den körperlichen Teil einer Gegenwehr gegen einen oder mehrere Aggressor(en). Sie kann dann erforderlich werden, wenn alle anderen Versuche einen Kontrahenten von einem Gewaltakt abzuhalten, missglücken. Um in der Lage zu sein, eine Leib und Leben bedrohende Auseinandersetzung zu bewältigen, hilft eine nachhaltige und professionelle Beschäftigung mit dem Thema. Neben einer physischen ultima ratio, die den Gegner kampfunfähig macht, werden häufig aus diversen Gründen auch mildere Mittel der Gegenwehr gewünscht. Diese werden im Kapitelverlauf exemplarisch dargestellt und einer Bewertung unterzogen. Eine kämpferische Lösung sollte nur zum Schutz von Leib und Leben gesucht werden und zeitnah zum Ziel führen. In diesem Kapitel wird beleuchtet, wie ein entsprechendes Training für den Notfall aussehen sollte.
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With the increasing prevalence of mental health difficulties in sport, athletes may be at greater risk of burnout than ever before. In the present study, we tested this possibility by examining whether average athlete burnout levels have changed over the past two decades, from 1997 to 2019. A literature search returned 91 studies (N = 21,012) and 396 effect sizes. Findings from cross-temporal meta-analysis suggested that burnout symptoms have increased over the past two decades. Specifically, we found that athletes' mean levels of reduced sense of athletic accomplishment and sport devaluation have increased. As burnout symptoms are now typically higher among athletes than in the past, we can expect more athletes to be prone to the negative effects of burnout. Sport is therefore in urgent need of prevention and intervention strategies to stop and reverse this trend.
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This study examined the acute effects of relaxation training on salivary cortisol and salivary immunoglobulin A (sIgA). Members of age- and gender-matched undergraduate student pairs were randomly assigned to an experimental or control group. Forty-one experimental subjects were led through Abbreviated Progressive Relaxation Training (APRT) during a 1-hour laboratory session; 14 control subjects merely sat quietly in the laboratory for an equal amount of time. All subjects provided pre- and post-intervention saliva samples and self-report data on state anxiety, perceived stress, and relaxation levels. Heart rate was also monitored immediately before and after APRT or quiet sitting. Results indicated that a brief relaxation exercise led to experimental subjects having significantly lower levels of post-intervention salivary cortisol (p < .036) and significantly higher levels of post-intervention sIgA concentration (p < .001) and secretion rate (p < .001) than control subjects. The data suggests that relaxation training may play a role in immunoenhancement.
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Association and dissociation (A/D) have been identified as important cognitive strategies in the literature on running and exercise. This paper is a comprehensive review of the 20 years of research in the area. Specific topics addressed include historical context, definition and terminology considerations, measurement and design issues, and findings as they pertain to performance, injury, and pain. Several research recommendations are made including change from using the term dissociation, use of multiple measurement methods, diversity of research designs, and study of topics, such as injury, exercise adherence, and emotionality, as they relate to A/D. Finally, practical findings indicate that association relates to faster performance, dissociation relates to lower perceived exertion and possibly greater endurance, and dissociation is not related to injury but association may be.
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This investigation explored the relationship between task intensity, competitive setting, and attentional strategy in collegiate rowers. Here, the associative-dissociative dimension of attentional focus is considered. Associative thoughts are task-related, whereas dissociative thoughts are not. Previous work has linked associative strategies with higher level performance, and higher intensities of exercise (i.e. those which exceed the ventilatory threshold). Male and female collegiate rowers (N = 298) completed three training sessions (one each at low, moderate, and high intensity) and two races (short and long distance). Results revealed that the higher the training intensity, the greater the degree of association. A greater degree of association was also observed in competition as opposed to training, and in short distance versus long distance races. There was no gender difference in attentional strategy. Finally, it was shown that the variation in attentional strategy was inversely proportional to exercise intensity. These findings support previous work examining the effect of task intensity on attentional focus [1], in a field based setting. Furthermore, new insight is offered regarding how competition interacts with intensity in this relationship.
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This study presents part two of a series of investigations examining, temporal anxiety responses and the use of psychological skills during the time preceding competition within elite level sport. Based on information from Part 1 (Thomas, Hanton, & Maynard, 200729. Thomas , O. , Hanton , S. and Maynard , I. W. 2007. Anxiety responses and psychological skill use during the time leading up to competition: Theory to practice I. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 19: 379–397. [Taylor & Francis Online], [Web of Science ®]View all references), imagery, rationalization and restructuring, goal-setting, and self-talk skills were applied differentially throughout a 3-phase temporal intervention using a single-subject multiple-baseline design with three elite field hockey players. Intervention effects were tested over a 10-match cycle in relation to associated anxiety symptoms throughout a 7-day cycle (6 days, 2 days, 1 day, 1 hour pre-competition), and competitive field hockey performance as measured through performance (i.e., notational) analysis. Results indicated the intervention successfully restructured players' interpretations of anxiety and confidence symptoms, increased the intensity and frequency of experienced self-confidence symptoms, decreased the frequency of experienced cognitive anxiety symptoms, and decreased the frequency of experienced somatic anxiety symptoms for two of the players. Performance improvements were also evident for the hockey players.
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Objectives: To test a performance-attainment model derived from the Dualistic Model of Passion [Vallerand et al. (2003). Les passions de l'âme: On obsessive and harmonious passion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 756-767] that posits that both harmonious and obsessive passions are positive predictors of deliberate practice that, in turn, is a positive predictor of performance. Design: A prospective design was used in the present study. Methods and results: The basic model was tested in two studies using structural equation modeling. Results from Study 1 with 184 high school basketball players indicated that both harmonious and obsessive passions were positive predictors of deliberate practice, which, in turn, was a positive predictor of objective performance. The results of Study 2, conducted with 67 synchronized swimming and water-polo athletes conceptually replicated those from Study 1. Furthermore, results differentially linked the two passions to achievement goals and subjective well-being (SWB). Specifically, harmonious passion was a positive predictor of mastery goal pursuit and SWB, whereas obsessive passion was a positive predictor of mastery, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goal pursuit and was unrelated to SWB. Mastery goals were positive predictors of deliberate practice, which was a direct positive predictor of performance, whereas performance-avoidance goals were direct negative predictors of performance. Conclusions: It appears that there are two paths to high-level performance attainment in sport, depending if harmonious or obsessive passion underlies sport engagement. While the path from harmonious passion is conducive to high levels of performance and living a happy life, that from obsessive passion is less reliably related to performance attainment and is unrelated to happiness.
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Research has not accounted for a small but significant proportion of elite performers who consistently report debilitative interpretations of competitive anxiety-related symptoms. Interviews were used to investigate elite athletes’ precompetitive thoughts, feelings, and mental strategies underlying symptom interpretation. Six male athletes, from a variety of sports (M age = 23.3, SD=2.2), who were currently competing within the UK, were found to hold debilitative interpretations. Data were drawn from verbatim transcripts and the content analysed. Four general dimensions traced the participants’ precompetitive states and mental skills from early competitive experiences to the present day. Findings indicated that the participants reported early debilitating symptoms, which became habituated throughout their respective careers. Possible explanations as to why these elite performers consistently reported negative interpretations related to mental preparation and effectiveness, psychological skills, coping strategies, perceptions of control, and perceived self-confidence levels. The way in which the athletes are able to compete at an elite level, despite reporting debilitative interpretations, is also discussed.
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The purpose of the study was to examine whether different types of self-talk serve different functions. Twenty-one female swimming class students were initially tested on an experimental water polo precision task. After a three-day program during which participants practiced self-talk on swimming drills, they were tested again on the experimental task, using attentional and anxiety control self-talk cues. In addition, participants completed a questionnaire assessing perceived functions of self-talk, for each of the two self-talk cues that were used. Repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) revealed that according to participants' perceptions the anxiety control self-talk cue had greater impact on anxiety control than the attentional self-talk cue (p < .01), whereas effects for attention, effort, confidence, and automaticity were similar when using attentional and anxiety control cues. Furthermore, repeated measures MANOVAs for each self-talk cue revealed that both cues mostly assisted concentration to the task (p < .01). The results partially support that the use of different types of self-talk may serve different functions depending on the content of the employed cues.
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The theoretical framework presented in this article explains expert performance as the end result of individuals' prolonged efforts to improve performance while negotiating motivational and external constraints. In most domains of expertise, individuals begin in their childhood a regimen of effortful activities (deliberate practice) designed to optimize improvement. Individual differences, even among elite performers, are closely related to assessed amounts of deliberate practice. Many characteristics once believed to reflect innate talent are actually the result of intense practice extended for a minimum of 10 yrs. Analysis of expert performance provides unique evidence on the potential and limits of extreme environmental adaptation and learning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is a structured group program that employs mindfulness meditation to alleviate suffering associated with physical, psychosomatic and psychiatric disorders. The program, nonreligious and nonesoteric, is based upon a systematic procedure to develop enhanced awareness of moment-to-moment experience of perceptible mental processes. The approach assumes that greater awareness will provide more veridical perception, reduce negative affect and improve vitality and coping. In the last two decades, a number of research reports appeared that seem to support many of these claims. We performed a comprehensive review and meta-analysis of published and unpublished studies of health-related studies related to MBSR. Sixty-four empirical studies were found, but only 20 reports met criteria of acceptable quality or relevance to be included in the meta-analysis. Reports were excluded due to (1) insufficient information about interventions, (2) poor quantitative health evaluation, (3) inadequate statistical analysis, (4) mindfulness not being the central component of intervention, or (5) the setting of intervention or sample composition deviating too widely from the health-related MBSR program. Acceptable studies covered a wide spectrum of clinical populations (e.g., pain, cancer, heart disease, depression, and anxiety), as well as stressed nonclinical groups. Both controlled and observational investigations were included. Standardized measures of physical and mental well-being constituted the dependent variables of the analysis. Overall, both controlled and uncontrolled studies showed similar effect sizes of approximately 0.5 (P<.0001) with homogeneity of distribution. Although derived from a relatively small number of studies, these results suggest that MBSR may help a broad range of individuals to cope with their clinical and nonclinical problems.
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The present article includes separate meta-analyses showing that self-concordance and implementation intentions are significantly positively associated with goal progress. Study 1 confirmed the positive relations of both self-concordance and implementation intentions to weekend goal progress. Study 2 confirmed the positive relation of self-concordance with monthly progress on New Year's resolutions but failed to find a direct benefit for implementation intentions. Both studies, however, obtained a significant interaction effect indicating that goal self-concordance and implementation intentions combined synergistically to facilitate goal progress. The article also reports a meta-analysis and results from the 2 studies that demonstrated that goal progress was associated with improved affect over time.
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The theoretical framework presented in this article explains expert performance as the end result of individuals' prolonged efforts to improve performance while negotiating motivational and external constraints. In most domains of expertise, individuals begin in their childhood a regimen of effortful activities (deliberate practice) designed to optimize improvement. Individual differences, even among elite performers, are closely related to assessed amounts of deliberate practice. Many characteristics once believed to reflect innate talent are actually the result of intense practice extended for a minimum of 10 years. Analysis of expert performance provides unique evidence on the potential and limits of extreme environmental adaptation and learning.
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This study outlined the implementation and evaluation of one associative and two dissociative coping strategies on rowing ergometer performance. Participants were 9 novice varsity rowers who performed a 40-min ergometer workout in 10 separate experimental sessions. At each workout participants were requested to row as far as possible in 40 min. A multiple-baseline design was utilized, which after varying amounts of baseline permitted implementing an associative or dissociative strategy for each participant. These strategies included associative, dissociative-video, and dissociative-music. Results indicated that performance improved under all conditions for all participants but that the greatest gains were found in the associative condition.
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Some athletes perceive competitive anxiety as negative and detrimental to performance while it invigorates and excites others. Since perceptions of anxiety impact motor performance, it is important to develop techniques by which perceptions can be modified. The aims of this study were to determine the efficacy of a single imagery session in: (a) modifying perceptions of anxiety from negative to positive, and (b) reducing precompetitive state anxiety levels. Using a switched replication design, Murray's (1989) Competitive Anxiety Perception Scale (CAPS) and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2) (Martens, Burton, Vealey, Bump, & Smith, 1990) were administered to 40 female intercollegiate swimmers weekly over the course of 5 weeks. Following random exposure to imagery, nonsignificant changes on the scales of the CSAI-2 (cognitive [F{1, 39} = .30, p > .05], somatic [F{1, 39} = 0.72, p > .05], self-confidence [F{1, 39} = 2.93, p > .05]), and significant improvements on the CAPS as positive (F[1, 39] = 19.60, p < .01) were observed. Results suggest that perceptions of anxiety may be modified by imagery, which could aid performance.
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The theory of ironic processes of mental control (Wegner, 1994) is reviewed in the context of typical issues confronted by sport psychology professionals. The theory maintains that mental control is achieved through the interaction of an operating process directed toward achieving thoughts, emotions, and actions that are consistent with particular goal states, and a monitoring process for identifying inconsistencies with the goal state, insuring that any threat to the operating process is recognized and handled accordingly. Moreover, mental control normally functions at a satisfactory level, but under conditions of cognitive load, the likelihood of effective self-regulation is reduced. Given the load-inducing circumstances of sport and exercise participation, reasons for the occasional failure of mental control in these settings are offered. Traditional and current sport psychology issues and interventions are interpreted considering the theory of ironic processes, with specific reference to imagery, self-confidence, pain perception, mood state regulation, anxiety, and attention.
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This study examined the effects of association and both internal and external dissociation on the performance, perceived fatigue, and rate of exertion of recreational swimmers during two swimming trials. Before the first swim, 69 participants completed a self-report questionnaire. After the first swim, participants were assigned to one of four groups equated with swim performance times: control, associative, internal dissociative, and external dissociative groups. After completing both the first and second swims, participants completed the Rate of Perceived Exertion, Perceived Fatigue Test, and Subjective Appraisal of Cognitive Strategies. Results showed that the group assigned to the associative strategy swam significantly faster (p < .05) than the control group. No changes were found in perceived fatigue and perceived rating of exertion among the groups between the first and second swim. These findings support the position that associative thinking is an important cognitive strategy in timed performances.
Article
This study aimed to examine the effects of a mental training package on the performance of a 1600-m run. Participants were 3 male triathletes and 1 male elite runner. A single-subject multiple baseline across individuals design was employed to evaluate the treatment package. Results demonstrated that the mental training package was effective in improving the running performance of the three participants who received intervention. Social validation results were favorable and indicated that participants enjoyed using the mental training package and were pleased with the results. Further, coaches felt that the results were important, especially those for the elite track athlete.
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Research has shown that psychological skills training can be effective in enhancing athletes’ performance and positively influencing cognitive and affective states (cf. Williams & Krane, 2001). However, to date, little work has been conducted investigating such processes with adolescent high‐performing swimmers. The present study examined the effects of a seven‐week psychological skills training (PST) program on competitive swimming performance and positive psychological development. Thirty‐six national level swimmers (13 boys, 23 girls; M = 13.9 years old) followed a PST program for 45 minutes per week. The intervention consisted of goal setting, visualization, relaxation, concentration, and thought stopping. Performance times were obtained from official meets. Participants completed seven inventories measuring quality of performance, and six positive psychological attributes: mental toughness, hardiness, self‐esteem, self‐efficacy, dispositional optimism, and positive affectivity. Findings demonstrated that there was a significant post‐PST program improvement in three separate swimming strokes, each over 200 m. Non‐significant improvements were shown in 10 other events. There was also an overall significant improvement in participants’ post‐intervention positive psychological profiles
Article
This study examined the effects of attentional intervention strategies upon perceived exertion in female exercisers (N = 13). Interventions were based upon Stevinson and Biddle's (1999) coping strategy model, from which 4 variations of attentional style are derived: internal and external association, and internal and external dissociation. The first of 5 sessions consisted of a sub-maximal VO2 test aimed at assessing aerobic capacity of the participants. In the following 4 sessions, participants pedaled on stationary cycling ergometer at 75% VO2max for 10 minutes, and rated their perceived exertion (RPE) in 1-minute intervals. Significant (p < .01) differences in RPE between the associative and dissociative treatments emerged. The 2 associative treatments resulted in higher RPE levels than the 2 dissociative treatments for the same physical load. However, non-significant differences in RPE emerged between the internal and external dimensions, suggesting that the associative-dissociative dimension is the main determinant of RPE. Pragmatic applications of these findings and future research directions are offered.
Article
The purpose of this investigation was to explore the effectiveness of association and dissociation attentional strategies on the performance, heart rate (HR), and perceived exertion (RPE) of male and female collegiate varsity rowers. Experiment I evaluated the utility of the general strategies of association and dissociation on ergometer performance for female collegiate rowers. Results demonstrated that the rowers performed significantly better in the associative session when compared to the dissociative session. The general association and dissociation strategies were then refined into four specific variations of these attentional styles and were tested in Experiment II. Results indicated that both male and female rowers erged significantly faster when employing either of the associative attentional styles as compared to the dissociative and "natural" attentional strategies. Similarly, HR and RPE were significantly higher for erg pieces during which either association strategy was used as compared to the natural attentional style. Future research directions are presented and recommendations are provided for the relative utility of attentional strategy choice.
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This book is designed to advance both theory and practice in the psychological preparation of high-level sports performers. Seven aspects of psychological preparation are considered. Each discussion ends with a summary of the implications for future research and best practice. The authors explore the links between the practices elite athletes use during competition and theories which underlie psychological preparation for performance. This book develops a model of psychological preparation for elite sports performers incorporating research-to-practice orientation and a global perspective using evidence derived from North American, European, Australian and other research literatures in both general and sport psychology. This book is intended for sport psychologists, students and professionals with an interest in sport or high-level performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Examined the role of stress inoculation training (SIT) in increasing athletic pain tolerance on an isometric quadriceps task. The SIT paradigm consists of 3 phases: conceptualization, skills acquisition and rehearsal (SAR), and application and follow-through. 47 athletes from the sports of rowing, cycling, and triathlon completed the study, which consisted of performing a wall sit for as long as possible in a pretest–posttest control group design. Ss were assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: SIT, SAR only, or control. Results indicate that Ss receiving training in SIT significantly increased their tolerance time on the wall sit as compared with the control group. There was no difference between Ss who received training in SIT and those who received training in SAR only. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Comments on the article by K. S. Masters and B. M. Ogles (see record 1998-10987-002) on associative and dissociative cognitive strategies in exercise and running. The issue of terminology and definition has hampered the field because researchers have defined similar concepts in different ways, and Masters and Ogles suggest that selecting more precise terminology may be premature. C. D. Stevinson and S. J. H. Biddle offer a potential solution, which is to adopt a 2-dimensional system for classifying thoughts. The dimensions are task-relevance and direction of attention. This classification system may provide useful for advising runners about potentially hazardous strategies, and may also avoid the pathological connotation carried by the term dissociation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)