Role of chemokines and their receptors in cancer

Department of Medical Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, P.O. Box 30.001, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands.
Current Pharmaceutical Design (Impact Factor: 3.45). 09/2009; 15.
Source: OAI


Metastases are the cause of 90% of human cancer deaths. The current treatment of cancer with chemo,- and/or radiotherapy is based on cell death by DNA damage neglecting the fact that cancer cell invasion into surrounding tissues and metastasizing are fundamental features of neoplasms and the major reason for treatment failure. Metastasis is the result of several sequential steps and represents a highly organized, non-random, and organ-selective process. A number of in vitro and in vivo models show that tumor cells use chemokine-mediated mechanisms during this metastasizing process, comparable to those observed in the regulation of leukocyte trafficking. Furthermore, chemokines modulate tumor behavior such as the regulation of tumor-associated angiogenesis, activation of host tumor-specific immunological responses, and direct stimulation of tumor cell proliferation in an autocrine fashion. These findings may lead to new drugs that target chemokines or their receptors and will likely be of great additional value for treatment of cancer patients.

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    • "Chemokines are associated with a multitude of diseases including asthma, HIV infection , rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and cancer. An increasing amount of evidence highlights the importance of chemokines and their receptors in the metastasis process of many cancers, including colon cancer8910. Chemokines play a pivotal role in cancer progression because they trigger numerous important cellular responses such as growth, adhesion , migration, and metastasis of tumor cells1112131415. "
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    ABSTRACT: C-C chemokine receptor type 1 (CCR1) and chemokine C-C motif receptor-like 2 (CCRL2) have not yet been sufficiently investigated for their role in colorectal cancer (CRC). Here, we investigated their expression in rat and human CRC samples, their modulation of expression in a rat liver metastasis model, as well as the effects on cellular properties resulting from their knockdown. One rat and five human colorectal cancer cell lines were used. CC531 rat colorectal cells were injected via the portal vein into rats and re-isolated from rat livers after defined periods. Following mRNA isolation, the gene expression was investigated by microarray. In addition, all cell lines were screened for mRNA expression of CCR1 and CCRL2 by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Cell lines with detectable expression were used for knockdown experiments; and the respective influence was determined on the cells' proliferation, scratch closure, and colony formation. Finally, specimens from the primaries of 50 patients with CRC were monitored by quantitative RT-PCR for CCR1 and CCRL2 expression levels. The microarray studies showed peak increases of CCR1 and CCRL2 in the early phase of liver colonization. Knockdown was sufficient at mRNA but only moderate at protein levels and resulted in modest but significant inhibition of proliferation (p < 0.05), scratch closure, and colony formation (p < 0.05). All human CRC samples were positive for CCR1 and CCRL2 and showed a significant pairwise correlation (p < 0.0004), but there was no correlation with tumor stage or age of patients. In summary, the data point to an important role of CCR1 and CCRL2 under conditions of organ colonization and both chemokine receptors qualify as targets of treatment during early colorectal cancer liver metastasis.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Tumor Biology
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    • "Hence, 70% of OC cases are detected in a late and metastatic disease stage, by which time survival rates have dropped to only 10%–30% (Hennessy et al, 2009). Metastasis is a multifactorial process with recent evidence emerging on the importance of chemokines and chemokine receptor interactions (Kruizinga et al, 2009; Barbieri et al, 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: In certain cancers, expression of CXCL16 and its receptor CXCR6 associate with lymphocyte infiltration, possibly aiding anti-tumour immune response. In other cancers, CXCL16 and CXCR6 associate with pro-metastatic activity. In the current study, we aimed to characterise the role of CXCL16, sCXCL16, and CXCR6 in ovarian cancer (OC). Methods: CXCL16/CXCR6 expression was analysed on tissue microarray containing 306 OC patient samples. Pre-treatment serum sCXCL16 was determined in 118 patients using ELISA. In vitro, (primary) OC cells were treated with an ADAM-10/ADAM-17 inhibitor (TAPI-2) and an ADAM-10-specific inhibitor (GI254023x), whereupon CXCL16 levels were evaluated on the cell membrane (immunofluorescent analysis, western blots) and in culture supernatants (ELISA). In addition, cell migration was assessed using scratch assays. Results: sCXCL16 independently predicted for poor survival (hazard ratio=2.28, 95% confidence interval=1.29–4.02, P=0.005), whereas neither CXCL16 nor CXCR6 expression correlated with survival. Further, CXCL16/CXCR6 expression and serum sCXCL16 levels did not associate with lymphocyte infiltration. In vitro inhibition of both ADAM-17 and ADAM-10, but especially the latter, decreased CXCL16 membrane shedding and strongly reduced cell migration of A2780 and cultured primary OC-derived malignant cells. Conclusions: High serum sCXCL16 is a prognostic marker for poor survival of OC patients, possibly reflecting ADAM-10 and ADAM-17 pro-metastatic activity. Therefore, serum sCXCL16 levels may be a pseudomarker that identifies patients with highly metastatic tumours.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · British Journal of Cancer
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    • "Antimetastatic effect of nobiletin through the down-regulation of CXC chemokine receptor type 4 and matrix metallopeptidase-9 Yang et al., 2004). Chemokines are a large family of small chemotactic cytokines that regulate multiple biological processes such as leukocyte trafficking, hematopoiesis, adhesion, and angiogenesis (Balkwill, 2004; Kruizinga et al., 2009). Among these chemokines, the stromal cellderived factor-1α (SDF-1α) and its receptor, CXCR4 have been extensively investigated in tumor cell migration and metastasis (Raman et al., 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: Context: Nobiletin is one of the citrus bioflavonoids and can be found in citrus fruits such as lemons, oranges, tangerines, and grapefruits. The most studied properties of nobiletin are its anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. Objective: The exact mechanisms of how nobiletin inhibits tumor metastasis and invasion are still not fully understood. In this study, we screened various natural compounds to down-modulate the CXC chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4) and matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9). Materials and methods: The effect of nobiletin on the constitutive expressions of CXCR4 and MMP-9, MMP-9 enzymatic activity, associated nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) activation, and tumor cell invasion in human breast cancer cells was investigated. CXCR4 and MMP-9 expression were evaluated via reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blotting. NF-κB activation was also evaluated by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). In addition, the antimetastatic effects of nobiletin were determined by gelatin zymography and invasion assay. Results: Nobiletin down-regulated both the constitutive expressions of CXCR4 and MMP-9 in human breast cancer cells with IC50 values of 32 and 24 M, respectively. Nobiletin also suppressed MMP-9 enzymatic activity and tumor cell invasion under noncytotoxic concentrations. Neither proteasome inhibition nor lysosomal stabilization had any effect on the nobiletin-induced decrease in CXCR4 expression. A detailed study of the underlying molecular mechanisms revealed that the regulation of the down-regulation of CXCR4 and MMP-9 were at the transcriptional level, as indicated by the down-regulation of mRNA expression and the suppression of the constitutive NF-κB and MAPKs activation. Discussion and conclusion: Our results indicate, for the first time, that nobiletin is a novel blocker of CXCR4 and MMP-9 expressions and thus has the potential to suppress metastasis of breast cancer.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · Pharmaceutical Biology
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