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Towards a Four-Dimensional Model of Burnout: A Multigroup Factor-Analytic Study Including Depersonalization and Cynicism


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This article investigated whether cynicism and depersonalization are two different dimensions of burnout or whether they may be collapsed into one construct of mental distance. Using confirmatory factor analyses in two samples of teachers (n = 483) and blue-collar workers (n = 474), a superior fit was found for the four-factor model that contained cynicism, depersonalization, exhaustion, and professional efficacy as dimensions of burnout. In particular, cynicism and depersonalization emerged as unique burnout dimensions. Moreover, it appeared from multigroup analyses that this four-dimensional structure of burnout is partially invariant across both samples. Cynicism and depersonalization seemed to play a different role in both samples, particularly as far as their relationship with professional efficacy is concerned. It is recommended that future research on burnout should include the cynicism and depersonalization constructs.
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Universitat Jaume 1, Castellón
Utrecht University
This article investigated whether cynicism and depersonalization are two different
dimensions ofbumout or whether they may be collapsed into one construct of mental dis-
tance. Using confinnatory factor analyses in two samples ofteachers (n = 483) and blue-
collarworkers (n =474), a superiorfit was foundforthe four-factormodel thatcontained
cynicism, depersonalization, exhaustion, and professional efficacy as dimensions of
burnout. In particular, cynicism and depersonalization emerged as unique bumout
dimensions. Moreover, it appeared from multigroup analyses that this four-dimensional
structure ofbumout is partially invariant across both samples. Cynicism and depersonal-
ization seemed to playa different Tole in both samples, particularly as far as their relation-
ship with professional efficacy is concerned. It is recornrnended that future research on
burnout should include the cynicism and depersonalization constructs.
cynicism; depersonalization; bumout; mental distanc
Originally, bumout was defined as a syndrome of emotional exhaus-
tion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment that occurs
exclusively among professionals who deal directly with recipients such as
This research was supported by grants from fue Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnología
(SEC2000-1031), Jaume I University (Castellón, Spain), and Bancaixa Foundation (11232.011
1). Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Marisa Salanova, Ph.D.,
Universitat Jaume 1, Department of Psychology, Campus de Riu Sec, s/n. 12071 Castel1ón,
Spain; e-mail:
Educational and Psychologicai Measurement, Vol. 65 No. 5, October 2005 901-913
DOr: 10.1177/0013164405275662
rg 2005 Sage Publications
students, pupils, clients, patients, or delinquents (Maslach, 1982, 1993).
Emotional exhaustion refers to fue depletion or draining of emotional re-
sources caused by interpersonal demands. Depersonalization refers to an
impersonal and dehumanized perception of recipients, characterized by a
callous, negative, and detached attitude. Finally, lack of personal accom-
plishment is fue tendency to evaluate one's work with recipients negatively.
These three components represent fue energetic (e.g., feeling used up), attitu-
dinal (e.g., being excessively detached), and self-evaluative (e.g., doubting
one's competence) nature of burnout, respectively (Maslach, Schaufeli, &
Emotional exhaustion is regarded as fue basic individual stress compo-
nent of the syndrome that comes close to an orthodox job strain variable
(Maslach, 1993), whereas personal accomplishment is akin to fue concept of
efficacy beliefs (Bandura, 1999). This leaves depersonalization as fue most
innovative component of burnout. However, from fue outset, fue validity of
depersonalization has been questioned, for instance, by Garden (1987), who
argued that this dimension of burnout gauges several distinct attitudes,
including distancing, hostility, rejection, and unconcem. This might also be
fue reason why fue intemal consistency of fue depersonalization scale of fue
Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI; Maslach, Jackson, & Leiter, 1996)-the
most popular instrument to assess burnout-is often found to be relatively
low when compared to both other scales that measure emotional exhaustion
and personal accomplishment (Lee & Ashforth, 1996).
Although initially bumout was restricted to fue helping professions, it was
later broadened and defined as a crisis in one' s relationship with work in gen-
eral and not necessarily as a crisis in one's relationship with people at work
(Maslach et al., 2001). The three original bumout dimensions were rede-
fined, and an altemative version of the MBI-the MBI-General Survey
(MBI-GS)-was developed that can also be used outside human services
occupations (Schaufeli, Leiter, Maslach, & Jackson, 1996). That is, exhaus-
tion as operationalized in fue MBI-GS refers to severe fatigue irrespective of
its cause, cynicism reflects an indifferent or distant attitude toward one's
work instead of other people, and lack of professional efficacy encompasses
both social and nonsocial aspects of occupational accomplishment.
However, in contrast to exhaustion and personal accomplishment, fue
broadening of fue bumout concept changed fue meaning of depersonaliza-
tion in a rather fundamental way. The reason is that, by definition, deperson-
alization involves other people so that its meaning cannot be broadened
beyond fue social relationships in which it occurs. This problem was solved
in fue case of fue MBI-GS by considering depersonalization as a special case
of "mental distancing." That is, where depersonalized human services pro-
fessionals exhibit a psychological distance toward their recipients, cynical
non-human services employees show a similar psychological distance
regarding their work in a more general sense. In other words, fue target of fue
mental distancing differs. In fue case of bullan services employees, fue tar-
gets are their recipients, whereas for employees who work with things or with
information, fue target is the job itself. This agrees with Dean, Brandes, and
Dharwadkar (1988), who argued that organizational cynicism has tour dif-
ferent targets: fue work organization at large, organizational change, fue
work environment, and fue persons at fue job (i.e., other employees and
recipients). These last two types of cynicism correspond with MBI deperson-
alization and MBI cynicism, respectively. Recently, in a study among cus-
taller services representatives, Abraham (2000) discriminated empirically
among fuese tour types of organizational cynicism and showed that each was
related in a slightly different way to several outcomes such as job satisfaction,
organizational commitment, and organizational citizenship behavior. In con-
clusion, it seems that depersonalization and cynicism, as measured with fue
MBI, are distinct constructs, yet they can be considered manifestations of
fue broader concept of organizational cynicism. To date, fueTe has been no
empirical test of fue distinctiveness of MBI depersonalization and MBI
cynicism in relation to both other burnout dimensions.
The purpose of this article, therefore, is to examine whether MBI deper-
sonalization and MBI cynicism can be considered two different components
of burnout or whether they merge together into one component of mental dis-
tancing. In other words, can two different targets of mental distancing be dis-
tinguished (i.e., people and work) within fue broader concept ofburnout? We
sought to answer this question by studying two different samples consisting
of bullan services professionals (secondary school teachers) and non-
bullan services employees (blue-collar workers). Similar results across both
samples would support fue robustness of OUT findings. We used the MBI-GS
to assess burnout (Schaufeli et al., 1996) as well as fue depersonalization
subscale of fue original MBI (Maslach et al., 1996). U sing confirmatory fac-
tor analysis, fue three-factor structure of fue original MBI (e.g., Byrne, 1993;
Gold, Bachelor, & Michael, 1989; Gorter, Albrecht, Hoogstraten, &
Eijkman, 1999; Lee & Ashforth, 1990; Schaufeli & Van Dierendonck, 2000)
as well as fue MBI-GS (e.g., Bakker, Demerouti, & Schaufeli, 2002; Leiter &
Schaufeli, 1996; Schutte, Toppinen, Kalimo, & Schaufeli, 2000; Taris,
Schreurs, & Schaufeli, 1999) has been convincingly demonstrated.
Participants and Procedure
The total sample consisted of 957 Spanish employees (499 woman,
52.1 %, and 453 men, 47.3%). About half of fue sample (n = 483,49%) were
secondary school teachers (Sample 1), and the other half (n = 474, 51 %) were
hllll'--~n113T wnTkeT~ frnm the tile industrv (Samole 2). The mean ae:e of fue
total sample was 36 years, 8 months (SD = 9.0), and ages ranged from 18 tc
62 years. The teachers worked in 34 schools, most of which were public
(83%), whereas fue tile workers were employed in three private companies
In Sample 1 (43.6% men, 56.4% women), ages ranged from 23 to 60 years
(M = 40.2, SD = 8 years, 2 months). In Sample 2 (51.7% men, 48.3%
woman), ages ranged from 18 to 62 years (M = 33.2, SD = 8 years, 4 months).
Statistically, teachers were signiticantly older than blue-collar workers,
t(928) = -12.73, p < .001, with a large effect (d = .84; Cohen, 1988).
Participants were asked to till out fue MBI-GS as part of an occupational
health and safety audit. Human resources officers and school managers dis-
tributed fue questionnaires in fue tile companies and fue secondary schools,
respectively. A covering letter explained fue purpose ofthe study, explained
that fue participation was voluntary, and guaranteed contidentiality. Respon-
dents were asked to return the completed questionnaires in a sealed envelope,
either to fue person who had distributed them or directly to fue research team.
Exhaustion (EX), cynicism (CY), and professional efficacy (PE) were
assessed with fue Spanish version (Salanova & Schaufeli, 2000) ofthe MBI-
GS (Schaufeli et al., 1996). Depersonalization (DP) was measured with fue
corresponding scale afilie original MBI-HSS (Maslach et al., 1996). In the
case of fue blue-colIar workers, recipients was replaced by coworkers in fue
items tapping depersonalization. Exhaustion was measured with 5 items
(e.g., "1 feel emotionalIy drained by my work"), cynicism was measured with
4 items (e.g., "1 have become more cynical about whether my work contrib-
utes anything"), depersonalization was measured by 5 items (e.g., "1 deal
with people with whom I work like objects"), and professional efficacy was
measured with 6 items (e.g., "In my opinion, I am good at my job"). High
scores on EX, DP, and CY and low scores on PE are indicative ofburnout. AlI
items were scored on a 7-point frequency scale, ranging from O (never) to 6
(everyday). As shownin Table 1, exceptforDPin theteacher's sample, inter-
nal consistencies (Cronbach's a) of scores on rol scales satisfied fue criterion
of .70 (NunnalIy & Bernstein, 1994), and in at least in the teachers sample,
most also satisfied fue more stringent criterion of .80 (Henson, 2001). As was
noted in fue introduction, for DP, slightly lower a values have been found
more often.
Data Analyses
Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA), as implemented by AMOS
(Arbuckle, 1997), was used to test fue fit of various models to fue data ofboth
samples. First, the fit of fue tour-factor burnout model (EX, CY, DP, FE) was
Table 1
Means, Standard Deviations, Internal Consistencies (Cronbach's a), and Inten:orrelations
Blue-Collar Workers
(n = 474)
Note. EX = exhaustion; CY = cynicism; DP = depersonalization; PE = professional efficacy. Teachers are be
low !he diagonal, and blue-collar workers are above !he diagonal.
*p < .05. **p < .001.
compared in each sample with that of fue three-factor model (EX, CY + DP,
FE) and with fue one-factor model that assumes that all items weight on one
single underlying dimension (i.e., burnout). Next, using fue so-caIled multiple-
group method, fue factoriaI invariance of fue best -fitting model was examined
across both samples simultaneously (Byrne, 2001).
The goodness of fit of fue models was evaluated using absolute and rela-
tive indices. The four absolute goodness-of-fit indices calculated were (cf.
Joreskog & Sorbom, 1986) (a) fue X2 goodness-of-fit statistic, (b) fue good-
ness-of-fit index (GFI), (c) fue adjusted goodness-of-fit index (AGFI), and
(d) fue root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA). Following fue
recommendations ofMarsh, BaIla, and Hau (1996), we also computed three
relative indices: (a) Tucker-Lewis index (TLI), (b) comparative fit index
(CFI), and (c) fue incremental fit index (IFI). Because fue distributions of fue
GFI and fue AGFI are unknown, no statistical test or critical vaIue is available
(Joreskog & Sorbom, 1986). Values smaller than .06 for fue RMSEA are
indicative of an acceptable fit (Hu & Bentler, 1999), whereas a cutoff value
clase to .90 for fue IFI is suggested for a good fit (Hoy le, 1995). For fue
remaining fit indices (TLI, CFI), as a rule of thumb, values greater than .95
are considered as indicating an adequate model fit (Hu & Bentler, 1999).
Descriptive Analyses
Table 1 shows fue means, standard deviations, internal consistencies,
and intercorrelations of fue tour burnout dimensions in both samples. As
expected, EX, DP, and CY are significantly and positively related, whereas
PE is negatively related with fue other burnout dimensions. However, the
2.03 1.19
1.24 1.22
.90 .96
4.41 .93
negative correlation between PE and DP was not statistically significant in
fue blue-collar sample.
Four analysis of variance tests were carried out to assess differences in
bumout levels among both samples (Huberty & Morris, 1989). Results
showed that compared to blue-collar workers, teachers felt more cynical,
F(I, 956) = 34.26,p < .001, and depersonalized, F(I, 956) = 7 .06,p < .01, and
they experienced less professional efficacy, F(I, 956) = 6.93, p < .01. How-
ever, a statistically nonsignificant difference was obtained for exhaustion
between fue samples, F( 1, 956) = .004, n.s. In terms of effect sizes, fue differ-
ences between both samples were "medium" for cynicism (d = .38) and
"small" for depersonalization and personal efficacy (both ds = .16; cf. Cohen,
Model Testing
Next, three altemative models were tested for each sample separately
using CFA: a Que-factor model (MI) that assumes one latent factor, a three-
factor model (M2) that assumes three latent and correlated factors (EX, CY +
DP, FE), and a four-factormodel (M3) that assumes four latent and correlated
factors (EX, CY, DP, FE).
MI and M2 fit very poorly to fue data of fue teachers (see Table 2), with
Done of fue fit indices meeting its criterion. The fit of M3 was somewhat
better and superior to that of M2 and M 1 as indicated by fue statisticalIy sig-
nificant values of LlX2 (see Table 2). The so-called modification indices indi-
cated that fue fit of M3 could be further improved by allowing three pairs of
errors (exl-ex2, cy3-cy4, and pe4-pe5) to correlate (see fue Discussion sec-
tion for a rationale). Indeed, a subsequent test of fue revised model (M4) that
included fuese three correlated error terms revealed a statistically significant
improvementoverM3, LlX2(3) = 206.13,p < .001, withmostfitindices meet-
ing or approaching their critical values.
As is shown in Table 3, a similar pattem of results was obtained in fue
blue-collar sample. Again, neither MI flor M2 fit well to fue data, and fue fit
ofM3 was superior to that ofMI and M2. Like fue teacher sample, fue fit of
M3 could be further improved (M4) by including fue same correlated errors
(exl-ex2, cy3-cy4, and pe4-pe5; see fue Discussion section for a rationale.
Next, fue best-fitting model (M4) was simultaneously fit to both samples
using multigroup analyses to test fue invariance of fue factor loadings, corre-
lated errors, and correlations between factors across both samples. As
expected, M4 provided reasonable fit to fue data across both samples, with
most fit indices meeting their corresponding critical values or at least
approaching them (see Table 4). However, the fit deteriorated somewhat
when all factor loadings and correlations (between factors and between
errors) were constrained to be equal in both samples (M4j. This means that
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although fue underlying factor structure is apparently similar in both sam-
pIes, fue size of fue factor coefficients and interfactor correlations mar differ
To assess invariance in greater detail, three additional models were tested
to fue data: (a) a model that as sumes only the correlations between factors to
be invariant (M4co)' (b) a model that assumes only fue factor loadings to be
invariant (M4ca)' and (c) a model that assumes only the correlations between
fue error terms to be invariant (M4er). As can be seen from Table 4, fue fit of
all three models was slightly inferior compared to that of M4. This suggests
that neither fue correlations between factors, nor fue factor coefficients, nor
fue correlations between error terms are completely invariant across both
In the final step, an iterative process was used as recommended by Byme
(2001) to assess fue invariance of each estimate separately. That is, fue
invariance of each factor loading, correlated error term, and correlation
between factors was assessed individually by comparing fue fit of fue model
in which a particular estimate was constrained to be equal across both sam-
pIes with that of fue previous model in which this was not the case. When the
fit did not deteriorate, this constrained element was included in fue next
model in which another constrained estimate was added, and so oo. The final
model (M4fi) showed that fue correlation between EX and DP, and between
CY and DP, as well as fue correlations between the two errors (ex1-ex2, cy3-
cy4) are invariant across both samples. In addition, fue factor coefficients, of
allEX items, 3 of 4 CY items (cy1, cy2, cy3), as well as 2 of5 DP items (dep1,
dep4) and 3 of 6 PE items (pe1, pe2, pe6), tumed out to be invariant across
both samples as well. Thus, it appeared that EX has fue highest proportion of
invariant items (100%), followed by CY (75%), PE (50%), and DP (40%),
The aim of ibis artic1e was to investigate whether cynicism and deperson-
alization mar be considered two different dimensions of burnout or whether
they can be col1apsed into one construct of mental distance. We studied two
samp1es: teachers who work with other peop1e (i.e., students) and b1ue-collar
workers from a ti1e factory who work with objects and who process data
using advanced computerized machinery. According to fue traditional view,
bumout occurs on1y in human services professionals such as teachers, but
recent1y, it has been acknow1edged that burnout also might occur in other
occupational groups such as b1ue-collar workers (Mas1ach et al., 2001). In
fue former case, it is assumed that depersonalization is an essential dimen-
sion of burnout, whereas in fue latter case, depersonalization is substituted by
cynicism. Conceptually speaking, both cynicism and depersonalization are
manifestations of mental distancing. Por depersonalization, this distancing is
directed toward the people with whom one is working (i.e., students in teach-
ing and colleagues in blue-collar work), whereas with cynicism, fue dis-
tancing is directed toward fue broader context of fue job itself.
Our results show that instead of one mental distance construct, burnout
can be characterized in both samples by separate depersonalization and cyni-
cism dimensions, which along with exhaustion and reduced professional
efficacy, constitute the burnout syndrome. That is, in both samples, fue four-
factor model with separate depersonalization and cynicism dimensions fit
better to the data than fue three-factor model with depersonalization and cyn-
icism collapsed into one factor. However, to increase the fit ofthe four-factor
model, we had to allow three pairs of error terms to correlate. Although this
might increase the risk of chance capitalization (Curdeck & Brown, 1993),
this procedure is thought to be justified because similar correlated error terms
were observed previously in other samples: exl-ex2 among South Afrlcan
police officers (Storm & Rothmann, 2003); cy3-cy4 among students from
Portugal, Spain, and the Netherlands (Schaufeli, Martínez, Marques-Pinto,
Salanova, & Bakker, 2002) and blue- and white-collar workers from Sweden,
Finland, and fue Netherlands (Schutte et al., 2000); and pe4-pe5 among
Spanish information and communication technology users (Salanova,
Schaufeli, Llorens, Peiró, & Grau, 2000) and white-collar workers (Schutte
et al., 2000). Hence, it seems that instead of being sample specific, fue corre-
lated errors refIect cornmon variance between items that is independent from
country and occupation. For instance, the items "1 feel emotionally drained
from my work" (exl) and "1 feel used up at fue end of fue workday" (ex2)
share some unique variance, probably because both refer to extreme tired-
ness after work, whereas fue other EX items refer to tiredness in fue moming
or less often to intensive fatigue.
Although fue four-factor model (including fuese three correlated errors)
fit well to fue data in both samples, it was not entirely invariant across both
samples. However, an interesting pattem emerged from an iterative proce-
dure that was followed to assess invariance in greater detail. It appeared that
all EX items, three of four CY items, and fue correlations between fuese two
scales-and fue included error terms-were invariant across both samples.
This means that the core of bumout-namely, EX and CY (Maslach et al.,
2001)-was invariant across both samples. Different factor coefficients and
correlations were obtained for DP and FE, though. This can be explained by
the fact that depersonalization has a quite different meaning in both samples.
For teachers, relationships with students are critical for their job performance
and hence for their feelings of professional efficacy, whereas for blue-collar
workers, colleagues do not play such an essential role in this respecto This is
exemplified by fue negative statistically significant correlation between DP
and PE in fue teacher sample as compared to fue statistically nonsignificant
corresponding correlation in fue blue-collar sample(see Table 1). In other
words, teachers who depersonalize their students feel inefficacious because
students are, after all, fue "essence" of their work (i.e., teaching), whereas
blue-collar workers who depersonalize their coworkers do not feel ineffica-
cious necessarily. For teachers, good relationships with students are essential
for being successful, but blue-collar workers can do their work well even
when relationships with colleagues are poor.
In conclusion, our study suggests that cynicism and depersonalization
each contribute in a distinct way to fue bumout syndrome. However, we
focused only on fue relationships among bumout dimensions. Future
research should establish whether cynicism and depersonalization are differ-
ently related to particular job characteristics (i.e., job demands and
resources) and outcome variables (i.e., workers performance, absenteeism).
Hence, we recornmend including cynicism in addition to fue three traditional
MBI bumout dimensions when studying human services and to include
depersonalization in addition to fue three MBI-GS dimensions when study-
ing non-human services occupations.
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... Depersonalization, a dimension of job burnout and indicator of psychological health in the workplace (Schaufeli & Enzmann, 1998), refers to mentally distancing oneself from others and seeing others unsympathetically (Chiu & Tsai, 2006), and is characterized by a callous, negative, and detached attitude (Salanova et al., 2005). We propose that a dispute in the workplace in order to gain the desired position in a group social hierarchy induces competitive behavior among employees and encourages them to manipulate status relations (Gould, 2003). ...
... Such feelings lead to employees distancing themselves from the task at hand, thereby restricting the processing or sharing of ideas (Hollet-Haudebert et al., 2011) and reducing helpful and participative behaviors (Greer & Dannals, 2017;Lee et al., 2018). This, in turn, will restrict their own personal processing and sharing of ideas, thus lowering overall creativity of team (Salanova et al., 2005). ...
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Status – one’s position and influence within a social network – is a psych-social resource which fulfills one’s need for social esteem. Striving to gain status in a social setup, including organizational settings, can cause conflict and reduce employees’ positive work behavior. This study is aimed at discussing two questions: first, how status conflict in team, a newly established type of conflict, poses a threat toward individual wellbeing and affects team creativity; and second, to what extent organizational awareness, an individual characteristic, might act as buffer against the negative effects of status conflict. The data was collected from 245 healthcare professionals from 55 teams and analyzed through multilevel analysis, after achieving the model fit. The counterintuitive findings at team level revealed that status conflict does not impede team creativity but causes depersonalization that could undermine the overall team creativity. This multilevel study serves to widen the literature, responding to the recent call for new research by investigating the effects of depersonalization caused by status conflict on team creativity. Likewise, from a practical standpoint, it also emphasizes social competency as a moderator that can reduce the negative feelings caused by status conflict. Additionally, the study extends the job-demand resource model by introducing status as an individual requirement in organizational context, arguing that depletion of status creates negative feelings which are ultimately able to lower creativity.
... The scholars assert that workplace conflicts ultimately lead to exhaustion, cynicism, and burnout (Salanova et al., 2005;Edú-Valsania et al., 2022). Moreover, the conflicts appear in different, also latent forms. ...
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The aim of the paper is to investigate the relationship between workplace conflicts and employee burnout. Design/methodology/approach. The survey method was chosen, and the questionnaire was posted online to share among Lithuanian employees. Finally, 495 employees completed the questionnaire, which included four parts: questions about workplace conflicts, burnout, burnout due to conflicts, and consequences of burnout. Statistical analysis was used to process the research data. Findings. The study revealed that the more conflicts employees have with clients, colleagues, or managers, the more burnout they experience as a consequence. Furthermore, conflicts with colleagues have the strongest relationship with consequences of burnout which are not as unambiguous as they may also be the outcome of burnout. Research limitations/implications. The study was conducted in Lithuania and revealed the conflict-induced burnout of employees and the consequences of the burnout they face. Practical implications. Understanding the links between conflict at work and burnout let organizational leaders prioritize conflict resolution, pay more attention to the mental health of employees, and protect the organization from the costly consequences of burnout. Originality/Value. This study reveals the consequences of labour conflicts not only in the context of burnout but also in its consequences which allow to understand the real threat of disputes.
... According to some scholars [84,92], mental distance is a feeling of psychological detachment characterized by a scarcity of motivation, interest, and enthusiasm [84,92]. High levels of mental distance reveal a strong aversion toward the job and are related to feelings of cynicism toward one's work [93,94]. While it was expected that all BAT-C dimensions were homogeneously expressed in female students, showing higher levels than in males, previous research (for a review, see [95]) also suggested other perspectives that could be considered. ...
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Students’ burnout has been widely investigated in recent decades, mainly showing a higher risk for female students across academic levels. To our knowledge, few studies have investigated whether employed students experience higher academic burnout risks. In this regard, previous findings have shown mixed results. The current study investigated the differences in burnout experience based on students’ gender and worker status. We expected to find differences among study groups in their burnout levels. The participants were 494 Italian university students (49.6% female students; 49.4% working students) who completed the short version of the Burnout Assessment Tool Core dimensions (BAT-C). Firstly, we investigated the BAT-C measurement invariance across gender and worker status subgroups. Secondly, a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) showed significant gender differences in burnout levels. Specifically, female students showed higher levels of exhaustion, cognitive impairment, and emotional impairment than male students. Nevertheless, no interactive effects between gender and worker status were observed in the current sample. To sum up, gender is a key factor for understanding several BAT symptoms, and it should be considered by academic staff interested in preventing burnout at university and its dropout consequences.
... Moreover, the dimensionality of burnout has been further questioned after broadening the construct beyond the helping professions. The alleged overlapping between cynicism and depersonalization has caused considerable skepticism among scholars who frequently claimed its distinctiveness [8,9]. Reduced professional efficacy has been identified as a consequence of burnout, rather than as a core component, which is empirically unrelated to emotional exhaustion and cynicism [10]. ...
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The Burnout Assessment Tool (BAT) has shown satisfactory validity evidence in several countries, with the 23-item version of the instrument reporting adequate psychometric properties also in the Italian context. This paper is aimed to present results from the Italian validation of the 12-item version of the BAT. Based on a sample of 2277 workers, our results supported the factorial validity of a higher-order model represented by 4 first-order factors corresponding to the core dimensions of burnout, namely exhaustion, mental distance, and emotional and cognitive impairment. The measure invariance of the BAT-12 between data collected before and during the COVID-19 pandemic was supported. However, ANCOVA results suggest a higher score on the second-order burnout factor on data collected during the COVID-19 pandemic in comparison with earlier data. In line with the JD-R model, the BAT-12 total score reported a positive association with job demands (i.e., workload, time pressure, and role conflict) and a negative association with job resources (i.e., job autonomy, coworkers' support) and personal resources (i.e., optimism, social self-efficacy, and task self-efficacy). Additionally, the BAT-12 showed a negative association with work engagement components (i.e., vigor, dedication, and absorption) and positive job attitudes (i.e., job satisfaction, affective commitment). All in all, our results identify the Italian version of the BAT-12 as a brief and reliable tool for measuring burnout among workers.
... The Maslach Burnout Inventory adopts a three-dimensional model predicting the perceivable symptoms among college students (Schaufeli et al., 2009;Portoghese et al., 2018), which includes exhaustion, cynicism, and professional efficacy. Exhaustion is severe fatigue that students experience regardless of the causes (Salanova et al., 2005). Cynicism is students' indifference toward their academic work. ...
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During the shift from face-to-face to online emergency classes due to the COVID-19 pandemic, learners of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) were under constant pressure to familiarize themselves with the once-in-many-generations learning context. Based on the cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT), this qualitative study investigated factors contributing to EFL learners’ academic burnout at Open University, Vietnam. The interviewees were seven students, two teachers, and two administrators recruited using a theoretical-based sampling technique. The data consisted of iterative rounds of interviews which lasted approximately 60 min each until the data saturation point was reached. The content analysis revealed six factors that impacted EFL learners’ physical and psychological exhaustion, including prolonged online learning time, privacy concerns and cyber-bullying, teachers’ role, institution’s role, and support community outside the classroom. Also, teachers’ insufficient preparation for online teaching and students’ academic misconduct during exams were factors that created EFL learners’ academic cynicism. Finally, participation in social networking sites’ extracurricular activities, participation checking, and cheating in exams affected the last dimension of academic burnout, the sense of academic achievement. Based on this study, the authority, administrators, and teachers can take a more proactive role in supporting students in curbing their academic burnout during this unprecedented pandemic. The authors also hope that this study can lay the foundation for further humanistic research into the EFL learner’s psychological world in online classes, particularly when each student’s social and cultural background is considered.
... Finally, although Maslach and Jackson's [5] conceptualization of burnout remains the most widely accepted, other definitions or formulations are found in the scientific literature. For example, Salanova et al. [31] reformulate such approaches and propose an extended model of burnout composed of: (1) exhaustion (related to crises in the relationship between the person and work in general), (2) mental distance that includes both cynicism (distant attitudes towards work in general) and depersonalization (distant attitudes towards the people for and with whom one works) and (3) professional inefficacy (feeling of not doing tasks adequately and being incompetent at work). ...
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A growing body of empirical evidence shows that occupational health is now more relevant than ever due to the COVID-19 pandemic. This review focuses on burnout, an occupational phenomenon that results from chronic stress in the workplace. After analyzing how burnout occurs and its different dimensions, the following aspects are discussed: (1) Description of the factors that can trigger burnout and the individual factors that have been proposed to modulate it, (2) identification of the effects that burnout generates at both individual and organizational levels, (3) presentation of the main actions that can be used to prevent and/or reduce burnout, and (4) recapitulation of the main tools that have been developed so far to measure burnout, both from a generic perspective or applied to specific occupations. Furthermore, this review summarizes the main contributions of the papers that comprise the Special Issue on “Occupational Stress and Health: Psychological Burden and Burnout”, which represent an advance in the theoretical and practical understanding of burnout.
... At the opposite pole, burnout consists of a prolonged response to chronic emotional and interpersonal stressors related to the work environment (Salanova et al., 2005;Schaufeli & Taris, 2005). The low expectation of achieving specific goals at work (enthusiasm towards job), high physical and emotional exhaustion generated by work activity (psychological exhaustion), and high negative attitudes of indifference and cynicism towards people in the work environment (indolence) describe burnout. ...
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This study aimed to test the predictive capacity of pathological traits of personality and career adaptability on four constructs that compose the well-being at work: work engagement, job satisfaction, burnout, and workaholism. A total of 204 Brazilian working adults (M age = 34.02, SD = 10.39) participated in the study, which responded to scales measuring pathological traits, career adaptability resources, and well-being components at work. Our findings indicate that pathological traits are, in general, negatively related to job satisfaction and work engagement and positively associated with burnout and workaholism. After the insertion of career adaptability, there was an increase in most of the models' explanation. The contribution of adaptability was significant only for job satisfaction prediction.
Conference Paper
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In the environment of confrontational globalization, it is essential for any country to ensure the sustainability of the entire socio-economic system of its country. The sustainability of the country depends on the level of sustainable competitiveness of the socio-economic system of the respective state, which in turn represents a complex problem and involves economic, social, natural-ecological, technological, and other areas of community life. Consequently, it is relevant to identify the main challenges to the sustainable competitiveness of the country and establish response measures. The main goal of the paper is to reveal the challenges to the sustainable competitiveness of the country in the wake of the growth of uncertainty in the modern conditions of globalization and outline the directions for its improvement. Used research methods: empirical analysis, causal-comparative analysis, synthesis, abstraction, systems analysis, and modeling.
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El presente artículo se basa en la obtención de resultados de la evaluación realizada a la Licenciatura en Derecho de la Facultad de Derecho y Criminología de la Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León (UANL) durante el año 2019. Esta evaluación fue realizada por académicos expertos en derecho, con conocimiento en los estándares internacionales de la calidad de esta disciplina, provenientes de Canadá, Estados Unidos, España y México. Se aplicó el modelo de evaluación GRANA que se basa en un sistema decimal de evaluación denominado “modelo SIEVAS”, compuesto por 10 dimensiones, 100 subdimensiones y 1000 indicadores de calidad cualitativa de segunda y tercera generación. El proceso consta de 10 momentos que inician con la evaluación interna y concluyen con los resultados obtenidos de la evaluación externa. El 95% del proceso fue realizado a distancia con el apoyo de la plataforma informática SIEVAS y el 5% fue realizado en una visita presencial a la UANL.
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Background: The COVID-19 outbreak caused severe changes in school activities over the past two years. Teachers underwent a re-planning of their teaching approaches, shifting from face-to-face teaching formats to remote ones. These challenges resulted in high levels of burnout. The identification of risk/protective factors contributing to burnout is crucial in order to inform intervention programs. Thus, we hypothesized a mediation role of teachers' mentalizing ability (processing of emotions, a component of mentalized affectivity) on the relationship between depression, anxiety, and depersonalization (burnout dimension). Two reverse models were computed. Job satisfaction, teachers' age and gender, school grade, and length of teaching experience served as covariates. Methods: 466 (M(sd) = 46.2 (10.4) years) online questionnaires were completed by Italian teachers of primary (n = 204) and middle (n = 242) schools. Measures of burnout, depression, anxiety, and mentalization were administered. Results: The findings corroborated our hypotheses: in all models, processing emotions served as a mediator on the relationship between depression, anxiety, and depersonalization, and on the reciprocal one. Job satisfaction positively impacted processing emotion, and negatively impacted depression and depersonalization; women teachers reported high levels of the anxious trait. Conclusions: Overall, it can be concluded that the ability to mentalize has a beneficial impact on teachers' well-being. Policymaking, clinical, and research implications were discussed.
Conference Paper
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This meta-analysis examined how demand and resource correlates and behavioral and attitudinal correlates were related to each of the 3 dimensions of job burnout. Both the demand and resource correlates were more strongly related to emotional exhaustion than to either depersonalization or personal accomplishment. Consistent with the conservation of resources theory of stress, emotional exhaustion was more strongly related to the demand correlates than to the resource correlates, suggesting that workers might have been sensitive to the possibility of resource loss. The 3 burnout dimensions were differentially related to turnover intentions, organizational commitment, and control coping. Implications for research and the amelioration of burnout are discussed.
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It has been almost twenty years since the term "burnout" first appeared in the psychological literature. The phenomenon that was portrayed in those early articles had not been entirely unknown, but had been rarely acknowledged or even openly discussed. In some occupations, it was almost a taboo topic, because it was considered tantamount to admitting that at times professionals can (and do) act "unprofessionally." The reaction of many people was to deny that such a phenomenon existed, or, if it did exist, to attribute it to a very small (but clearly mentally disturbed) minority. This response made it difficult, at first, for any work on burnout to be taken seriously. However, after the initial articles were published, there was a major shift in opinion. Professionals in the human services gave substantial support to both the validity of the phenomenon and its significance as an occupational hazard. Once burnout was acknowledged as a legitimate issue, it began to attract the attention of various researchers. Our knowledge and understanding of burnout have grown dramatically since that shaky beginning. Burnout is now recognized as an important social problem. There has been much discussion and debate about the phenomenon, its causes and consequences. As these ideas about burnout have proliferated, so have the number of empirical research studies to test these ideas. We can now begin to speak of a "body of work" about burnout, much of which is reviewed and cited within the current volume. This work is now viewed as a legitimate and worthy enterprise that has the potential to yield both scholarly gains and practical solutions. What I would like to do in this chapter is give a personal perspective on the concept of burnout. Having been one of the early "pioneers" in this field, I have the advantage of a long-term viewpoint that covers the twenty years from the birth of burnout to its present proliferation. Furthermore, because my research was among the earliest, it has had an impact on the development of the field. In particular, my definition of burnout, and my measure to assess it (Maslach Burnout Inventory; MBI) have been adopted by many researchers and have thus influenced subsequent theorizing and research. My work has also been the point of departure for various critiques. Thus, for better or for worse, my perspective on burnout has played a part in framing the field, and so it seemed appropriate to articulate that viewpoint within this volume. In presenting this perspective, however, I do not intend to simply give a summary statement of ideas that I have discussed elsewhere. Rather, I want to provide a retrospective review and analysis of why those ideas developed in the ways that they did. Looking back on my work, with the hindsight of twenty years, I can see more clearly how my research path was shaped by both choice and chance. The shape of that path has had some impact on what questions have been asked about burnout (and what have not), as well as on the manner in which 2 answers have been sought. A better understanding of the characteristics of that path will, I think, provide some insights into our current state of knowledge and debate about burnout. In some sense, this retrospective review marks a return to my research roots. The reexamination of my initial thinking about burnout, and an analysis of how that has developed and changed over the years, has led me to renew my focus on the core concept of social relationships. I find it appropriately symbolic that this return to my research roots occurred within the context of a return to my ancestral roots. The 1990 burnout conference that inspired this rethinking took place in southern Poland, from which each of my paternal grandparents, Michael Maslach and Anna Pszczolkowska, emigrated to the United States in the early 1900s. Thus, my travel to Krakow had great significance for me, at both personal and professional levels.
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This research examines the construct validity of Schaufeli, Leiter, Maslach, and Jackson's (1996) general burnout measure, the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS). Whereas burnout is traditionally defined and measured in terms of a phenomenon occurring among workers who work with people, the MBI-GS is intended for use outside the human services. The authors first address the internal validity of the MBI-GS using data from two Dutch samples (179 software engineers and 284 university staff members). Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the distinction among the three subscales of the MBI-GS was retained. To examine external validity, these subscales were then related to selected work characteristics. Based on conservation of resources theory, differential patterns of effects were predicted among the correlates and the three burnout subscales. Expectations were largely supported, suggesting that the meaning of the three subscales is quite different. These results largely replicate findings obtained in similar studies on the validity of the contactual version of the MBI.
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This study assessed the extent to which a recently developed measure of burnout extended the concept of burnout as developed among human service providers to people in other occupations. The study replicated a factor structure derived from a study of aircraft maintenance workers, computer programmers, and administrators with staff in various occupations across two health care settings: a tertiary care hospital (N=3,312) and a residential mental health facility (N=417). Within the larger setting the analysis replicated the factor structure with four occupational groups: clerical/maintenance workers, technical personnel, nurses, and managers. The study found support for the validity of the scale through its consistency with the issues that participants raised in an open-ended questionnaire. Conceptual issues in burnout theory and suggestions for further research are presented.
What is the nature of the extremely negative attitudes expressed by so many employees toward their organizations? To respond to this question, we introduce the concept of organizational cynicism. We review the literature from several disciplines on this concept and suggest that organizational cynicism is an attitude composed of beliefs, affect, and behavioral tendencies toward an organization. Following our review and conceptualization, we derive implications of this concept and propose a research agenda for organizational cynicism.
This study examines burnout and engagement—the hypothesized opposite of burnout—in university students from Spain (n = 623), Portugal (n = 727), and the Netherlands (n = 311). Confirmatory factor analyses showed that the expected three-factor structures of the adapted versions of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) for students (including Exhaustion, Cynicism, and Reduced Efficacy) and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) for students (including Vigor, Dedication, and Absorption) fitted to the data of each sample. However, a rigorous test revealed that most factor loadings of the MBI were not invariant across all samples. Results with the UWES were slightly better, indicating invariance of factor loadings of Absorption in all samples and of Vigor in two of the three samples. Furthermore, as hypothesized, the burnout and engagement subscales were negatively correlated. Finally, irrespective of country, Efficacy and Vigor were positively related to academic performance, that is, the number of passed exams relative to the total number of exams in the previous term.
This paper investigates - in a sample of 202 Spanish employees - the hypothesis that the impact of the exposure to technology on burnout is mediated by the appraisal of technology. In addition, the factorial validity of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MGI-GS) is studied. The hypothesized three-factor-model of the MBI-GS (i.e. exhaustion, cynicism and professional efficacy) was not replicated; instead a four-factor model (i.e. exhaustion, cynicism, selfconfidence and goal-attainment) fitted better to the data. Results from Structural Equation Modelling confirmed the hypothesis that the impact on burnout of the exposure to technology (in terms of time and frequency of use of computer aided technology) is mediated by the appraisal of technology. The higher the exposure, the more positive the appraisal and the lower the burnout levels (i.e. less cynicism, more selfconfidence and a greater sense of goal attainment). No such effect was demonstrated for exhaustion. Limitations of the study and future research directions are discussed.