TGF- 1 Protects against Mesangial Cell Apoptosis via Induction of Autophagy

Renal Division, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.
Journal of Biological Chemistry (Impact Factor: 4.57). 09/2010; 285(48):37909-19. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M109.093724
Source: PubMed


Autophagy can lead to cell death in response to stress, but it can also act as a protective mechanism for cell survival. We show that TGF-β1 induces autophagy and protects glomerular mesangial cells from undergoing apoptosis during serum deprivation. Serum withdrawal rapidly induced autophagy within 1 h in mouse mesangial cells (MMC) as determined by increased microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) levels and punctate distribution of the autophagic vesicle-associated-form LC3-II. We demonstrate that after 1 h there was a time-dependent decrease in LC3 levels that was accompanied by induction of apoptosis, evidenced by increases in cleaved caspase 3. However, treatment with TGF-β1 resulted in induction of the autophagy protein LC3 while suppressing caspase 3 activation. TGF-β1 failed to rescue MMC from serum deprivation-induced apoptosis upon knockdown of LC3 by siRNA and in MMC from LC3 null (LC3(-/-)) mice. We show that TGF-β1 induced autophagy through TAK1 and Akt activation, and inhibition of PI3K-Akt pathway by LY294002 or dominant-negative Akt suppressed LC3 levels and enhanced caspase 3 activation. TGF-β1 also up-regulated cyclin D1 and E protein levels while down-regulating p27, thus stimulating cell cycle progression. Bafilomycin A1, but not MG132, blocked TGF-β1 down-regulation of p27, suggesting that p27 levels were regulated through autophagy. Taken together, our data indicate that TGF-β1 rescues MMC from serum deprivation-induced apoptosis via induction of autophagy through activation of the Akt pathway. The autophagic process may constitute an adaptive mechanism to glomerular injury by inhibiting apoptosis and promoting mesangial cell survival.

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    • "In epithelial cells, TGF-β1-induced autophagy inhibited cell growth and promoted apoptosis. However, TGF-β1-induced autophagy inhibited apoptosis in mesenchymal cells (20). In the present study, the effect of TGF-β1 stimulation on autophagy activation in HSC-T6 cells and its regulatory role in HSC-T6 proliferation and apoptosis was investigated. "
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    ABSTRACT: Autophagy is a metabolic process that is important in fibrogenesis, in which cellular components are degraded by lysosomal machinery. Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF‑β1) is a potent fibrogenic cytokine involved in liver fibrosis; however, it remains elusive whether autophagy is regulated by TGF‑β1 in this process. In the present study, the function of TGF‑β1‑mediated autophagy in the proliferation and apoptosis of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) was investigated. A rat HSC cell line (HSC‑T6) was incubated with or without TGF‑β1 followed by bafilomycin A1, and microtubule-associated proteins 1A/1B light chain 3 (LC3) small interfering (si)RNA was used to inhibit autophagy in order to assess the association between TGF‑β1 and autophagy. HSC‑T6 cell transient transfection was accomplished with a pLVX‑AcGFP‑N1‑rLC3B‑encoding plasmid. An MTS assay and flow cytometry were utilized to detect proliferation and apoptosis of HSC‑T6 cells. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence and western blot analysis were used to detect the presence of activation markers. Proliferation was increased and apoptosis was reduced in HSC‑T6 cells treated with TGF‑β1 compared with cells subjected to serum deprivation. However, when HSC‑T6 cells were treated with bafilomycin A1 and LC3 siRNA, increased apoptosis and reduced proliferation were observed. In addition, protein and mRNA expression levels of the autophagy marker LC3 were significantly increased. GFP‑LC3 punctate markings were more prolific following TGF‑β1 treatment of HSC‑T6 cells, indicating that TGF‑β1 may rescue HSC‑T6 cells from serum deprivation and reduce apoptosis via autophagy induction. The present study elucidated the possible functions of TGF‑β1‑mediated autophagy in the pathological process of liver fibrosis.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Molecular Medicine Reports
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    • "Several studies have suggested that TGF-β plays an important role in induction of autophagy [22-24]. Therefore, we examined TGF-β expression by MSCs in response to IFN-γ and TNF-α stimulation. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been reported to play an important role in tumor growth. Inflammation is an important feature of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Certain inflammatory cytokines produced in tumor microenvironment modulate functional activities of MSCs. At the present time, however, the role of MSCs in the development of HCC cell resistance to chemotherapy in the inflammatory microenvironment during tumor growth has not yet been identified. Methods MTT and PI/Annexin V-FITC assay were employed to examine the proliferation and apoptosis of HCC cell lines. The expression of TGF-β are detected by Realtime PCR and Western blot. GFP tagged LC3 expression vector and electron microscopy are utilized to demonstrate the occurrence of autophagy. Results We observed that MSCs pretreated with the combination of IFN-γ and TNF-α induced resistance to chemotherapy in HCC cell lines in both the in vitro and in vivo circumstances. Following exposure to conditioned medium of MSCs that were pre-treated with IFN-γ plus TNF-α, HCC cell line cells underwent autophagy which serves as a protective mechanism for HCC cells to resist the cell toxicity of chemotherapeutic agents. Treatment of HCC cell line cells with autophagy inhibitor effectively reversed the MSCs-induced resistance to chemotherapy in these cells. Stimulation with the combination of IFN-γ and TNF-α provoked expression of TGF-β by MSCs. MSCs-induced chemoresistance in HCC cell lines was correlated with the up-regulation of TGF-β expression by MSCs. Knockdown of TGF-β expression by MSCs with siRNA attenuated MSCs-induced chemoresistance in HCC cells. Conclusions These results suggest that increase in TGF-β expression by MSCs in the inflammatory microenvironment of HCC promotes the development of chemoresistance in HCC cells.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Cell and Bioscience
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    • "Recently, Kim et al. reported that TGF-β1 induced autophagy to suppress the accumulation of collagen I [38]. Similar results were obtained for TGF-β1 in mesangial cells and BME-UV1 cells [39, 40]. In our study, the levels of TGF-β1 and autophagy were simultaneously downregulated by astaxanthin. "
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    ABSTRACT: Liver fibrosis is a common pathway leading to cirrhosis and a worldwide clinical issue. Astaxanthin is a red carotenoid pigment with antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of astaxanthin on liver fibrosis and its potential protective mechanisms. Liver fibrosis was induced in a mouse model using CCL4 (intraperitoneal injection, three times a week for 8 weeks), and astaxanthin was administered everyday at three doses (20, 40, and 80 mg/kg). Pathological results indicated that astaxanthin significantly improved the pathological lesions of liver fibrosis. The levels of alanine aminotransferase aspartate aminotransferase and hydroxyproline were also significantly decreased by astaxanthin. The same results were confirmed in bile duct liagtion, (BDL) model. In addition, astaxanthin inhibited hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation and formation of extracellular matrix (ECM) by decreasing the expression of NF- κ B and TGF- β 1 and maintaining the balance between MMP2 and TIMP1. In addition, astaxanthin reduced energy production in HSCs by downregulating the level of autophagy. These results were simultaneously confirmed in vivo and in vitro. In conclusion, our study showed that 80 mg/kg astaxanthin had a significant protective effect on liver fibrosis by suppressing multiple profibrogenic factors.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Mediators of Inflammation
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