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The Chernobyl Disaster, Concern about the Environment, and Life Satisfaction

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The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear disaster on satisfaction with life and on concern about the environment. Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study and identifying the exogenous event through the exact date of occurance, I find that concern about the environment sharply increased immediately after the incident. However, there is no effect on individuals' satisfaction with life in general. This suggests that, though people in Germany were aware of the severity of the incident, the concept of life satisfaction reflects a rather personal perspective on life. Copyright © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

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... Schüller (2012) shows that negative attitudes towards immigration increased in Germany post-9/11. While Danzer and Danzer (2011) find negative long-term effects of the Chernobyl disaster on subjective well-being and mental health in Ukraine, three other papers assess the impact of the disaster on a variety of well-being, health, and labor market outcomes in other countries: (i) Almond et al. (2009) find negative long-term effects of prenatal exposure on cognitive abilities in Sweden, (ii) Halla and Zweimüller (2014) find negative long-term effects of prenatal exposure on labor market outcomes in Austria, and (iii) Berger (2010) finds that environmental concerns increased in West Germany immediately after the disaster. ...
... A more refined version of , is to explicitly consider individual fixed effects via μ i . In doing so, we net out individual unobserved heterogeneity, which is a key methodological difference to Berger (2010) and Richter et al. (2013). Robustness checks augment the baseline model with split time trends in addition to individual fixed effects: ...
... One may interpret our finding as evidence that disasters may affect specific individual concerns, even in distant geographical regions, but not satisfaction with life in general, at least as long as individuals are not directly affected. This is in line with Berger (2010) and with the empirical evidence from the UK and Switzerland (see below). ...
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We study the impact of the Fukushima disaster on environmental concerns, well-being, risk aversion, and political preferences in Germany, Switzerland, and the UK. In these countries, overall life satisfaction did not significantly decrease, but the disaster significantly increased environmental concerns among Germans. One underlying mechanism likely operated through the perceived risk of a similar meltdown of domestic reactors. After Fukushima, more Germans considered themselves as “very risk averse.” However, drastic German policy action shut down the oldest reactors, implemented the phaseout of the remaining ones, and proclaimed the transition to renewables. This shift in energy policy contributed to the subsequent decrease in environmental concerns, particularly among women, Green party supporters, and people living in close distance to the oldest reactors. In Germany, political support for the Greens increased significantly, whereas in Switzerland and the UK, this increase was limited to people living close to reactors.
... Our paper is related to several other lines of research. One strand of research examines the effects of nuclear accidents on individuals' happiness (Berger 2010), cognitive abilities (Almond et al. 2009), and educational and professional achievement (Yemelyanau et al. 2012). Other strands analyze house prices at locations close to nuclear reactor sites (Nelson 1981;Clark et al. 1997;Folland and Hough 2000), changes in house prices after the installment of power plants nearby (Davis 2011), and the cleaning of adjacent contaminated sites (Greenstone and Gallagher 2008). ...
... Numerous studies analyze the socio-economic consequences of nuclear accidents. Among them are papers studying the consequences of the 1986 Chernobyl accident on life satisfaction in Germany (Berger 2010), health risk perceptions of nuclear power plants by individuals living in Boston suburbs (Smith and Michaels 1987), cognitive abilities of Swedish students (Almond et al. 2009), and on the educational attainment, health, and job market performance of Belorussians (Yemelyanau et al. 2012). ...
Article
Did the nuclear catastrophe at Fukushima in March 2011 cause individuals to reappraise the risks they attach to nuclear power plants? We investigate the change in home prices in the U.S. after the Fukushima event to test the hypothesis that home prices in the proximity of power plants fell due to an updated nuclear risk perception. Using a difference-in-differences approach, we do not find evidence in support of the hypothesis that individuals reappraised the risks associated with nuclear power plants. According to our results home prices close to nuclear reactor sites did not fall relative to home prices at other locations in the U.S.
... On the one hand, technological catastrophes involve direct explicit costs for recovery work, disaster relief, and monetary compensation for the catastrophe with the following indicators: life satisfaction, diagnosed depressions and subjective survival probabilities. It is important to note that our research differs from the literature on the negative " news effect " of catastrophes on subjective well-being, which tends to measure transitory short term distress (e.g., Berger 2010; Kimball et al. 2006; Metcalfe et al. 2011 ). Second, by focusing on long-term mental health outcomes in the low-dose population we dissect a previously ignored welfare component of catastrophes. ...
... Instead it raised the potential risk of and worries about adverse future health conditions due to an incurred but unspecific treatment. Our results, however, contrast evidence by Berger (2010) who could not substantiate a 'news effect' of Chernobyl on happiness for Germany in the short run (potentially due to confounding seasonality effects and/or differences in the magnitude of the treatment). 42 4.1. ...
Article
This paper assesses the long-run toll taken by a large-scale technological disaster on welfare, well-being and mental health. We estimate the causal effect of the 1986 Chernobyl catastrophe after 20 years by linking geographic variation in radioactive fallout to respondents of a nationally representative survey in Ukraine according to their place of residence in 1986. We exclude individuals who were exposed to high levels of radiation—about 4% of the population. Instead, we focus on the remaining majority of Ukrainians who received subclinical radiation doses; we find large and persistent psychological effects of this nuclear disaster. Affected individuals exhibit poorer subjective well-being, higher depression rates and lower subjective survival probabilities; they rely more on governmental transfers as source of subsistence. We estimate the aggregate annual welfare loss at 2–6% of Ukraine’s GDP highlighting previously ignored externalities of large-scale catastrophes.
... Exposure to a disaster increases the risk of depression for affected people (Person et al. 2006). Some scholars argue that a disaster does not affect individuals' life satisfaction (Berger 2010), while others suggest a sizable and significant negative impact (Luechinger and Raschky 2009). ...
... For survivors, significant loss of life, widespread damage to property, serious and ongoing economic difficulties for the community, and intentional human causes tended to trigger severe, long-lasting, and pervasive psychological problems (Freedy et al. 1993;Green 1995;Adams et al. 2002;Norris et al. 2002a, b). While most academics acknowledge that exposure to disaster increases the risk of depression (Person et al. 2006), its impacts on life satisfaction are still being debated (Berger 2010;Luechinger and Raschky 2009). ...
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The Yaan earthquake occurred in April 2013, which measured 7.0 on the Richter scale, caused 196 people died, 11,470 injured and USD 6.9 billion economic loss. The Yaan area were also severely affected by the Wenchuan earthquake in 2008. This research examined the impacts of structural social capital (social association) and cognitive social capital on the psychological status (depression, life satisfaction) of survivors of the Yaan earthquake. Based on a survey of 495 respondents, structural equation models were constructed to test the mediation effects of cognitive social capital on the relationships between structural social capital, depression, and life satisfaction of respondents with disaster impact as a control variable. This study also examined the paths of impact of the three components of cognitive social capital (sense of community, trust, and social connectedness) on survivors’ psychological status. The findings indicated the following. 1) The disaster impact had negative effect on cognitive social capital (β = −.15, p < 0.05), but no effect on structural capital (β = −.06, n.s.); disaster impact also had positive effect on depression (β = .16, p < 0.01) and negative effect on life satisfaction (β = −.13, p < 0.05). 2) Structural social capital had positive effect on cognitive social capital (β = −.35, p < 0.001) and cognitive social capital had negative effect on depression (β = −.44, p < 0.001). Structural social capital had indirect effect but no direct effect on depression. The impact of structural social capital on depression was fully mediated by cognitive social capital. 3) Cognitive social capital had positive effect on life satisfaction (β = .44, p < 0.001). Structural social capital had indirect effect but no direct effect on life satisfaction. The impact of structural social capital on life satisfaction was fully mediated by cognitive social capital. 4) Sense of community has a positive effect on life satisfaction (β = .72, p < 0.05), but no effect on depression. 5) Trust has a negative effect on depression (β = −.41, p < 0.05), but no effect on life satisfaction. 6) Social connectedness has a negative effect on depression (β = −.16, p < 0.05), but no effect on life satisfaction. The research highlighted the importance of building and maintaining cognitive social capital in a community affected by disaster. It also makes recommendations for social workers to improve trust and social connectedness in the pre-disaster and disaster relief phases to buffer depression. After a disaster, it is recommended to facilitate a sense of community to improve the life satisfaction of survivors.
... Previous research indicates that the objective quality of the environment impacts on individual subjective well-being (Welsch, 2007) and studying the impact of the environment on subjective well-being is important for environmental regulation and management, helping to improve environmental policy (Welsch and Kuehling, 2009). The recent literature investigates especially disasters and their consequences (Berger, 2010;Goebel et al., 2014) and climate change (Rehdanz and Maddison, 2005;Maddison and Rehdanz, 2011). Few studies, on the other hand, address subjective perceptions of the environment such as concerns (or syn. ...
... It contributes to our understanding of how citizens perceive and value the environment (Ferrer-i-Carbonell and Gowdy, 2007) and can thus help to legitimize public policy and evaluate its welfare impact (Welsch, 2007;Helliwell et al., 2015). 2 The link between subjective well-being and the environment is complex and studies focus on a variety of topics, such as the relationship between subjective well-being and climate/air pollution (Welsch, 2002(Welsch, , 2006(Welsch, , 2007Rehdanz and Maddison, 2005;Maddison and Rehdanz, 2011;Cuñado and de Gracia, 2013;Sekulova and van den Bergh, 2013;Li et al., 2014), the link between subjective well-being and natural hazards (Luechinger and Raschky, 2009), the link between subjective well-being and environmental degradation (e.g. water pollution, noise, see Israel and Levinson (2003); Van Praag and Baarsma (2005)), and in the extreme case: the impact of disasters (such as the nuclear catastrophe in Fukushima) on wellbeing and related environmental concerns afterwards (Berger, 2010;Rehdanz et al., 2013;Goebel et al., 2014;Welsch and Biermann, 2014). ...
... For example, studies such as Cohen et al. (2019) and Yule et al. (2000) show that natural disasters can drive the persistence of depression or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Rehdanz et al. (2015), Almond, Edlund, and Palme (2007) and Berger (2010) show that while the SWB of victims of the Chernobyl and Japanese earthquake disasters did not change, their concerns about the environment increased. ...
Article
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We examine the impact of life and health insurance spending on subjective well-being. Taking advantage of insurance spending and subjective well-being data on more than 700,000 individuals in Japan, we examine whether insurance spending can buffer declines in subjective well-being due to exposure to mass disaster. We find that insurance spending can buffer drops in subjective well-being by approximately 3-6% among those who experienced the mass disaster of the great East Japan earthquake. Subjective health increases the most, followed by life satisfaction and happiness. On the other hand, insurance spending decreases the subjective well-being of those who did not experience the earthquake by approximately 3-7%. We conclude by monetizing the subjective well-being loss and calculating the extent to which insurance spending can compensate for it. The monetary value of subjective well-being buffered through insurance spending is approximately 33,128 USD for happiness, 33,287 USD for life satisfaction, and 19,597 USD for subjective health for a person in one year. Therefore, we confirm that life/health insurance serves as an ideal option for disaster adaptation. Our findings indicate the importance of considering subjective well-being, which is often neglected when assessing disaster losses.
... DOI 10.3233/EPL-170040 Environmental Communication in Moroccan Enterprises: Progress, Transition and Practice by Nadia Haouari, i Abdelhadi Makan ii and Abderrahmene El Ghmari iii Public awareness of environmental problems was initially a consequence of environmental disasters caused by companies. From the Torrey Canyon oil accident in 1967 (Bellamy et al., 1967) to Schweizerhalle in November 1986 (Giger, 2009), Seveso in 1976 (Consonni et al., 2008) and Chernobyl in April 1986(Berger, 2010, it is obvious that the environment has paid a heavy price for industrial growth. ...
... Environmental concern 8 is defined as "the awareness or insight of individuals that the natural state of the environment is threatened through resource overuse and pollution by humans" (Franzen and Meyer, 2010, ,p.220). Actual disasters lead to worries regarding nature and as a result, more environmental concern (Goebel et al., 2014;Berger, 2010). ...
Article
Determinants of pro-environmental behavior (PEB) have been studied rigorously in the past decades. Given this spurt, a systematic review of extant research is required to determine factors involved, analyze impact and identify research gaps and new directions. This paper provides a systematic review of current economic and psychological studies regarding the determinants of PEB. As a result, we show that PEB is determined by an interplay of socioeconomic , psychological and further (individual, social, institutional) factors, which need to be considered in its study. In addition, PEB needs to be analyzed with multiple items rather than by focusing on single ones as the impact of the determinants di↵ers depending on the analyzed behavior. To express it in economic terms, the coecient of each determinant can either be positive or negative, given the specific type of analyzed behavior (low vs high cost behavior). By combining the results from economics and psychology, this work o↵ers a starting point for a more sophisticated understanding of PEB.
... In this disaster, more than 150,000 people immediately died, while thousands of people received sublethal doses [28]. Subsequently, the Chernobyl disaster was the most important environmental nuclear disaster [29]. Epidemiological studies performed some decades after the nuclear disaster have confirmed chronic changes in several biological factors, particularly the factors related to cancer and the immune system [30]. ...
Article
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Currently, ionizing radiation (IR) plays a key role in the agricultural and medical industry, while accidental exposure resulting from leakage of radioactive sources or radiological terrorism is a serious concern. Exposure to IR has various detrimental effects on normal tissues. Although an increased risk of carcinogenesis is the best-known long-term consequence of IR, evidence has shown that other diseases, particularly diseases related to inflammation, are common disorders among irradiated people. Autoimmune disorders are among the various types of immune diseases that have been investigated among exposed people. Thyroid diseases and diabetes are two autoimmune diseases potentially induced by IR. However, the precise mechanisms of IR-induced thyroid diseases and diabetes remain to be elucidated, and several studies have shown that chronic increased levels of inflammatory cytokines after exposure play a pivotal role. Thus, cytokines, including interleukin-1(IL-1), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ), play a key role in chronic oxidative damage following exposure to IR. Additionally, these cytokines change the secretion of insulin and thyroid-stimulating hormone(TSH). It is likely that the management of inflammation and oxidative damage is one of the best strategies for the amelioration of these diseases after a radiological or nuclear disaster. In the present study, we reviewed the evidence of radiation-induced diabetes and thyroid diseases, as well as the potential roles of inflammatory responses. In addition, we proposed that the mitigation of inflammatory and oxidative damage markers after exposure to IR may reduce the incidence of these diseases among individuals exposed to radiation.
... At the same time, previous research has investigated how different types of social events affect people's life satisfaction. These studies have analyzed the effects of the Chernobyl disaster ( Berger 2010), of international sports events ( Kavetsos & Szymanski 2010), of the Euro crisis of 2011 ( Chadi 2015), of the hosting of the European Capital of Culture ( Steiner, Frey & Hotz 2015), of the East Japan earthquake of 2011 ( Yamamura et al. 2015), of the hosting of the Olympic Games in 2012 ( Dolan et al. 2016), of extreme weather conditions (von Möllendorff & Hirschfeld 2016) and of the economic crisis of 2008-2009 ( Welsch & Kühling 2016). However, as pointed out earlier, so far, few empirical findings have provided insights on how media use and social events interact. ...
Article
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This study investigates if and how social events, which have specific impact levels and consequences, influence the relationships between the use of different types of media and media users' life satisfaction. The impact levels refer to the number of impact factors, which characterize social events (relevance, non-polarization, certainty, radicalness and proximity). The consequences, in turn, refer to the outcomes for media users (positive or negative outcomes). The results are based on data from the Standard Eurobarometer survey (N = 73,860) as well as on data from a content analysis and cover 36 social events in 13 European countries over a time period of six years. The moderated moderation analysis reveals that social events only influence the effects of the use of more interactive media types (the internet and social network sites) on media users' life satisfaction but they don't influence the effects of the use of less interactive media types (written press, radio and TV) on media users' life satisfaction. In fact, social events with positive consequences increase these effects, while social events with negative consequences buffer these effects. Previous research has investigated how the use of different types of media or specific social events affect people's life satisfaction. This study contributes to the literature by revealing how social events and media use interact and thereby influence media users' life satisfaction.
... From the Torrey Canyon oil accident in 1967 [1], to Schweizerhalle in November 1986 [2], Seveso in 1976 [3], and Chernobyl in April 1986 [4], it is obvious that the environment has paid a heavy price for the industrial growth. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study consists essentially of a review of the available literature sources concerned about environmental communication aspect and its context in Moroccan enterprises. Firstly, the progress and effort made to anchor environmental communication and sustainable development principles are presented despite difficulties encountered to meet this challenge. Moreover, emphasis was placed upon the transition from environmental communication as theoretical aspect concretely towards green economy. It turned out that the green economy construction, as this is a process to be carried out, will not happen without establishment of innovative partnerships with the private sector, local authorities and civil society. Finally, environmental communication practices in Moroccan SMEs have been enlightened and discussed. It was found that the commitment level of Moroccan companies to environmental communication and CSR was one of the most advanced in Africa, the Maghreb and the Arab world.
... 6 Such data thus provides the unique opportunity to exploit the timing of survey interviews in 2001 to identify 9/11 effects. The completion of interviews by October 2001, 3 The most closely related study is Cornelissen and Jirjahn (2012) Berger (2010) for an example of a previous study exploiting random interview timing in the SOEP, examining the impact of the reactor accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986 on individual life satisfaction and environmental worries. A second example is Caliendo and Wrohlich (2010), who evaluate the causal short-term impact of the German 'Mini-Job'reform. ...
Article
The 9/11 terror attacks are likely to have induced an increase in anti-immigrant and anti-foreigner sentiments, not only among US residents but also beyond US borders. Using unique longitudinal data from the German Socio-Economic Panel and exploiting exogenous variation in interview timing throughout 2001, I find that the 9/11 events caused an immediate shift of around 40 percent of one within-standard deviation to more negative attitudes toward immigration and resulted in a considerable decrease in concerns over xenophobic hostility among the German population. The quasi-experiment 9/11 provides evidence on the relevance of non-economic factors in attitude formation and the role of education in moderating the negative terrorism shock. Additional descriptive analysis suggests that the effects have also been persistent in the years after the attacks.
... Such effects may have occurred due to media coverage and, if they exist, may reflect a reappraisal of nuclear risk. In such a vein, Berger (2010) and Goebel et al. (2013) studied the Chernobyl and Fukushima disasters, respectively. Both found an increase in environmental concern in Germany after the disasters, but no change in subjective well-being. ...
Article
While early literature on electricity externalities was largely concerned with fossil fuel power generation and the associated emissions, nuclear accidents (Chernobyl, Fukushima) and the large-scale deployment of renewable energy facilities have spurred a wave of research on the externalities of nuclear power and renewable energies. The issue is important because many countries have started reconsidering their energy policies, and the externalities from electricity generation play a major role in the benefit-cost analysis of relevant options. This paper reviews the literature on electricity-related externalities. It starts by discussing their nature and the methods employed in valuing them. It finds that appraisals of electricity externalities are complicated because of heterogeneity of both the externalities themselves and the methods applied in measuring them. The paper reviews valuation studies of the externalities from fossil fuel, nuclear and renewable sources, and it discusses the relevance of their findings for the siting of plants and the electricity mix. It concludes by pointing out gaps in our knowledge about electricity externalities that deserve to be addressed in future research.
... They find that people's acceptance with regard to nuclear power plants decreased after the Fukushima disaster, while risk perception increased. Using data from the GSOEP, Berger (2010) works out that the Chernobyl nuclear disaster in 1986 did not affect overall satisfaction with life, but that environmental worries increased significantly. As to economic shocks, Owen and Wu (2007) use individual data from the US Health and Retirement Study. ...
Article
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Major economic, environmental, or social shocks induce uncertainty, which in turn may impact economic development and may require institutional change. Based on the idea that catastrophic events (CEs) affect people’s perceptions of reality and judgments about the future, this paper analyzes the effect of CEs on people’s worries in terms of social, economic, and environmental issues. In particular, we consider the terrorist attack 9/11 in 2001, the beginning of the financial crisis in 2008, and the nuclear disaster in Fukushima in 2011. We propose two possible mechanisms: A CE in one sphere may affect people’s worries in general (“spillover”) or it may lead to people focusing on that sphere and being less worried about other spheres (“crowding out”). We argue that the determinants of the mechanisms are related to the type of CE, that a person’s professional background moderates the influence of a CE on his or her worries, and that the subsequent development of worries is affected by whether institutional responses are contested. The analysis is based on longitudinal data of the German Socio-Economic Panel.
... The Chernobyl accident occurred in 1986 at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in what is now the Ukraine. It is generally known as the largest and most serious such accident in the history of the nuclear power industry (Berger, 2010;Hasegawa, 2012). It resulted in an unprecedented release of radioactive material, with adverse consequences for human beings, the ecosystem and future generations. ...
Article
Full-text available
The main purpose of this article is to analyse the link between environmental issues and human rights. It investigates whether environmental dangers and degradation constitutes a violation of these rights. The concept of a right to life is central to debates concerning issues of increasing environmental hazards and degradation. Environmental hazards are at the root of human rights violations and represent a major threat to people's lives as well as to the sustenance of the next generation. The right to life can be denied by events and issues with environmental consequences, such as death caused by polluted air or acute exposure to radioactivity. To reach a conclusion the study focuses on the environmental effects of the Chernobyl nuclear disaster in 1986 on five fundamental human rights: the right to life, a safe environment, health, clean water and food. The study concludes that the direct environmental results of the Chernobyl accident has threatened fundamental human rights in the regions of Ukraine, Belarus and Russia and that a clean environment is requisite for the enjoyment of human rights.
... Folland and Hough (2000) andDavis (2011) document that at the time of installation, as well as following the installation, land prices in the proximity of NPPs fell.2 Similarly, an increase in German people's concern about the environment but no change in life satisfaction was found after the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986(Berger, 2010). ...
Article
We investigate the relationship between Swiss citizens' life satisfaction (understood as a proxy of utility) and the distance of their place of residence from the nearest nuclear power plant. Using survey data for up to 12,264 Swiss citizens, elicited in February–August 2011, and several specifications of distance, we find a statistically and economically significant satisfaction-distance gradient. The gradient is smaller for those who may feel protected by wind direction and topographical conditions, and it differs by age, sex, and the level of education. The satisfaction-distance gradient has changed significantly after the nuclear disaster at Fukushima, Japan, indicating a reassessment of distance-dependent nuclear risk due to an information shock.
... 4 Such differences could be due to the cost of 2 See Welsch (2002) for cross-country findings regarding tradeoffs between preferences for income and pollution. Moreover, such preferences need not remain constant as found by Berger (2010) as environmental concerns intensified in Germany following the Chernobyl disaster. 3 Of course, considering to migrate and migrating are not the same. ...
Article
Anecdotal evidence suggests that people migrate to avoid air pollution. In this paper, we empirically examine the extent to which air pollution is a push factor for international migration. We allow air pollution to affect migrants differently according to their educational attainment as well as their gender. We also instrument for the level of pollution. Results generally show that air pollution is positively associated with emigration for higher educated individuals but less so for those with less educational attainment. Gender differences are less pronounced.
... That accident also exerted effects on other European countries. For instance, Germans were found to be more likely to worry about the environment after the Chernobyl disaster (Berger, 2010). In Sweden, students born in regions exposed to higher levels of Chernobyl radiation fallout produced poorer performances at secondary school (Almond et al., 2009). ...
Article
This study used prefecture-level panel data from Japan for the period 2008–2014 to investigate the influence of the 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident on the body mass index (BMI) z-score and obesity rates of children over time. I adopted a difference-in-differences approach and found the following: (1) for the cohort aged 5–7 years in 2010, the BMI z-score and obesity rates in disaster-affected areas were higher than in other areas, although this was not observed for the other cohorts; (2) for the cohort aged 5–7 years in 2010, the influence of the accident persisted even after 3 years; and (3) the differences in the BMI z-score and obesity rate before and after the accident were greater for Fukushima Prefecture than for the other affected areas (Iwate and Miyagi prefectures). I infer that health-conscious parents, whose children had lower BMIs, may have moved from Fukushima, thereby increasing the BMI z-score of the child population living in Fukushima by around 0.05 for the cohort aged 5–7 years. The enforced reduction in physical activity increased the BMI z-score of children living in Fukushima by around 0.19 for that cohort.
... In addition, nuclear energy in Germany has been controversial for years (leading to a phase-out decision already in 1999 which was revised 10 years later). Using data from the German SOEP, Berger (2010) shows that a previous nuclear accident, at Chernobyl's nuclear power plant on April 26, 1986 boosted environmental concerns among the German population. However, she does not find evidence that the accident had a significant effect on general life satisfaction. ...
Article
Recent years have seen a sharp increase in the use of subjective well-being data in environmental economics. This article discusses the conceptual underpinnings of using such data as a tool for preference elicitation and non-market valuation. Given the connection of those data to the notion of experienced utility, we refer to this approach as the experienced preference method and discuss recent methodological advances and applications of the approach to subject areas not previously reviewed. In addition, we discuss insights concerning environmental behavior that can be gained with the help of subjective well-being data.
... The Chernobyl accident occurred in 1986 at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in what is now the Ukraine. It is generally known as the largest and most serious such accident in the history of the nuclear power industry (Berger, 2010; Hasegawa, 2012). It resulted in an unprecedented release of radioactive material, with adverse consequences for human beings, the ecosystem and future generations. ...
... The nuclear accident that occurred on 26 th of April 1986 at Chernobyl, a town in Ukraine situated approximately 100 kilometers north of Kiev, is an event that seems to become increasingly important with time (Krieger, 2004). It is generally known as the largest and most serious accident ever occurred in the nuclear power industry (Berger, 2010). The hazardous effects of a nuclear power plant accident were unimaginable until the Chernobyl accident occurred. ...
... The LSA has been used to assess the 'value' (formally, the contribution which things make to overall life satisfaction) of a number of ecosystem services, including the effects of pollution on health (MacKerron, 2012;Welsch, 2006), unfavorable weather conditions (Rehdanz & Maddison, 2005), forest fires (Ambrey, Fleming, & Manning, 2017;Kountouris & Remoundou, 2011), droughts (Carroll, Frijters, & Shields, 2009), earthquakes (Chang & Taormina, 2011), hurricanes (Calvo, Arcaya, Baum, Lowe, & Waters, 2015), and nuclear melt-down disasters (Berger, 2010). But in spite of the large and growing literature about disasters and the emerging knowledge and interest in LS research, few researchers have used this approach to inform decisions about the impact of floods. ...
Article
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change predicts that in the future typhoons and floods may become more intense and will occur more frequently in some regions. This prediction imposes an implicit continuum of choices on all, ranging from: do nothing (beyond the status quo) to further prepare (paying the costs as they occur); through to invest now (in, for example, flood mitigation infrastructure) in the hope that such investments will reduce damage later. Good choices require good information. In this paper, we provide an empirical demonstration of one method (the life satisfaction approach) for generating quantitative estimates of both the tangible and intangible cost of disasters – the cost of doing nothing (beyond the status quo). We use data collected from almost 400 households in a flood prone region of the Philippines, finding that from 2008 to 2013, flooding generated an average of US$86 per annum in financial damages for each household. Our model predicts that the average respondent would require a one-off payment of between US$2,577 and US$3,221 (3.5 to 4.4 times the average annual income) to ‘compensate’ them for the additional intangible costs of flooding. Estimated total compensation exceeds estimated financial damage by about 1/3 – suggesting that assessments, which do not account for intangibles may substantially underestimate the cost of doing nothing.
... The Hiroshima and Nagasaki events during World War II led to the deaths of over 150,000 people who were exposed to sublethal radiation doses [5]. The Chernobyl nuclear disaster was also another event that led to chronic biological changes to the immune system as well as subsequent cancer development in exposed persons [6]. ...
Article
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Background and objectives: Ionizing radiation (IR) has been of immense benefit to man, especially for medical purposes (diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy). However, the risks of toxicity in healthy normal cells, leading to cellular damage as well as early and late side effects, have been major drawbacks. The aim of this study was to evaluate the radioprotective effect of hesperidin against IR-induced damage. Materials and Methods: The preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) were applied in reporting this study. A search was conducted using the electronic databases PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Google Scholar, and www.ClinicalTrials.gov for information about completed or ongoing clinical trials. Results: From our search results, 24 studies involving rats, mice, and cultured human and animal cells were included. An experimental case—control design was used in all studies. The studies showed that the administration of hesperidin reduced oxidative stress and inflammation in all investigated tissues. Furthermore, it increased 30-day and 60-day survival rates and protected against DNA damage. The best radioprotection was obtained when hesperidin was administered before irradiation. Conclusions: The results of the included studies support the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic abilities of hesperidin as a potential radioprotective agent against IR-induced damage. We recommend future clinical trials for more insights.
... Environmental concern 8 is defined as "the awareness or insight of individuals that the natural state of the environment is threatened through resource overuse and pollution by humans" (Franzen and Meyer, 2010, ,p.220). Actual disasters lead to worries regarding nature and as a result, more environmental concern (Goebel et al., 2014;Berger, 2010). ...
... From the Torrey Canyon oil accident in 1967 [1], to Schweizerhalle in November 1986 [2], Seveso in 1976 [3], and Chernobyl in April 1986 [4], it is obvious that the environment has paid a heavy price for the industrial growth. ...
... The other four hypotheses-namely, H3 (that individuals with greater concerns about radiation affecting health feel less happiness than those with fewer concerns), H4 (that experiencing a form of casualty has a negative impact on happiness), H5 (that experiencing property loss has a negative impact on happiness), and H6 (that the better a community recovers from a disaster, the higher the level of happiness local people feel)-could not be verified by the results of this research. Regarding the results pertaining to H3 and H4, these are in line with previous studies [41,44] and can be explained by the fact that people may already have recovered from psychological distress given that four years had passed since the disaster. ...
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Purpose: Very few studies have examined the influential factors of survivors' feelings of happiness in the context of nuclear accidents. This paper aims to fill this gap with reference to the recovery process in Fukushima City following the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake Tsunami in Japan. Methods: Open access data were sourced from the 2015 Social Survey on Living and Disaster Recovery (SSLDR) (N = 1439) of Fukushima citizens. Pearson's Chi-square Test and the t-test were employed to examine gender differences with regard to happiness and exploratory variables. Following this, a multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to investigate the determinants of happiness. Results: The results showed that, compared to females, male respondents were unhappier and reported more property loss and less neighborhood connectedness. Individuals' mental and physical health and neighborhood connectedness were found to be significantly correlated with their happiness. However, the disaster-related variables of people's evaluation of recovery achievement, concerns around the health impacts of radiation, property loss in the disaster, and experiences of casualty, had no effects on happiness. Conclusion: These findings indicate that policies and countermeasures dealing with disaster recovery over the long term should continuously focus on health issues and social relationships.
... responsibility utility because an exogenously-imposed outcome cannot deliver responsibility utility and so it can only be picking up the choiceless utility delivered by the outcome. Some examples of exogenously imposed outcomes that have been valued using SWB measures include the relative costs of inflation and unemployment (Di Tella et al. 2001), the impact of the Chernobyl disaster (Berger 2010), and the negative externality induced by a neighbour's wage (Luttmer 2005). If policy makers are interested in the net benefits delivered by the imposition of these outcomes on a population, then it follows that SWB data is conceptually more appropriate for this analysis than is choice data. ...
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Actions can provide “responsibility utility” when they signal the actors’ identities or values to others or to themselves. This paper considers a novel implication of this responsibility utility for welfare analysis: fully informed incentive-compatible choice data can give a biased measure of the utility delivered by exogenously determined outcomes. A person’s choice of a policy outcome may be informed by responsibility utility that would be strictly absent if that same person were a passive recipient of that same policy outcome. We introduce the term “desirance” to describe a rank ordering over exogenously determined outcomes and present evidence that desirance captures the welfare consequences of exogenously determined outcomes more accurately than preference. We review literatures showing that preference is sensitive to contextual variations that influence responsibility utility and show experimentally that responsibility utility can explain discrepancies between welfare estimates derived from choice data and subjective well-being data. We close by discussing subjective well-being as a potential measure of desirance.
... For example, the Hiroshima and Nagasaki events during World War II led to the deaths of over 150,000 people who were exposed to sub-lethal radiation doses (Shimizu et al. 2010). In addition, the Chernobyl nuclear disaster led to chronic biological changes to the immune system as well as subsequent cancer development in exposed persons (Berger 2010). The most recent decade has also recorded some nuclear disasters such as the Fukushima and Marcoule incidents (Lun and Ohba 2012). ...
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Protection of normal tissues against ionizing radiation-induced damages is a critical issue in clinical and environmental radiobiology. One of the ways of accomplishing radiation protection is through the use of radioprotectors. In the search for the most effective radioprotective agent, factors such as toxicity, effect on tumors, number of tissues protected, ease of administration, long-term stability, and compatibility with other drugs need to be assessed. Thus, in the present study, we systematically review existing studies on a chemical radioprotector, Ex-RAD, with the aim of examining its efficacy of radiation protection as well as underlying mechanisms. To this end, a systematic search of the electronic databases including Pubmed, Scopus, Embase, and Google Scholar was conducted to retrieve articles investigating the radioprotective effect of Ex-RAD. From an initial search of 268 articles, and after removal of duplicates as well as applying the predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria, 10 articles were finally included for this systematic review. Findings from the reviewed studies indicated that Ex-RAD showed potentials for effective radioprotection of the studied organs with no side effect. Furthermore, the inhibition of apoptosis through p53 signaling pathway was the main mechanism of radioprotection by Ex-RAD. However, its radioprotective effect would need to be investigated for more organs in future studies.
... Filipski Yule et al. (2000) show that natural disasters can drive the persistence of depression or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Rehdanz et al. (2015), Almond, Edlund, and Palme (2007) and Berger (2010) show that while the SWB of victims of the Chernobyl and Japanese earthquake disasters did not change, their concerns about the environment increased. ...
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We examine the impact of life and health insurance spending on subjective well-being. Taking advantage of insurance spending and subjective well-being data on more than 700,000 individuals in Japan, we examine whether insurance spending can buffer declines in subjective well-being due to exposure to mass disaster. We find that insurance spending can buffer drops in subjective well-being by approximately 3–6% among those who experienced the mass disaster of the great East Japan earthquake. Subjective health increases the most, followed by life satisfaction and happiness. On the other hand, insurance spending decreases the subjective well-being of those who did not experience the earthquake by approximately 3–7%. We conclude by monetizing the subjective well-being loss and calculating the extent to which insurance spending can compensate for it. The monetary value of subjective well-being buffered through insurance spending is approximately 33,128 USD for happiness, 33,287 USD for life satisfaction, and 19,597 USD for subjective health for a person in one year. Therefore, we confirm that life/health insurance serves as an ideal option for disaster adaptation. Our findings indicate the importance of considering subjective well-being, which is often neglected when assessing disaster losses.
... The literature on the effect of an external event or political change on happiness is relatively scarce. An example is Berger (2010), who finds with SOEP data that the nuclear catastrophe in Chernobyl in 1986 had a negative effect on environmental concerns in Germany, but only a minimal negative effect on life satisfaction, indicating a relative stability of life satisfaction. Gruber and Mullainathan (2005) use policy variation in U.S. states to show that higher cigarette taxes have a positive happiness effect on individuals that are predicted to be smokers, stating that happiness might be a more suitable proxy for utility than income. ...
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Since the labor market reforms around 2005, known as the Hartz reforms, Germany has experienced declining unemployment rates. However, little is known about the reforms’ effect on individual life satisfaction of unemployed workers. This study applies difference-in-difference estimations and finds a decrease in life satisfaction after the reforms that is more pronounced for male unemployed in west Germany. The effect is driven by income and income satisfaction, but not by the unemployment rate. Also unemployed persons who exogenously lost their jobs are affected by the reforms. In line with the structure of the reforms, the effect is stronger on long-term and involuntarily unemployed persons.
... For instance, during the Hiroshima and Nagasaki events, exposure to sub-lethal IR doses led to over 150,000 deaths [1]. Similar mortalities were also recorded following the Chernobyl nuclear plant catastrophe [2]. ...
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The use of some agents as radioprotectors has been evaluated for protection against normal tissue toxicity following exposure to ionizing radiation. Resveratrol, a natural flavonoid, with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties has attracted research interests for its radioprotective potential. This study systematically evaluates existing studies to examine the radioprotective effectiveness of resveratrol. A literature search of the electronic databases, including PubMed, Scopus, and Embase was conducted to retrieve articles investigating the protective effect of resveratrol against ionizing radiation-induced damage to normal tissues. The search timeframe ranged from the inception of each database to January 2020. From an initial search of 231 articles, and after the removal of duplicates as well as applying the predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria, 33 articles were finally included for this systematic review. Results showed promising protective effect of resveratrol against ionizing radiation-induced damage to normal tissues. Furthermore, no adverse effect was observed after administering resveratrol. Resveratrol showed the potential to protect against ionizing radiation-induced damage to normal tissue cells via notable mechanisms, including anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects. However, further studies on the efficacy of clinical translation of resveratrol would open up more insights, while other gray areas such as the optimal radioprotective dosage of resveratrol require further investigation. Overall, resveratrol is a potential double-edged sword in cancer therapy while protecting healthy tissues.
Conference Paper
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In this article, the goals set in Erasmus+ programs, and the objectives and aims set in the Erasmus+ KA3 program “Teachers4Europe: Setting an Agora for Democratic Culture (2018- 2021)” are presented. Then, on the basis of these objectives and of core educational Erasmus+ views and educational theories, six teaching and learning approaches to good project design are presented; namely, the EU-centered approach, the interdisciplinary approach, the crosscurricular approach, the student-centric approach, the competence-oriented approach and the whole-school approach. Each approach is defined and placed within the underlying framework, and methodological implications are briefly exemplified, with the aim to inform support quality projects and educational policy reforms with added EU value. Keywords: Erasmus+, project, EU, interdisciplinarity, cross-curricularity, student-centeredness, competences, whole-school approach
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Recent European Union surveys have shown most people’s strong support for the Union. Nevertheless, there is a significant percentage (27%) of the Europeans who have negative views on it. Promoting European Union fundamental values and citizenship education is a way to alter these opinions. Towards this direction, a project was conducted in the 6th Junior High School of Iraklio Attica (Greece) from February 2020 until June 2020, in the framework of the “Teachers4Europe: setting an Agora for Democratic Culture (T4E)” Erasmus+ program. This project is entitled “Natural and Environmental disasters and European solidarity” and uses the discipline of Geography as an educational platform. A group of eighteen 14-year-old students actively participated in this project. The project engaged the participants in team-working through inquiry based learning activities. The student teams collected data from natural or environmental disasters and explored the contribution of the European Union to people's relief. Due to the 2020 coronavirus outbreak, the students worked distantly from their home for about half of the project’s duration. This paper presents the results of this project. This study analyzes data produced by three main sources which are students' interviews, reports and questionnaire responses. Students' initial ideas on the European Union values and the Union in general, were used as an indication for their conceptual change and project evaluation. Due to their engagement, the students have changed positively their perspectives towards the European Union values. The social distancing obstructed significantly the project’s procedure. The number of participants cannot permit the generalization of the project results, but it showed that this approach introduced students to the European Union values and helped them form their own political reality. This study explores also if the inquiring based learning and the discipline of Geography can be used to forge the Union values in formal education.
Article
This paper examines the influence of government transparency on changing views regarding nuclear energy before and after Japan's natural and nuclear disaster of 2011. Individual-level data were used, covering 45 countries and containing 27 423 observations. It was observed in the majority of countries that the rate of favouring nuclear energy declined after the disaster. However, empirical results show that such a tendency is less likely to be observed in a more transparent country. This implies that views regarding nuclear energy were less elastic to the news of the Fukushima incident when people were more certain about nuclear energy prior to the Fukushima incident.
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ABSTRACT: 26 fish species were affected by the Coştei historical diversion hydrotechnical system build in 1758. In order to mitigate the negative effects produced by this hydrotechnical work on the fish, a migration system, of nature-like meandering by pass type was proposed. The dimensions of this channel and the slope of about 2% allow fish, and other aquatic organisms to move upstream and downstream of the spillway. RÉSUMÉ: Le noeud de dérivation hydrographique de Coştei, une qualité historique de l'environnement et l'accessibilité aux ressources biologiques changent la donne; problèmes anthropiques induits et solutions durables-une perspective ichtyologique. 26 espèces de poissons ont été affectées par le Coştei système hydrotechnique de dérivation historique construit en 1758. Afin d'atténuer les effets négatifs produits par ces travaux hydrotechniques sur les poissons, un système de migration, de méandres par type de passe, de nature similaire a été proposé. Les dimensions de ce chenal et la pente d'environ 2% permettent aux poissons et à d'autres organismes aquatiques de se déplacer en amont et en aval du déversoir. REZUMAT: Nodul hidrografic deversor Coştei, un modificator istoric al calităţii mediului şi a accesibilităţii resurselor biologice; probleme induse antropic şi soluţii durabile o perspectivă ihtiologică. 26 specii de peşti au fost afectate de nodul hidrotehnic deversor Coştei construit în 1758. Pentru a atenua efectele negative produse de această lucrare hidrotehnică asupra peştilor, s-a propus un sistem de migraţie, de tip by pass meandrat. Dimensiunile acestui canal şi panta de aproximativ 2% permit peştilor şi altor organisme acvatice să se deplaseze în amonte şi în aval de deversor.
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Purpose – Climate change and other environmental issues require adequate solutions by all actors, including consumers. The purpose of this paper is to explore the determinants of consumers’ willingness to fight climate change and the probability of their purchase of an electric car, as an action that potentially helps mitigate climate change. Design/Methodology/Approach – The analysis relies on Eurobarometer survey responses of 25,009 individuals from 28 European countries. The determinants of probability of taking action to fight climate change and the determinants of probability of buying an electric car are identified using the Heckman selection model. Findings and implications – The results show that people who are aware of the gravity of climate change and believe that it requires action at all levels of government, business sectors and citizens are more likely to engage in pro-environmental actions. As for electric car purchase, consumers belonging to the middle class and higher classes as well as consumers satisfied with their lives are more likely to buy electric cars than others. However, their attitudes to climate change and actors responsible for it have no impact on their actual purchase. Limitations – The main limitation of this research study is associated with the choice of variables, which was limited to those available in the Eurobarometer survey. Originality – This paper contributes to a better understanding of factors behind environmentally friendly behavior and purchase of electric cars on a large sample of European consumers. Unlike most of the research in this field, the analysis is based on actual purchase data instead of purchase intention. © 2021, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Economics and Business Zagreb. All rights reserved.
Article
This empirical study investigates whether people's concerns about the Euro currency affect their life satisfaction. A minority of very concerned individuals appear to be unhappy, which cannot be explained by personality or other observable factors typically affecting well-being. As a novelty, this investigation exploits exogenous variation in reported concerns by using the intensity of media coverage on the euro crisis with its extraordinary events throughout the year 2011 as an instrument. Results from the application of several empirical approaches confirm that there is an effect from being concerned about the euro on people's satisfaction with life. A potential explanation is that political beliefs and euro-skeptic attitudes are at play and may trigger unhappiness as a consequence of a perceived lack of representation in German politics. In line with this argument, a regional analysis links the variation in unhappiness among concerned citizens to the actual votes for Germany's first major anti-euro party in the subsequent federal elections.
Article
We exploit the random variation in health patterns across European regions that resulted from the Chernobyl nuclear disaster to provide new quasi-experimental evidence on the causal effect of health patterns on social capital. Our instrumental variable estimations show that the radioactive fallout is positively associated with an increase in hospital discharges after treatment for neoplasms almost thirty years later, the magnitude of the effect being in line with other studies investigating the health effects of low-dose radiation exposure. An increased incidence of neoplasms in the local area of residence induced by the radioactive fallout, and the resulting perception of higher risks of contracting potentially deadly diseases among the healthy population, generates a sizeable impoverishment of social capital and a reduction in social interactions, altruism and happiness. Our findings suggest that health care and prevention policies may have additional returns in terms of a significant increase in communities’ social capital.
Article
While natural disasters might have numerous direct (typically negative) effects, the effect of an increase of natural disaster risk on individual well-being is often neglected. In this paper we study the effects of natural disaster risk on self-reported happiness and life satisfaction at the example of tropical storms. Combining several waves of the integrated European/World Values Survey and appropriate storm data we find a systematically negative effect of hurricane risk on both measures of individual well-being in relatively poor countries in which the population has little possibilities to take protective measures against storms. In highly developed countries, we find a systematic negative and much smaller effect only for life satisfaction. Altogether we conclude that disaster risk tends to play a role for individual well-being, especially on low levels of development.
Chapter
With the growing years, rapid changes are seen in both technology and the environment. But the issue is that these both diverse factors were never in hand with each other, that is, whenever growth is seen in technology, harm happened to the environment and considering the present pandemic situation where nature is reclaiming, all sectors are halted. So, the question arises as to how technology and the environment go hand in hand with each other. An intelligent answer to this would be the Internet of Things (IoT). IoT is a combination of different things such as devices, smart wearable objects, and interiors, which are embedded with sensors, actuators, software, and other technologies where interaction happens between them. Due to the connectivity between them, data are transferred. This book chapter presents algorithms that would help in the prevention of environmental issues and how the Internet of Things would help in the reduction of the harm that happened to the environments as well as how we protect the environment using technology. One of the important features of IoT is its ability to monitor real-time systems which would help us in keeping track of the environment’s actions. Vast disasters can be avoided, immediate rescues can be performed, and proper maintenance can be taken using the IoT. The main focus of this book chapter is on three factors – prevention, reduction, and protection. Each factor would display different algorithms and systems which would help in protecting the environment. Environmental impact assessment (EIA) and fault tree analysis can be used in evaluating and preventing any damages beforehand. After preventing the damage, reducing the harm is crucial. The waste reduction algorithm (WAR) helps in evaluating environmental impacts. Later on, the protection is done using IoT models.
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Thinking about sustainable actions for big cities is one of the problems of the twenty-first century. This demand is faced by cities in the different dimensions that make it up: social, economic, and environmental. Just as companies should think about adopting and investing in Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG), cities need to become smart cities, an important step to transform themselves into sustainable cities with a higher quality of life. ESG, in companies, refers to the three central factors for measuring the sustainability and social impact of an investment process. Cities need to focus, in addition to modernizing their infrastructure, on strengthening the circular economy, investing more in education, reducing school dropout, which is closely linked to the area of security in cities, and based on these measures, seek balance in all areas of society. The concepts of smart cities and sustainable cities will be presented, showing the interconnection of both concepts. The purpose of this chapter is to show how to build smart cities and how they are transformed into sustainable cities. Thus, a systematic and integrative review was carried out in the Scopus database, in order to answer the following questions: (1) What are smart cities? (2) How to transform cities into smart cities? (3) What is the interconnection between the two concepts: smart cities and sustainable cities? (4) How do smart cities contribute to building a sustainable city? The results converge in the relationship between intelligence and sustainability, being the basis for a new type of city that directs its growth in an intentional, collaborative, and inclusive way to transform urban centers into a place with a higher quality of life. This chapter brings two examples of smart cities: one in Portugal and another in Brazil, explaining how the national legislation of each country and its social reality interfere in the construction of smart cities. The main innovation presented is the indicators for transforming smart cities into sustainable cities. For this purpose, the chapter is divided into eight sections, which are entitled: Introduction, Smart Cities, Sustainable Cities, Methodology, Relationship Between Sustainable Cities and Intelligent Cities, From Smart Cities Toward Sustainable Cities: Inclusion and Life Quality, Case Studies: Smart Cities from Brazil and Portugal, and Conclusions.
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Considering the case of the Great East Japan Earthquake, we use the experienced-utility approach to appraise the psychological distress from disaster-related news. We take advantage of the serendipitous timing of our original nationwide weekly panel survey that became a fitting resource for the investigation of subjective well-being in the immediate aftermath of the earthquake. Although all of Japanese society was affected, we found geographical heterogeneity between the affected areas (Sendai and Tokyo) and the unaffected areas in terms of mental costs. Our finding reminds us of the focusing effect (Kahneman etal., ; Dolan and Kahneman, ) as captured by Schkade and Kahneman () in the maxim "Nothing in life is quite as important as you think it is while you are thinking about it".
Chapter
Smart farming is one kind of application of modern communication technologies in agriculture, leading to the third green revolution. The third green revolution will transform agriculture into a new dimension with Internet of Things (IoT), Big Data, and sensor technologies. These technologies, like robotics, unmanned aerial vehicles, machine learning, and artificial intelligence, increase crop quality. Today’s agriculture industry is precise, smarter, and data-centered. The Internet of Things is evolving rapidly, and IoT technologies have redesigned many sectors in the real world, including smart agriculture. These redesigned methods have changed the conventional agricultural practices and developed new opportunities for many researchers with different challenges. This chapter mainly highlights the IoT architecture’s capabilities post-pandemic in the real world and smart agriculture sensors’ potential and challenges while integrating the technology with conventional farming practices. Sensors were mostly available for agriculture applications such as soil identification, crop status, pesticide detection, etc. The IoT technology that helps sow crops, packing, and transportation is broadly explained in this chapter. Furthermore, the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) or drone usage is described broadly for applications such as surveillance of crop and crop yield. The types of sensors that are suitable for farming will be explained extensively in this subsection. The requirements of the UAV’s and future applications of using drones in smart farming are broadly discussed. Finally, based on this chapter, the researchers can identify smart agriculture and farming’s future trends.
Book
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Modern insan bir taraftan kaderin ve geleneğin zincirlerinden kurtulmak isterken diğer taraftan kaderini ve sonunu yine kendi elleriyle hazırlıyor. Sorumsuz sanayileşmenin ve amaçsız teknolojik ilerlemelerin beraberinde getirdiği riskler, her geçen gün modern toplumsal düzenin altını oyuyor ve modernlik, sebep olduğu ve adeta kendisinin ‘ürettiği’ küresel ısınma, nükleer enerji ve terörizm gibi sorunlar karşısında kendini kurban etmeye hazır görünüyor. Modern insanın doğa, çevre ve toplumsal yaşam üzerinde tartışmasız bir egemenlik kurma iştiyakının sebep olduğu bu aşırı kontrolcü düşünce tarzı, ilk olarak Çernobil’deki nükleer facia ile sorgulanmaya başlandı. Ekolojik sorunların yanı sıra siyaset ve ulus- lararası ilişkiler üzerinde de farklı yan etkileri görülen modernliğin kendinden menkul bu inatçılığı, güvenlik politikalarına da yansımış durumda. 11 Eylül sonrasında belli bir olgunluğa erişen ve ‘tehditten’ ziyade ‘riski’ politikalarının merkezine alan bu güvenlik anlayışı, ‘daha fazla kontrol’ düşüncesi ile aslında kontrol- süzlüğü ve yeni riskleri beraberinde getirmiş; risk bilinci ile hareket eden politikacılar mutlak güvenlik arayışı ile sonsuz bir güvensizliğe neden olmuşlardır. Bu çalışmayla modernliğin beraberinde getirdiği sorunları ve riskleri konu alan Ulrich Beck’in risk toplumu tezinin kavramsal çerçevesi etrafında modern toplumların güvenlik sorununa ilişkin eleştirel bir yaklaşım ortaya konmaya çalışılmıştır.
Article
Policy Points • Policymakers should invest more on researching the long‐term health effects of low‐ionizing radiation exposure, as we are far from reaching a consensus on a topic that is of enormous importance for public health and safety. • Public policies such as those limiting the import of contaminated food from areas hit by a radioactive disaster or those regulating the resident population's access to such areas should follow a precautionary approach. • Neoplasm diagnosis and medical care should be designed in order to take into account the possible role of long‐term, low‐dose radiation exposure. • Health care policies should provide effective screening and prevention strategies with a specific focus on the regions that were hit most severely by the Chernobyl nuclear fallout. • Health care expenditure should be targeted, taking into account the geographical dispersion of the fallout in order to attenuate its possible effect on neoplasm incidence. Context This study investigates the association between the radioactive ¹³⁷Cesium fallout originated by the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident and dispersed over Western Europe, as a result of a combination of radioactive cloud passage days and rainy days over a 10‐day period, and long‐term health patterns and related costs. Since the half‐life of ¹³⁷Cesium is 30.17 years, part of the radioactivity in the affected regions is still present today, and it is usually still detected in the food chain, although at lower concentration levels. Methods We match longitudinal data on neoplasm incidence over the time span 2000‐2013 in a number of European regions not immediately adjacent to Chernobyl with the randomly distributed levels of cesium deposition after the nuclear disaster in order to assess whether we can detect an association with the long‐term health effects on the European population through a random effects model. Findings Considering 3 levels of fallout deposition—low, medium, and high—hospital discharges after treatment for neoplasms are, respectively, 0.36, 0.44, and 0.98 discharges over 100 inhabitants higher compared to regions with no fallout, with the population average being around 1.7 hospital discharges by neoplasms over 100 inhabitants. We checked the robustness of our findings to a number of tests including a placebo simulation and different model specifications. Conclusions Radioactive fallout is positively associated with a higher incidence of hospital discharges after treatment for neoplasms almost 30 years after its release, with larger effects in regions where the radioactivity was more intense. Our estimates are comparable to the findings of the largest‐scale study on the long‐term health effects of continuous low levels of radiation exposure among workers in the nuclear industry and suggest that more research is needed on this topic, given its enormous importance for public health and safety.
Chapter
Social costs and benefits are costs imposed on society or benefits that society obtains that are not taken into account in market decisions. The social costs and benefits, in being external to markets, are known as ‘externalities’. Competitive markets are not efficient in the presence of externalities and market corrections are required. The corrections can in principle be made without government involvement, but usually externality problems require public policy. Prominent externalities involve the environment, education, public health, and crime. Contents: (1) Attributes of externalities; (2) Common private ownership as a solution for externalities; (3) The Coase Theorem; (4) Public policy to address externalities; (5) Domestic politics and environmental policy; (6) International trade and the environment; (7) The global environment; (8) The theory of the second best - monopoly and the environment (9) Summary; (10) Conclusions; (11) References; (12) Questions for discussion
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In this new edition of his landmark book, Richard Layard shows that there is a paradox at the heart of our lives. Most people want more income. Yet as societies become richer, they do not become happier. This is not just anecdotally true, it is the story told by countless pieces of scientific research. We now have sophisticated ways of measuring how happy people are, and all the evidence shows that on average people have grown no happier in the last fifty years, even as average incomes have more than doubled. In fact, the First World has more depression, more alcoholism and more crime than fifty years ago. This paradox is true of Britain, the United States, continental Europe, and Japan. What is going on? Now fully revised and updated to include developments since first publication, Layard answers his critics in what is still the key book in 'happiness studies'.
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Happiness research is based on the idea that it is fruitful to study empirical measures of individual welfare. The most common is the answer to a simple well-being question such as "Are you Happy?" Hundreds of thousands of individuals have been asked this question, in many countries and over many years. Researchers have begun to use these data to tackle a variety of important questions in economics. Some require strong assumptions concerning interpersonal comparisons of utility, but others make only mild assumptions in this regard. They range from microeconomic questions, such as the way income and utility are connected, to macroeconomic questions such as the tradeoff between inflation and unemployment, including large areas in political economy. Public policy is another area where progress using happiness data is taking place. Given the central role of utility notions in economic theory, we argue that the use of happiness data in empirical research should be given serious consideration.
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Over the past few years, there has been a steadily increasing interest on the part of economists in happiness research. We argue that reported subjective well-being is a satisfactory empirical approximation to individual utility and that happiness research is able to contribute important insights for economics. We report how the economic variables income, unemployment and inflation affect happiness as well as how institutional factors, in particular the type of democracy and the extent of government decentralization, systematically influence how satisfied individuals are with their life. We discuss some of the consequences for economic policy and for economic theory.
Article
This paper empirically analyses the set-point theory of subjective well-being (SWB) by investigating the long-run effects of a catastrophe like Chernobyl in 1986. We exploit objective (exogenous) and subjective measures of "Chernobyl affectedness" in two nationally representative Ukrainian data sets covering 2003 to 2007. We find significant long-term effects on SWB and mental health, although surprising group differences exist: individuals with affected family members are unhappier, directly affected individuals seem not unhappier on average, even after controlling for personality traits.
Article
This paper argues that institutional conditions in the form of the extent and form of democracy have systematic and sizeable effects on individual well-being, in addition to demographic and economic factors. Using recent interview data from 6,000 residents of Switzerland, we show that individuals are cet. par. happier, the better developed the institutions of direct democracy are in their area of residence. This also applies to a second institution, the degree of government decentralisation (federalism). Finally, we are able to support some of the earlier results for other countries and periods with new data also based on a survey with a large sample size. In particular, we find that the unemployed are to a great extent less happy than employed persons, and that a higher household income level only raises happiness to a small extent
Book
Pleasures of the mind are different from pleasures of the body. There are two types of pleasures of the body: tonic pleasures and relief pleasures. Pleasures of the body are given by the contact senses and by the distance senses (seeing and hearing). The distance senses provide a special category of pleasure. Pleasures of the mind are not emotions; they are collections of emotions distributed over time. Some distributions of emotions over time are particularly pleasurable, such as episodes in which the peak emotion is strong and the final emotion is positive. The idea that all pleasurable stimuli share some general characteristic should be supplanted by the idea that humans have evolved domain-specific responses of attraction to stimuli. The emotions that characterize pleasures of the mind arise when expectations are violated, causing autonomic nervous system arousal and thereby triggering a search for an interpretation. Thus pleasures of the mind occur when an individual has a definite set of expectations (usually tacit) and the wherewithal to interpret the violation (usually by placing it in a narrative framework). Pleasures of the mind differ in the objects of the emotions they comprise. There is probably a
Book
How do we measure happiness? Focusing on subjective measures as a proxy for welfare and well-being, this book finds ways to do that. Subjective measures have been used by psychologists, sociologists, political scientists, and, more recently, economists to answer a variety of scientifically and politically relevant questions. Van Praag, a pioneer in this field since 1971, and Ferrer-i-Carbonell present in this book a generally applicable methodology for the analysis of subjective satisfaction. Drawing on a range of surveys on people's satisfaction with their jobs, income, housing, marriages, and government policy, among other areas of life, this book shows how satisfaction with life "as a whole" is an aggregate of these domain satisfactions. Using German, British, Dutch, and Russian data, the authors cover a wide range of topics. This groundbreaking book presents a new and fruitful methodology that constitutes a welcome addition to the social sciences. The paperback edition has been revised to bring the literature review up-to-date and the chapter on poverty has been revised and extended to take account of new research. Available in OSO:
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Hitherto the task of valuing differences in environmental quality arising from air pollution and noise nuisance has been carried out mainly by using the hedonic price technique. This paper proposes a different approach to derive information on individual preferences for local environmental quality. It analyses data drawn from the German socio-economic panel in an attempt to explain differences in self-reported levels of well-being in terms of environmental quality. Mindful of existing research a large number of other explanatory variables are included to control for socio-demographic differences, economic circumstances as well as neighbourhood characteristics. Differences in local air quality and noise levels are measured by how much an individual feels affected by air pollution or noise exposure in their residential area. The evidence suggests that even when controlling for a range of other factors higher local air pollution and noise levels significantly diminish subjective well-being. But interestingly differences in perceived air and noise pollution are not capitalised into differences in house prices.
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This paper explores the relationship between pollution and reported subjective well-being (happiness) in ten European countries. Using a set of panel data from happiness surveys, jointly with data on income and air pollution, it examines how self-reported well-being varies with prosperity and environmental conditions and calculates the implied valuation of changes in air pollution. The paper finds that air pollution plays a statistically significant role as a predictor of inter-country and inter-temporal differences in subjective well-being. The effect of air pollution on well-being translates into a considerable monetary value of improved air quality. The improvements achieved in Western Europe in the 1990s are valued at about $750 per capita per year in the case of nitrogen dioxide and about $1400 per capita per year in the case of lead. Due to synergies among the pollutants, the value of simultaneously reducing nitrogen dioxide and lead is slightly higher than the sum of these values.
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There is increasing interest in the “economics of happiness”, reflected by the number of articles that are appearing in mainstream economics journals that consider subjective well-being (SWB) and its determinants. This paper provides a detailed review of this literature. It focuses on papers that have been published in economics journals since 1990, as well as some key reviews in psychology and important unpublished working papers. The evidence suggests that poor health, separation, unemployment and lack of social contact are all strongly negatively associated with SWB. However, the review highlights a range of problems in drawing firm conclusions about the causes of SWB; these include some contradictory evidence, concerns over the impact on the findings of potentially unobserved variables and the lack of certainty on the direction of causality. We should be able to address some of these problems as more panel data become available.
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A growing body of research in economics concerns self-reported happiness, or life satisfaction (LS), and its relationship to a wide range of other variables. The findings of this research tend to highlight the importance of non-income aspects of individuals' life conditions. These findings are strongly complementary to themes within the sustainable development discourse. Firstly, they suggest ways in which we might consume less without compromising on our current levels of LS. And secondly, they help demonstrate the immediate LS benefits that could be gained from higher levels of environmental quality (EQ). However, the empirical evidence for the link between EQ and LS is, to date, somewhat weak, due in part to a lack of EQ data at a level of detail to match the individual-by-individual resolution of LS measures. This small, exploratory study therefore seeks to assess how the use of EQ data at very high spatial resolution could advance the empirical literature examining connections between LS and EQ levels, focusing on air quality in particular. It collects original survey data for approximately 400 Londoners, and uses geographical information system (GIS) software to calculate pollutant concentrations in the immediate vicinity of their homes. It uses this data to estimate maximum likelihood regression models explaining LS ratings in terms of a range of individual, household and local variables. Both perceived and measured air pollution levels are significantly negatively associated with the LS of the survey respondents, even when controlling for a wide range of other effects. An increase of 10 μg/m3 in annual mean nitrogen dioxide concentration appears to correspond on average to a drop of nearly half a point of LS on an 11-point rating scale. These findings cannot yet be generalised with confidence. However, if they were confirmed by larger future studies, they would appear to strengthen and extend existing arguments in favour of policies to reduce urban air pollution, framed both in terms of conventional economic efficiency analyses, and in wider political and ethical (and potentially legal) terms.
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This paper argues that life satisfaction data can be used to value natural disasters. We discuss the strengths of this approach, compare it to traditional methods and apply it to estimate and monetize utility losses caused by floods in 16 European countries between 1973 and 1998. Using combined cross-section and time-series data, we find a negative impact of floods on life satisfaction that is sizeable, robust and significant. The estimates are comparable to price discounts found in housing markets. In an exploratory analysis, we find that risk transfer mechanisms such as mandatory insurance have large mitigating effects.
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The life satisfaction approach to environmental valuation investigates how self-rated subjective well-being (life satisfaction, “happiness”) varies with income on the one hand and environmental quality on the other. The happiness function so established allows the determining of the implicit monetary value of improved environmental quality by computing the marginal rate of substitution of income for abatement. The present paper extends the life satisfaction approach to a comprehensive welfare analysis by estimating not only the monetary benefits of air pollution abatement but also the associated costs in terms of income foregone. Using a cross-national data set with 54 countries, the paper computes (a) net marginal benefits of abatement, (b) optimal abatement rates and (c) the monetary value of optimal abatement.
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In addition to standard methods of environmental valuation, a novel approach has recently emerged which models individuals' self-rated happiness as a function of their incomes and the prevailing environmental conditions. The estimated relationship is used to calculate the trade-off people would be willing to make between income and environmental conditions, i.e. the increase in income necessary to compensate individuals for any given decline in environmental quality. While the basic idea is simple, the theoretical and empirical details may be complex, and they may vary from application to application. This paper discusses the relevant conceptual and methodological issues and reviews applications to air and water pollution, noise nuisance, climate parameters, and natural hazards. Copyright © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
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I find a statistically significant and robust negative effect of air pollution on life satisfaction, translating into considerable willingness-to-pay, which is larger for IV estimates with pollution from foreign sources as an instrument and for green voters and the elderly.
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I use the life satisfaction approach to value air quality, combining individual-level panel and high-resolution SO<sub>2</sub> data. To avoid simultaneity problems, I construct a novel instrument exploiting the natural experiment created by the mandated scrubber installation at power plants, with wind directions dividing counties into treatment and control groups. I find a negative effect of pollution on well-being that is larger for instrumental variable than conventional estimates, robust to controls for local unemployment, particulate pollution, reunification effects and rural/urban trends, and larger for environmentalists and predicted risk groups. To calculate total willingness-to-pay, the estimates are supplemented by hedonic housing regressions. Copyright © The Author(s). Journal compilation © Royal Economic Society 2009.
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Many empirical studies are ambiguous about whether good formal institutions are conducive to subjective well-being or not. Possibly, this ambiguity is caused by cross-section models that do not account for unobserved cultural and institutional effects. Using the World Value Survey 1980-2005, this paper supports a positive relation in a country panel framework that accounts for unobserved, time-invariant country heterogeneity. This study also shows that using supra-national region dummies (by geography or language) in a country-random effects model appears to be a sufficient substitution for omitted country fixed effects.
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After the introduction in Section 2, we very briefly sketch out current theoretical and empirical developments in the social sciences. In our view, they all point in the same direction: toward the acute and increasing need for multidisciplinary longitudinal data covering a wide range of living conditions and based on a multitude of variables from the social sciences for both theoretical investigation and the evaluation of policy measures. Cohort and panel studies are therefore called upon to become truly interdisciplinary tools. In Section 3, we describe the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP), in which we discuss recent improvements of that study which approach this ideal and point out existing shortcomings. Section 4 concludes with a discussion of potential future issues and developments for SOEP and other household panel studies.
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This paper empirically investigates the impact of relational goods on individual life satisfaction. By relational goods we indicate the affective&sol;expressive, non instrumental, side of interpersonal relationships. The homo oeconomicus view of human nature is questioned by the recent upsurge of empirical studies on the determinants of self declared happiness, that show that an increasing income does not always lead to more subjective well being ( Easterlin's famous (1974) 'paradox of happiness'). The theoretical literature on relational goods has isolated various mechanisms which may induce an under-consumption and under- production of relational goods. The hypothesis we test is that people with a more intense relational life are less affected by this 'relational poverty trap' and are therefore happier. Our findings does not disprove our hypothesis: relational goods turn out to have significant and positive effects on self declared life satisfaction, when other determinants isolated in the literature as important are taken into account and when the inverse causality nexus i.e. from more happiness to a more intense relational life is also taken into account. Finally, we show that gender, age and education matter and in particular that the effects of sociability on happiness are stronger for women, older and less educated individuals. These findings can be useful in designing and evaluating public policies with a direct or indirect effect on the quality and quantity of relational goods. Copyright 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
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Psychologists and sociologists usually interpret happiness scores as cardinal and comparable across respondents, and thus run OLS regressions on happiness and changes in happiness. Economists usually assume only ordinality and have mainly used ordered latent response models, thereby not taking satisfactory account of fixed individual traits. We address this problem by developing a conditional estimator for the fixed-effect ordered logit model. We find that assuming ordinality or cardinality of happiness scores makes little difference, whilst allowing for fixed-effects does change results substantially. We call for more research into the determinants of the personality traits making up these fixed-effects. Copyright 2004 Royal Economic Society.
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We assess the monetary value of the noise damage, caused by aircraft noise nuisance around Amsterdam Airport, as the sum of hedonic house price differentials and a residual cost component. The residual costs are assessed from a survey, including an ordinal life satisfaction scale, on which individual respondents have scored. The derived compensation scheme depends on, among other things, the objective noise level, income, the degree to which prices account for noise differences, and the presence of noise insulation. Copyright 2005 Royal Economic Society.
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Over the past few years, there has been a steadily increasing interest on the part of economists in happiness research. We argue that reported subjective well-being is a satisfactory empirical approximation to individual utility and that happiness research is able to contribute important insights for economics. We report how the economic variables income, unemployment and inflation affect happiness as well as how institutional factors, in particular the type of democracy and the extent of government decentralization, systematically influence how satisfied individuals are with their life. We discuss some of the consequences for economic policy and for economic theory.
Article
We assess the monetary value of the noise damage, caused by aircraft noise nuisance around Amsterdam Airport, as the sum of hedonic house price differentials and a residual cost component. The residual costs are assessed from a survey, including an ordinal life satisfaction scale, on which individual respondents have scored. The derived compensation scheme depends on, among other things, the objective noise level, income, the degree to which prices account for noise differences, and the presence of noise insulation.
Article
This paper uses cross-national data from happiness surveys, jointly with data on per capita income and pollution, to examine how self-reported well-being varies with prosperity and environmental conditions. This approach allows us to show that citizens care about prosperity and the environment, and to calculate the trade-off people are willing to make between them. The paper finds that the effect of urban air pollution on subjective well-being shows up as a considerable monetary valuation of improved air quality. For instance, a representative German citizen would need to be given more than 1900$ per year in order to accept the typical urban air pollution level prevailing in Japan. The subjective marginal valuation of air pollution is compared with marginal abatement costs from the literature. Copyright 2002 by WWZ and Helbing & Lichtenhahn Verlag AG
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