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National well-being and international sports events

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Abstract

The widely proclaimed economic benefits of hosting major sporting events have received substantial criticism by academic economists and have been shown to be negligible, at best. The aim of this paper is to formally examine the existence of another potential impact: national well-being or the so-called "feelgood" factor. Using data on self-reported life satisfaction for twelve European countries we test for the impact of hosting and of national athletic success on happiness. Our data covers three different major events: the Olympic Games, the FIFA World Cup and the UEFA European Championship. We find that the "feelgood" factor associated with hosting football events is large and significant, but that the impact of national athletic success on happiness, while correctly signed, is statistically insignificant.

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... The overestimation can be explained based on the high expectations created pre-event through projection bias; once the event is actually experienced, perceptions of these social impacts are tempered. Some studies have applied SR items in their scales (Gibson et al., 2014;Heere et al., 2013;Kavetsos & Szymanski, 2010;Oja et al., 2018), but their pre-versus post-event results vary. ...
... This finding aligns with previous studies indicating that events create a temporary hype or euphoria at the time of the event (e.g. Kavetsos & Szymanski, 2010;Oja et al., 2018;Schlegel et al., 2017) and possibly lingers after the event (Gibson et al., 2014). This might also be explained by the success of the Japanese National Team in the event (they advanced to the final tournament by defeating high-ranked countries such as Ireland and Scotland; https://www.rugbyworldcup.com/2019/teams/japan). ...
... While we recommend from a theoretical perspective to further test the SR scale in various sporting contexts, it should be noted that expected social impact experiences pre-event did not materialize into actual social impact experiences post-event, except for the short-lived feel-good-factor. This finding strongly aligns with previous research (Kavetsos & Szymanski, 2010) and should encourage practitioners to refrain from promising sustained social impacts such as social capital and social cohesion as possible benefits from occasional events like the 2019 RWC. Relying on these social impact measures should be avoided, especially pre-event. ...
Article
Research question Past research has shown that pre-event measures of social impact are higher when worded in reference to a global other such as ‘the event creates new friendships’ instead of a more precise measurement referencing the self such as ‘I create new friendships because of the event’. No research has yet investigated if this holds true both before and after events. Nor has research investigated which social impact scale relates most precisely to event support. This paper addresses both of these gaps. Research methods A pre- and post-event longitudinal research design surveyed 306 residents of Tokyo before (t = −3 months) and after (t = +4 months) the 2019 Rugby World Cup in Japan. Participants responded to an other-referenced (OR) social impact scale followed by a self-referenced (SR) social impact scale. Results and findings In the pre-event period, we confirm the tendency for respondents to overestimate both positive and negative social impacts regardless of the scale used, although the SR results were nearly a half-point lower, on average. The findings also demonstrate that the SR scale has more predictive power to explain event support intentions, indicating that reflecting on lived experiences matters when it comes to determining resident support for events. Implications Wording social impact items in the first person is a more accurate reflection of reality to capture event impacts, particularly post-event and can better predict peoples’ support for future events.
... Some social impact experiences are at their highest during the event, while others may be stimulated through the event and increase post event. Kavetsos and Szymanski's (2010) research compared the feel-good effect of Olympic Games, the FIFA World Cup and the UEFA European Championship. The authors found a stronger feel-good effect associated with the football events compared to the Olympic Games, but found no evidence of longevity of that effect. ...
... Other studies found psychic income (Kavetsos & Szymanski, 2010;Waitt, 2003), feelings of unsafety (Kim & Walker, 2012), and community involvement with the event (Peterson et al., 2008) to be at their highest point during the event, fading away weeks after the events. In contrast, social cohesion and sport participation can be outcomes of the event with a potential to last longer (Gibson et al., 2014). ...
... Nevertheless, due to the gigantism and the associated spillover effect of mega-events (Deccio & Baloglu, 2002;Ritchie et al., 2009), country residents can be attitudinally involved with the event. The relevance of a sport event affects how people get involved and experience the impact from an event (Hallmann et al., 2013;Kavetsos & Szymanski, 2010). Thus, considering the low chances of direct behavioural involvement, it is important to understand how people get attitudinally involved with sport events. ...
Article
As primary funders of sport mega-events, host country residents deserve to reap benefits. Subjective well-being (SWB) can be one such positive outcome. Research analyzing the relationship between sport events and SWB is limited, and results are ambiguous. This study examines the effects of social impact experiences from the Rio 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games (Rio 2016) on SWB of host country residents, considering attitudinal involvement with the event. Using a cohort longitudinal design, data were collected during (n = 402) and six months after (n = 401) the event. Attitudinal involvement was significantly related to most factors of social impact experiences during, but not after Rio 2016. Social impact experiences were low during and even lower after Rio 2016, not contributing significantly to SWB of Brazilians. SWB was high during and after Rio 2016, but not significantly different between these moments. Rio 2016 did not affect the SWB of residents.
... Two of the most studied intangible benefits are subjective well-being and national pride. Kavetsos and Szymanski (2010) and Dolan et al. (2019) find similar results with hosting leading to greater well-being and no impact based upon performance. With national pride, however, Kavetsos (2012) reports positive effects for both hosting and performance while neither hosting nor performance are associated with national pride in Storm and Jakobsen (2020). ...
... In terms of wellbeing, the general findings are an increase in well-being from hosting but no impact based upon performance. To explore the impact of the Olympics, the FIFA World Cup, and the UEFA European Championship, Kavetsos and Szymanski (2010) draw upon responses from the Eurobarometer Survey Series for 12 countries between 1974 and 2004. Although they find only a weak impact for performance, hosting meaningfully increases happiness. ...
... Macro kt includes population (logged), GDP per capita, and democratic quality as measured by Polity2. These three indicators are controls found in the cross-country studies on national pride and sports-related pride in Kavetsos and Szymanski (2010), Meier and Mutz (2018), and Storm and Jakobsen (2020), with effects that are sometimes significant. For example, people in more democratic countries report less sports-related pride (Meier and Mutz 2018) and less national pride (Storm and Jakobsen 2020). ...
Article
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Collective ideologies are a feature of the Olympic Games as individual athletes represent entire nations. Prior research has explored one dimension of Olympic ideology, finding a link between national pride and hosting the Olympics. This paper extends the literature by considering a wider variety of ideological indicators, including willingness to fight for country, confidence in government, and beliefs about different political systems. The results using a series of global surveys across several decades suggest that success at the Olympics and hosting of the Olympics does not guarantee greater citizen support or government legitimacy. Performance in the Summer Olympics has no consistent effect on the ideological views of survey respondents. In terms of hosting the Summer Olympics, host nations experience an increase in willingness to fight but a decrease in government confidence. These effects vary based upon the level of democratic quality of the host nations.
... The perceived value of elite sports has not received much attention and there is still no clear evidence about the effects of the international sporting success of a country on the subjective well-being of individuals [15]. ...
... The second reason is related to the importance of elite sports in each country, thus justifying the use of the predictor "perceived value of elite sports": (a) in most modern countries, elite sports have been receiving higher investment and are being considered main vehicles for (i) improving international prestige [19], (ii) raising national unity and pride, and (iii) increasing subjective well-being through the "feelgood factor" after sporting success [15,20,21]. Therefore, what is the relative effect and importance of sports participation and the perceived value of elite sports on the subjective well-being of individuals? ...
... The "virtuous cycle" [27] is the concept through wh success in elite sports (a) fosters positive feelings and well-being in the population and increases sports participation, leading to advances and gains in the health sector as w as the development of talent in elite sports, once again, leading to the success of e sports, as shown in Figure 1. The effects of sporting success on national pride and subjective well-being have been widely studied [28]; still, the results reflected that sporting success, e.g., in Olympic Games and in the main international football competitions (FIFA World Cup UEFA Europa League), marginally affects, in the short term, alleged happiness (subjec well-being) [15]. In agreement with these effects, albeit marginal, it was observed that athletes' perceived sporting success led to small positive short-term effects on subjec well-being [29] and that two-thirds of German citizens felt pride and happiness w national athletes achieved success in major international competitions [30]. ...
Article
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This work contributes to an emerging literature focused on the role of physical activity on the subjective well-being of populations. Unlike the existing literature, it proposes an approach that uses algorithms to predict subjective well-being. The aims of this study were to determine the relative importance of sports participation and perceived value of elite sports on the subjective well-being of individuals. A total of 511 participants completed an online questionnaire. The statistical analysis used several machine learning techniques, including three algorithms, Decision Tree Classifier (DTC), Random Forest Classifier (RFC), and Gradient Boosting Classifier (GBC). In the three algorithms tested, sports participation, expressed as the weekly frequency and the time spent engaging in vigorous physical activity, showed a greater importance (between 47% and 53%) in determining subjective well-being. It also highlights the effect of perceived value of elite sport on the prediction of subjective well-being. This study provides evidence for public sport policy makers/authorities and for managers of physical activity and sport development programs. The surprising effect of the perceived value of elite sport on the prediction of subjective well-being.
... While scholars have investigated a wide variety of social impacts in the context of sport events, subjective well-being has been investigated from the perspective of sport economists as a useful measure to determine SROI of sport mega-events (e.g. Kavetsos & Szymanski, 2010). ...
... This broader call aligns well with sport event research, where scholars have been increasingly interested in the notion of a SROI. Festivals and events have been seen as ways to contribute positively to a community's subjective well-being (Kavetsos & Szymanski, 2010;Yolal et al., 2016), however there remains ambiguous empirical evidence to support this claim, particularly in the context of sport events Taks & Rocha, 2017). While there is some evidence to suggest that hosting a sport event does affect happiness and subjective wellbeing (e.g. ...
... While there is some evidence to suggest that hosting a sport event does affect happiness and subjective wellbeing (e.g. Maennig & Porsche, 2008;Kavetsos & Szymanski, 2010), there remain questions regarding the effectiveness of sport mega-events in producing positive subjective well-being outcomes, to what extent, and how these outcomes may occur. ...
Chapter
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Sport mega-events are often supported for their supposed ability to achieve positive social outcomes for the host country residents. However, empirical evidence regarding the effect of sport mega-events on subjective well-being is ambiguous, and therefore there remain questions regarding the effectiveness of sport mega-events in producing positive subjective well-being outcomes, to what extent, and how these outcomes may occur. The purpose of this chapter is to outline an example of how subjective well-being and social experiences have been addressed in relation to a sport mega-event, and to offer considerations for future research in this area. The study presented here was conducted via questionnaire during (n=402), and after (n=401) the Rio 2016 Olympic Games and investigated if social impact experiences from the event could explain variance in subjective well-being amongst host country residents. During the event, we found that social impact experiences were not predictors of subjective well-being. Results following the event demonstrated similar findings. These results indicate that social experiences promoted by hosting Rio 2016 did not change the subjective well-being of host country residents. The results are consistent with existing literature on social impacts of sport events, however are not consistent with existing literature regarding sport event hosting and subjective well-being. We suggest avenues for future research to further investigate subjective well-being and sport events in regard to possible underlying mechanisms of subjective well-being, the longevity of sport mega-event effects on host residents, as well as possible contextual and theoretical advancements in this line of inquiry. © 2021 selection and editorial matter, Allan Stewart Jepson and Trudie Walters.
... Community spirit, the one common dimension across all studies presented in Table 1, refers to feelings of pride and happiness instilled by an event. Some authors call it psychic income (e.g., [33,37]), or a psychological "feel-good-factor" [45]. Social cohesion represents people's perceptions as to how an event affects connectedness between individuals in the community [42,43], while social capital reflects how the event affects the residents and their relationship to the community (e.g., [33,38]). ...
... When using SR questions in different time periods, there is more variation in pre-and post-event results [33,35,37,45]. For example, Kavetsos and Szymanski [45] studied the feel-good effect one year before, during, and three months after the 2006 FIFA World Cup, using a four-scale SR question: "On the whole, are you very satisfied, fairly satisfied, not very satisfied, or not at all satisfied with the life you lead?" ...
... When using SR questions in different time periods, there is more variation in pre-and post-event results [33,35,37,45]. For example, Kavetsos and Szymanski [45] studied the feel-good effect one year before, during, and three months after the 2006 FIFA World Cup, using a four-scale SR question: "On the whole, are you very satisfied, fairly satisfied, not very satisfied, or not at all satisfied with the life you lead?" They found no effect one year prior, the highest levels during, and a decrease three months after the event. ...
Article
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Publicly funded sport events are partially justified based on positive social impacts. Past research generally measured social impact for a generic and global “other” with claims such as “Events create new friendships in the community”. These other-referenced (OR) social impacts are generally higher pre-event than post-event and are inflated for both methodological and theoretical reasons. In the pre-event period of the Tokyo 2020 Olympic and Paralympic Games, we empirically tested OR items compared to self-referenced (SR) items, such as “Because of the event, I create new friends in the community” and allowed projection bias to vary between scales. Results of the experiment between an OR-Social Impact Scale (OR-SIS) and a similar SR-SIS confirmed OR-measures to be significantly higher than SR-measures. While artificially inflated OR scores may be useful for event organizers and politicians to gain support for hosting, estimates based on circumscribed self (SR) are a methodologically appropriate measurement of social impact.
... Another study by Waitt (2003) examined the social impact of the Olympics and Konstantaki (2008) investigated the socio-cultural impact of the Olympics from the perspective of lecturers and students. Brown et al. (2016) investigated several aspects related to psychology in the Olympic event, while Kavetsos and Szymanski (2010), as well as Dolan et al. (2016), examined life happiness and community satisfaction in mega-event sports. Furthermore, Konstantaki et al. (2019) revealed public opinion related to the theme and content of the Olympics opening ceremony. ...
... Regarding community satisfaction, the majority of respondents were satisfied with the event. This result is in line with another study on larger sporting events (Kavetsos and Szymanski 2010). According to Dolan et al. (2016), sporting events have a positive emotional impact, specifically on the dimensions of happiness and life satisfaction of the spectators. ...
Article
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The National Sports Week (known in Bahasa Indonesia as Pekan Olahraga Nasional or PON) consumes a large budget as Indonesia’s largest multi-sports event. This raises the question of whether it is only a sporting event or has an impact on society. Studies related to multi-sports events, specifically in the form of local or small-scale, such as PON, are still limited in Asia. The aim of this study was to investigate six important domains (constructs) of the 20th PON (PON XX) held in Papua in 2021: sports event image, motivation, satisfaction, stadium atmosphere, environment, and perception of the impacts. In addition, this study assessed the correlations between those six constructs and associations between the explanatory variables (gender, distance of residence, and involvement in the sporting event) and those six constructs. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to assess those six constructs and the explanatory variables. We included 675 respondents aged between 17–57 years, with a mean age of 22.87 years in the study. The results showed that the implementation of PON XX was positively received by the community and their highest motivation to watch this event was for entertainment. The involvement of the participant in the event was significantly associated with sports event image, satisfaction, motivation, stadium atmosphere, environment, and the perception of PON impact. The distance of the residence from the venues was only significantly associated with the perceived impact of PON XX on the community while gender had no association with all six constructs. There was a strong correlation between the other five investigated constructs and the perceived impact of PON XX.
... Hosting events such as music concerts, sports events, or food festivals is commonly perceived as an essential means of accelerating the current development either at the city, regional or nation level (Chalkley and Essex, 1999;Kavetsos and Szymanski, 2010;Kwiatkowski, 2016). There are many different dimensions in how a locality can benefit from staging an event (OECD LEED, 2010 for a detailed review), of which the most apparent pertain to increased spending (Kwiatkowski, 2016), tax revenues (Turco, 1995), investments in infrastructure (Baumann and Matheson, 2013). ...
... Events can also be a catalyst for economic development. It has been publicly recognized that events offer numerous tangible (e.g., direct economic impact, employment effects, tax revenues) and intangible (e.g., civic pride, community integration, feel-good factor) benefits to host destinations that together might be a potentially rich source of local wellbeing (Andersson, Armbrecht, and Lundberg, 2012;Atkinson, Mourato, Szymanski, and Ozdemiroglu, 2008;Kavetsos and Szymanski, 2010). Furthermore, since many events are embedded in the local ecosystems of sports, culture, business, and other types of associations, they frequently serve as a local platform of entrepreneurship and means of market access for local producers and 'gates' to a wider consumer basis. ...
... Indeed, many people emphasise these feel-good factors more than the potential economic benefits (Kersting 2007, Maennig and Porsche 2008, Zhang et al. 2013, Hiller and Wanner 2015, Nooij de and van den Berg 2018. Kavetsos and Szymanski (2010) found that hosting a major event can increase happiness levels, but that the effect depends on the popularity of the sport in the respective region or country. Existing studies also showed that people positively view public funding of events (Andersson et al. 2004, Atkinson et al. 2008. ...
... The findings indicated that popularity of the sport and the events influenced the outcome of the applications. Although the hosting of major sports events has been documented as increasing the happiness of residents, the effects depend on the level of the popularity of the sport in the respective nation or country (Kavetsos and Szymanski 2010). This may have made it easier for politicians to support events in cycling and chess, which are considerably more popular in Norway than, for example, golf. ...
Article
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Major event organisers apply for government financial support. This paper investigates the selection process of events in Norway based on empirical data from 2012 to 2018. In this period, 11 events were granted NOK 476 million (€47.7 million), whereas five events were rejected. The funding was highly concentrated, with 92% being distributed to four events. Although the Norwegian government positively supports major events, a policy on event selection has not been established. This paper shows that the absence of criteria for event selection opens up pragmatism, which encourages lobbying and ad hoc solutions. All the applicants argued that their events would generate economic gains and various forms of externalities. The most successful applicants associated themselves with politicians who lobbied on their behalf. Politicians and event organisers were closely related in these cases. Some events successfully connected their own aims with aims in the govern-ment's political programme. Three events that received the most government support also received additional funding when unexpected problems emerged during the preparations. In these cases, the fear of cancelation created situations of urgency that helped the applicants receive additional funding. Cancelation of the events would have created a loss of prestige, not only for the organiser but a number of other stakeholders. ARTICLE HISTORY
... As previously stated, the World Cup brings global attention towards the host country, and it becomes a golden opportunity for politicians to beautify their image in both the domestic and international setting. In a study conducted by Kavetsos and Szymanski (2010) ...
... The hosting of mega events can create "feel good" effects among residents. This has been documented in connection to the FIFA World Cup finals, but the research also showed that the effects had limited duration (Corneliussen & Maennig, 2010;Kavetsos, & Szymanski, 2010;Swart et al., 2011). However, the claim of a feel-good effect from hosting can be ironic. ...
Chapter
The last decade the IOC has struggled with recruiting cities to host the Olympics, a pattern for both the Summer and Winter Games. The main reason for this has been the many cases of significant cost overruns on previous games. This chapter first presents an overview of the IOC’s traditional business model to show why the economic burdens to host cities have been so big. Further, we analyze the reasons more thoroughly by using theoretical perspectives from principal-agent theory, supplemented with elements from auction theory and welfare economic theory. Next, we discuss whether the recent IOC reform, Agenda 2020, can solve the inefficiency problems and make the Olympics more financially sustainable for the host cities. We argue that there are good reasons to be sceptical. The main reason is that the reform does not go far enough in transferring the financial risk from host cities to the IOC.
... The doorway cost of capital for field improvement in Japan is basically zero since the other conceivable spending projects are other than ordinarily seen as white elephants (Kavetsos, 2014). How much truly developed sports working circumstances address a good MSE depends not just on the fast cash related effect of the super occasion yet what's more on the utilization of the work environment after the MSE. ...
Article
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Introduction: It is in many cases contended that major games can go about as center sectorial exercises, invigorating financial improvement in a nearby local area by infusing new spending created by drawing in vacationers to an area. Nonetheless, such a view difficulties conventional monetary hypothesis which expects that an economy should procure outside pay, through item trades, to develop. The customary financial hypothesis thinks about that development must be accomplished by developing essential and auxiliary monetary exercises, like assembling. Subsequently, administration area exercises, for example, sports are excused as too futile to even think about being "vehicles" of development, fundamentally on the grounds that they are viewed as "parasitic" and just ward exercises that flow, don't produce pay. Objectives: This study was conducted with two objectives: firstly, to review the literature on the evaluation of major sports events and secondly, to assess the costs and benefits on the level of the developing countries.
... Further, hypothesis 1d can partly be accepted as community spirit was higher after but lower during the event compared to the situation before the event. The lower score during the event is remarkable as most research found feelings of euphoria to be the highest during the event (e.g., [75,76]). However, the scores did increase significantly after the event (such as [43]), indicating that, after all, residents were happy the event took place in the city. ...
Article
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Host residents’ support is of paramount importance for the success of spectator sports events. Factors influencing event support have been investigated in past research, but usually in isolation. The current study includes multiple factors by analysing the relationship among involvement, social impact experiences, and event support. Data were collected online four and six months before, during, and two months after the 2021 UCI Road World Championships from 3219 from residents, representative for the city of Leuven (Belgium). The 2021 UCI Road World Championships offered a unique context, as it was the first large spectator sports event organised in Flanders since COVID-19. The event had a limited social impact, but this increased over time (e.g., community spirit and event support). Social impact experiences mainly exerted a significant influence on event support rather than attitudinal and behavioural involvement factors. The results of this study inform national and local policymakers to attract events, event organisers to achieve impact and legacy, and other scholars to improve the understanding of spectator sports event research.
... The second focuses on the psychological and emotional states of the residents (Waitt, 2003). Within the second subdivision, researchers have identified several constructs, such as feel-good effect (Maennig, 2008), wellbeing (Kavetsos and Szymanski, 2010), or happiness (Taks et al., 2015). ...
Article
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While sport is playing an increasingly important role in society in the Middle East, there has been limited research on the perceived social impact of the hosting of major international events in this region. This study evaluates the main factors affecting youth residents' perceptions of hosting major international sport events, by measuring the psychic income in particular, generated within subgroups shaping their support toward hosting these events. Psychic income refers to the emotional and psychological benefit residents perceive they receive from hosting an international sport event. The study is of significance within the context of residents' perceptions studies given that the large majority of residents in Qatar are non-Qataris. Furthermore, the youth were the target population for this study given that they have been identified as the custodians of the next generation and as an essential force in molding national development; and extends the few residents' perception studies in Qatar which comprised the general population. Using the 2019 IAAF Athletics World championships as an example, a framework by Kim and Walker was adopted. Data were collected from 316 university students' from different nationalities residing in Qatar; a month after the event took place. After conducting confirmatory factor analysis, this study was subject to structural equation modeling. Overall, the results show that the perceived impact on Qatari youth nationals was higher compared to Arab youth, and non-Arab youth, respectively. Likewise, the perceived impact was higher for females compared to males. By evaluating the psychic income received by youth from different nationalities residing in Qatar, this study provides decision-makers and organizers with a better understanding of the outcome generated from hosting major international sport events, and how they can leverage these going forward. Of importance is that even if youth residents do not attend the event in person, these events may still generate positive psychic income which is particular relevant to the 2022 FIFA World Cup given the limitations related to purchasing tickets. With Qatar establishing itself as a regional sport hub by attracting a diverse range of international sport events, a cumulative approach to understanding psychic income is recommended.
... Vooraf werd een vignet voorgelegd dat diende als een gemeenschappelijk referentiepunt om "geluk en welzijn" te definiëren en interpersoonlijke variabiliteit te kalibreren (Hopkins & King, 2010). Wat volgde was een eerste vraag naar algemeen gevoel van geluk (zie Kavetsos & Szymanski, 2010). ...
... As is well-known, sports are positive for health, and some studies have demonstrated that sports increase happiness (Kavetsos and Szymanski 2010). Moreover, some authors, (Daniels 2007), maintain that although sports events are not new, they are attracting increasing attention as economic drivers (Delpy 1998;Gelan 2003;Higham and Hinch 2002;Smith 2001), and are especially important in the case of 'big events', such as National Championships, the Olympics, etc. (Gratton, Dobson, and Shibli 2000)). ...
Article
This work evaluates the effects that several outdoor ‘popular’ sports events, held in the province of Huesca, had on production and employment in the Aragonese economy (a European region in Northeast Spain). We use data from 880 questionnaires responded to by participants of the most significant and recent sporting events held in Huesca. The data have been used to build a vector of final demand increases. For the analysis, we update the input-output table for Aragon from the last one available, from 2005 to 2010. Using the input-output methodology, the results suggest positive effects on production and employment in most sectors (estimated to be about equal to current losses from not having these events, due to COVID19) The events under examination are typically 1-day affairs and have relatively low costs (registration income surpasses costs, and typically use public unused/unsaturated spaces).
... 71 The short-term consequences of MSEs are associated with the emotional responses within hosting communities or the psychic impact, whereby communities feel enthused and elated when these events occur. 72 Studies that have measured changes in social capital or the bond felt among community members, have found no evidence of this, 73 which is perceived by some as suggestive of the negative social impacts that are associated with MSEs. The argument here, is that as opposed to fomenting social bonds, MSEs have the potential to leave communities fragmented. ...
Article
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The overarching aim of this study was to examine the role of sport and, in particular, the impact of Qatar’s hosting of the FIFA World Cup in how Qatar has dealt with human rights scrutiny to protect its international image. The paper will investigate whether leveraging the rights and social legacy of migrant workers within Qatar during the 2022 World Cup has helped to achieve aspects of the state’s soft power aspirations thus far. While increased attention from the World Cup has shed light on the plight and suffering of low-skilled workers in Qatar thereby tarnishing its image globally and undermining its soft power aspirations, the state, drawing from a sport for development paradigm, has been able to leverage sport as a vehicle for reshaping its conventional national branding that has existed for decades. I conclude this paper by arguing that while migrant workers’ human rights in Qatar have been a source of scrutiny internationally, such discourses are being countered in part, but significantly, by the state which has employed mechanisms to showcase accountability and commitment towards international human rights standards and international development and thus restored its soft power abilities in the process. This paper makes an original contribution to the existing literature by documenting the chequered histories of labour relations in the context of mega-events but also in the context of global diplomacy, with particular reference to Qatar.
... However, our findings need to be discussed beyond the results obtained given that recent studies have found a decrease in Rio's resident perceptions over time (Rocha, 2020). The 'social anchor effect' of the mega-event tends to dissipate at its conclusion (Oja et al., 2018), which may explain the temporary quality of psychic income towards host communities (Kavetsos & Szymanski, 2010). This underscores the criticality of event strategic planning properly leveraging their social effects in order to obtain continued benefits for local communities (Chalip, 2006). ...
Article
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This study aims to examine psychic income perceptions of the Rio 2016 Olympic Games before and after the event. Data were collected among Rio residents by using a pre-Games (n = 350) and post-Games design (n = 403). The cross-sectional data were assessed over time and the results gathered through a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) for assessing the psychometric properties of the 7-factor scale. Subsequently, MANOVA and a series of ANOVA tests were performed to analyse the differences in perceptions before and after the Games. The CFA results showed factorial stability of the psychic income model in both periods, while the mean comparisons revealed significant differences in all psychic dimensions in the short term. Results indicated that resident perceptions of psychic income tend to increase from pre-to post-event. This study evidences the psychological effects of hosting a sport mega-event, leading to a better comprehension of how local communities perceive the event's impact within a short time frame.
... Festivals contribute positively to one's emotional health (Keyes et al., 2002), happiness (Biaett, 2017;Gursoy et al., 2004;Kavetsos & Szymanski, 2010;Liang et al., 2008;Park & Jung, 2014;Porsche & Maennig, 2011), fulfillment of psychological needs (Mingo & Montecolle, 2014;Newman et al., 2014), personal satisfaction (Eriksson et al., 2016;Gursoy et al., 2010), quality of life (Armbrecht & Andersson, 2020;Jepson & Stadler, 2017;Kay Smith & Diekmann, 2017;Yoo et al., 2015), and wellbeing (Ballantyne et al., 2014;Chang et al., 2019;Huizinga, 1955;Lengieza et al., 2019). Festivals create social harmony (Krumboltz et al., 2013;Tynsong, 2019). ...
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The current study intended to analyze the levels of joy in religious festivals. It involved 387 Pakistani Muslims, including men (n=143) and women (n=282). Data was collected through a specifically developed questionnaire in Urdu. The findings revealed that Pakistani Muslims enjoy their festivals at a very low degree. The levels of joy in Eid-ul-Fitr and Eid-ul-Adha remain significantly lower than the levels of joy in weddings. The level of joy for Pakistanis during different festivals could not exceed 31 percent. The findings further revealed that, instead of being joyous, a small minority of respondents felt sadness and tiredness while celebrating different festivals. Men had significantly higher levels of joy on Eid-Ul-Fitr and Eid-Ul-Adha as compared to women. Women had significantly higher levels of joy at close relatives› weddings than men. Unmarried had significantly higher levels of joy at friend›s wedding as compared to married.
... Hallmann et al., 2013), increased subjective well-being (SWB) (e.g. Kavetsos & Szymanski, 2010), national pride (e.g. Denham, 2010;Dóczi, 2012), or increased mass participation (Potwarka & Wicker, 2021) can be associated with a nation's international elite sport success or hosting sport events. ...
Article
It is a common expectation among politicians, civil servants and sport managers that hosting a major sporting event or achieving international elite sport success yields a variety of positive externalities grounded in the “Virtuous Circle of Elite Sport and Events” model. However, over the years various studies have shown that this model is not necessarily an accurate depiction of reality. This paper adds to existing research by testing whether elite sport success or hosting a major sport event can have any positive effects on citizens’ health. By employing multilevel regression models to nine rounds of the European Social Survey – consisting of individual-level data from 2002 to 2019, covering 37 countries, 219 country-survey-years, and almost 400,000 respondents – we test whether health-related impacts of elite sport success and hosting major sport events can be identified. The model output from our regressions does not indicate that sporting success or hosting major sport events contributes to better health. The results question the “Virtuous Circle of Elite Sport and Events” model and stipulate that politicians, practitioners, and sports managers should be aware of overestimating potential positive externalities from elite sport.
... Moreover, it can increase athletes' motivation, decrease feelings of stress and anxiety and help athletes cope with periods of lacking sporting success (Hackfort and Birkner 2004). Supporting elite athletes in their dual career is, therefore, important to increase sporting success that can produce socially desirable goods in the population such as feelings of pride and happiness (Kavetsos and Szymanski 2010). ...
... Hosting sport or cultural events is connected with a wide range of positive and adverse eff ects on the local economy and society (Kavetsos & Szymanski, 2010). Several authors examined the economic impact of events in past studies to prove not only the positive outcome of event hosting. ...
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Th is paper focuses on the impact of hosting of IIHF World Championship on the local hotel market using the case of Prague (IIHF World Championship 2015) and Bratislava (IIHF World Championship 2011). Many previous studies were focused on the impact of hosting mega sports and cultural events on destination perception and visit rate during and after the event, perception of hosting these events by residents or the eff ect on the local economy. Using unique daily empirical data collected from 95 Prague hotels and 25 Bratislava hotels, key fi ndings of this study show lack of long-run positive impact but a high short-run (immediate) eff ect. In the case of Prague, the main increase of market performance can be identifi ed during the fi nal stage of the tournament, mainly in selling room rates; for Bratislava, the signifi cant eff ect was determined during the whole tournament, and the entire market never reached the same level of performance. Th e study shows the need to examine these eff ects further, emphasizing more variables like seasonality and market segmentation, revenue management, and destination management.
... One more frequently proposed solution for small and midsized leagues in order to tackle the BIG FIVE dominance are supranational league mergers (Kesenne 2007;Vrooman 2007; Renz 2 Stated for instance in the memorandum of understanding with the EPFL (UEFA & EPFL 2012). 3 The pleasure of winning, the proudness, the happiness or the satisfaction associated with sports competitions and sporting successes might have a great social benefit (Hilgers et al., 2010;Kavetsos & Szymanski, 2010;Wicker & Breuer, 2016 8 0 -8 1 8 2 -8 3 8 4 -8 5 8 6 -8 7 8 8 -8 9 9 0 -9 1 9 2 -9 3 9 4 -9 5 9 6 -9 7 9 8 -9 9 0 0 -0 1 0 2 -0 3 0 4 -0 5 0 6 -0 7 0 8 -0 9 1 0 -1 1 1 2 -1 3 1 4 -1 5 1 6 -1 7 1 8 -1 9 ...
... Si on prend soin d'éliminer de cette dernière mesure les éventuels doubles comptes (une partie de la disponibilité à payer correspondante provient de la perspective d'une croissance économique pour le territoire concerné) cette valeur a sa place dans une évaluation d'ensemble. On pourra citer les travaux sur le «feel good factor» associé aux compétitions sportives (Kavetsos and Szymanski, 2010) ou son pendant négatif comme illustré par de Boer et al. (2018). On peut également citer les travaux sur les externalités négatives prises en compte dans différentes études (ACT, 2002;Open Economics, 2016). ...
Article
Nous comparons trois méthodes pour évaluer l'impact d'un grand événement: Input-Output, Equilibre Général Calculable et Analyse Coûts-Avantages. L'IO a des limites liées à l'insuffisante considération des effets de substitution et de saturation. L'ACA nécessite une maturation méthodologique. L'EGC apparait prometteur, mais une meilleure prise en compte des spécificités des grands événements est nécessaire. Il gagnerait à être combiné avec l'ACA pour aboutir à une évaluation suffisament complète. Mots clefs: Entrées-Sorties; Analyse Coûts-Avantages; Equilibre Général Calculable; Grands évènements.
... However, beyond one's personal accomplishment at the Olympics, this chapter looks at the spill over effects of the achievement on a nation's well-being and explores the aftermath of an event that resulted in a heightened interest of a nation towards sport and specifically swimming. The study reveals that the "feel-good factor" of the host may be large and significant, although the impact of national athletic success on happiness is less significant (Kavetsos & Szymanski, 2010). A feel-good factor is derived from the satisfaction of attending events, being involved as a volunteer, being in proximity to the event without physically being there, of cultural display and national pride when a national athletic is showcased and who is also successful. ...
Chapter
A primary function of a hallmark event is to provide the host community with an opportunity to secure high prominence in the tourism marketplace. There is no lack of research on the impacts of hallmark events on the host cities. However, the impact on the well-being of non-host community is underexplored. Extant tourism literature has suggested examining events and festivals as a fertile area to explore the transformative linkages to well-being and happiness. This transformative mode brings about life altering impacts on these experiences, allowing spectators far and wide to find new meaning and develop a set of expectations. The 2016 Olympic Games were a historic moment for Singaporeans, as the country came to a standstill when Joseph Schooling won the nation’s first ever Olympic gold medal in the 100 metres butterfly swimming event. Using social media analysis through netnography method, this chapter identifies the transformation the 2016 Olympic Games had on the spectators in Singapore. This study advances the knowledge boundary of hallmark events by connecting reverberations on a society and individual well-being beyond the immediate vicinity of the host destination.
... Likewise, teams or players (e.g. Bradley 2002;Gibbson 2011), sport successes (see Hilvoorde van, Elling, and Stokvis 2010; Kavetsos and Szymanski 2010), events (e.g. Tour de France), stadiums (frequently referred to as "national arenas") or outfits (e.g. ...
Article
Most national symbols – the flag, the coat of arms, the anthem, the pantheon of historical figures – belong to the common symbolic space. However, there are also those which divide the society: controversial figures or historical events which are difficult to assess and vulnerable to contradictory interpretations. In Poland, one case in point are the Cursed Soldiers. This paper discusses a specific mode of patriotism of football fans influenced by the figures of Cursed Soldiers. The first part provides a theoretical frame for further arguments. The second draws the relation between Polish football fans and nationalism. The third introduces the figure of Cursed Soldiers: their history, political context and social perceptions. The fourth part analyses fans’ guerrilla patriotism. It revolves around performative content produced within football fandom, mainly by ultras groups. The article concludes with a discussion of specifics and universals of the proposed model of guerrilla patriotism.
... These athletes are frequently positioned as "role models", inspiring others to participate in sport and thereby promoting a so-called "trickle down" effect -a claim which is poorly substantiated (Weed et al., 2015). The "feel-good factor" that this type of event generates is temporary (Kavetsos & Szymanski, 2010), but the lasting effects for host communities can be negative both socially (Horne & Manzenreiter, 2006) and economically (Kesenne, 2012). Thus, while MSE have tremendous global exposure and global power, their sustainable impact is being questioned. ...
Chapter
It is time to talk about “Governance in Sport and the Olympic Movement”. These are the elements that we use to talk about something much bigger than sport itself, even bigger than the Olympic Games, because we are talking about people in all their uncountable dimensions.
... These athletes are frequently positioned as "role models", inspiring others to participate in sport and thereby promoting a so-called "trickle down" effect -a claim which is poorly substantiated (Weed et al., 2015). The "feel-good factor" that this type of event generates is temporary (Kavetsos & Szymanski, 2010), but the lasting effects for host communities can be negative both socially (Horne & Manzenreiter, 2006) and economically (Kesenne, 2012). Thus, while MSE have tremendous global exposure and global power, their sustainable impact is being questioned. ...
Chapter
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Reducing Brazilian inequality should stand as a permanent challenge for all sectors of Brazilian society. Inequality has structural components related to a past characterized by a highly stratified model of social organization which began in the era of slavery and has perpetuated class privileges through multiple political regimes.
... Additionally, non-monetary effects, such as residents' pleasure related to the celebration of the successes of national/local athletes, a festival atmosphere in the city, and the pride from hosting a successful event, are likely outcomes. In the literature, these latter factors are known as psychic income (Kavetsos & Szymanski, 2010). Externalities can also include improved public health if the event motivates residents to exercise more, or, as in the present case, inspires them to substitute car use for active transport modes (cycling, walking). ...
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Research question This study evaluates the impact of the 2017 World Road Cycling Championship on local residents’ physical activity and transportation mode choices. Based on the common assumption that major international sport events are catalysts for sport participation and physical activity (the ‘trickle-down effect’), the study addresses two research questions: (i) Did the event increase residents’ motivation for cycling as a means of exercising and daily transport? and (ii) Did the frequency of cycling participation in various forms (e.g. cycling for work, for exercise) increase from before to after the event? Research methods The methodological approach is based on triangulation and comprises data from a three-wave panel survey among residents in Bergen (the hosting city), as well as bicycle traffic coun Results and findings Study results show that the 2017 World Road Cycling Championship had limited impact on residents’ motivation for exercising. Neither did cycling modal shares in Bergen increase after the event. Although some 10% of the sample reported higher cycling frequencies in the year following the Championship, this change cannot be traced back to the event. Overall, the results are discouraging to organisers who expect that an international sport event will automatically increase physical activity. Implications Organisers of major international sport events should make careful judgements about the potential for realizing trickle-down effects and thoroughly consider the alternative allocations of grants received for hosting the event.
Article
The purpose of this research is to identify the fluctuation of national pride during the Tokyo Olympic Games in 2021. Previous research has found that hosting mega sporting events increases national pride. However, the 2020 Tokyo Olympic Games were held under a situation different than that considered by conventional research. The Tokyo Olympic Games faced opposition from public opinion due to the COVID-19 pandemic. This research involved two surveys conducted before and after the Tokyo Olympic Games. The results showed that people’s national pride increased. Furthermore, the impact of the Tokyo Olympic Games varied across individuals. Respondents who were anxious about COVID-19 experienced a smaller increase in national pride due to the event than those who were less anxious about COVID-19. This research concludes that hosting mega sporting events can increase national pride, but this effect is limited in the context of severe social issues. The limitations of this research and directions for future research are discussed.
Article
Despite an increasing expectation of sports’ potential as contributors to society, not many studies have longitudinally examined their social, economic, and cultural outcomes. This study proposes an integrated conceptual model to enhance the holistic understanding of sports-based development initiative. Applying this model to the “Vision 2030: Live Better through Sport” road map in Singapore, the longitudinal study empirically shows that the public’s participation in grassroots sports activities is a fundamental engine of sports-based holistic development for multi-dimensional outcomes among grassroots, elite, and mega sports dynamics. Also, this study presents a general sport system model to describe the mechanism for social impacts and longitudinal outcomes in the sports-based development initiatives, which provides strategic guideline for project monitoring and evaluation for the actual outcomes. Importantly, the findings offer policy insights into the public’s transformation by having a meaningful story through sport as a high leverage point in the sport-based holistic development system.
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Mega-sport events continue to attract interest from potential hosts around the world. The belief is that these events bring the host city and country not only prestige but also economic benefits, notably tourism. A decade ago, Fourie and Santana-Gallego (2011) published a seminal paper that defined a gravity model for tourism demand to estimate the impact of six mega-sport events on international tourism for the period 1995–2006. This paper updates and expands their analysis by adding more observations (for the period 1995–2019), more events (eleven mega-sport events), testing new hypotheses and by using more advanced econometric methods. New results confirm some earlier findings, question others and reveal that, because of the selection panel's preference for developed countries to host mega-sport events, the impact of these events on inbound tourism is likely to be smaller in future.
Conference Paper
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Bu araştırmanın temel amacı, spor yöneticilerinin liderlik özelliklerinin, spor geçmişi değişkeni bağlamında karşılaştırılmasıdır. Çalışmada nitel araştırma deseni kullanılmıştır. Araştırmanın evrenini; basketbol, futbol ve hentbol branşlarında faaliyet göstermekte olan spor kulüplerinde görev yapan spor yöneticileri oluşturmaktadır. Araştırmanın örneklemini ise, İstanbul’da yer alan spor kulüplerinde çalışan ve tesadüfi yöntem ile seçilmiş olan 40 spor yöneticisi teşkil etmektedir. En az 4 yıllık süre boyunca takım sporu yapmış spor yöneticileri ve hiç spor yapmamış sedanter spor yöneticileri iki gruba ayrılmıştır. Uzman görüşleri doğrultusunda 9 adet açık uçlu soru belirlenmiştir. Sorular, ayrıntılı cevapların alınabildiği ve katılımcılara özgürlük sağlayan bir veri toplama tekniği olan “ropörtaj” kullanılarak katılımcılara sorulmuştur. Toplanılan nitel verilerin analizinde, kişilerin bir fenomen ile ilişkilendirilmesini sağlayan “yorumlayıcı fenomenolojik analiz” yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Çalışmada elde edilen sonuçlar doğrultusunda, liderlik özellikleri taşıyan spor yöneticilerinin geçmiş tecrübelerine bakıldığında, daha önce bir takımda oynamış spor yöneticilerinin daha başarılı takım liderleri ve yöneticileri olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Ayrıca, takım sporu tecrübesi olan spor yöneticilerinin yüksek düzeyde empati kurabilme yetenekleri ve her koşulda rekabetçi olabilme özellikleriyle, çalıştıkları kulüplerin sportif başarısında anahtar bir rol üstlendiği sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. The main purpose of this research is to compare the leadership characteristics of sports managers in the context of sports background variable. Qualitative research design was used in the study. The universe of the research; consists of sports managers working in sports clubs operating in basketball, football and handball branches. The sample of the study, on the other hand, consists of 40 sports managers working in sports clubs in Istanbul and selected by random method. Sports managers who have done team sports for at least 4 years and sedentary sports managers who have never done sports are divided into two groups. In line with expert opinions, 9 open-ended questions were determined. The questions were asked to the participants using “interview”, a data collection technique that allows detailed answers and provides freedom to the participants. In the analysis of the collected qualitative data, the "interpretive phenomenological analysis" method, which allows people to be associated with a phenomenon, was used. In line with the results obtained in the study, when the past experiences of sports managers with leadership characteristics are examined, it has been determined that sports managers who have played in a team before are more successful team leaders and managers. In addition, it has been concluded that sports managers with team sports experience play a key role in the sportive success of the clubs they work with, with their ability to empathize at a high level and to be competitive under all conditions.
Thesis
Pourquoi les nouvelles enceintes sportives n’atteignent-elles pas les objectifs escomptés, notamment en termes de taux de remplissage ? Pour répondre à cette question, étudier le processus d’attachement au club et d’attachement au stade nous semble particulièrement porteur, notamment dans les chaînages conceptuels proximité → valeur perçue → attachement et attachement à l’ancien stade → proximité → valeur perçue → attachement au nouveau stade.Vingt-trois hypothèses sont formulées et testées auprès de 1 446 spectateurs de stade Yves-du-Manoir de Colombes, 668 spectateurs de la Paris La Défense Arena et 328 spectateurs des deux enceintes. Les résultats obtenus confirment la validité des deux chaînages conceptuels testés et offrent des pistes de réflexion managériale pour les professionnels de l’industrie du sport professionnel qui souhaiteraient améliorer le taux de remplissage de leur enceinte.
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Purpose: This research paper investigates the impact of sports tourism on the growth of economy of a developing nation especially India. We have used the time frame from 1990 to 2016 and we have taken all the international events occurred in India during this span of time. The variables included in this research paper include Gross Domestic Product as dependent variable whereas in control variable we have taken Gross Fixed Capital Formation and Labor Force and International Tourism as focus variable. We have also used dummy variable in our regression model where ‘0’ refers to years in which India has not hosted any mega sports event and ‘1’ refers to years in which India has hosted any mega sports event. Methodology: In order to observe the effect of hosting any mega sports events on growth on economy of India, we have used Ordinary Least Square technique. Findings: In order to observe the effect of hosting any mega sports events on growth on economy of India, we have used Ordinary Least Square technique. With the help of Regression results we can conclude that there is a positive impact of Sports Tourism on Gross Domestic Product and the dummy variable used in our Regression model also found to be significant. After seeing the results, it is suggested to the policy makers and the Indian Government to increase the investment in the infrastructure and also provide number of incentives to the tourist that are going to visit during any mega sports event, perhaps it will also boost the tourism industry in the country which ultimately effect the growth of economy positively. Implications: There are other areas which should be the focus of the government in future are socio-cultural issues and environmental impacts of hosting a mega sports event.
Chapter
Die „Olympischen Spiele“ sind das wichtigste Sportereignis der Welt und zugleich eine Marke. Das angebotene Kuppelprodukt verspricht sportliche Leistung von herausragender Qualität, die durch die Olympische Idee und die darin formulierten Werte Exzellenz, Respekt und Freundschaft zum Aufbau einer besseren Welt getragen wird. Im Gegensatz zu dieser Olympischen Idee steht jedoch der Betrieb von Olympia, bei dem in den letzten Jahren vermehrt abweichendes Verhalten in Form von Korruption oder Doping sowie negativer Einflüsse auf die Gesellschaft und Umwelt aufgetreten ist.
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Research question Football is the world's most popular spectator sport so supporters’ satisfaction and happiness (wellbeing) is of considerable interest. We examined how gaps between supporters’ expectations and teams’ achievements affect supporters’ wellbeing, and how social identity moderates this. Addressing previous methodological limitations, we examined such gaps objectively in a meaningful real-world scenario. Research methods We conducted a quasi-experiment around the 2018 FIFA World Cup with 278 supporters and 63 control participants, collecting data before, during, and after the championship. We also examined curvilinear effects and the moderating effect of social identity using polynomial regression surface modelling. Results and findings Supporters’ satisfaction increased when their national team's achievements exceeded expectations, decreased when achievements failed to exceed expectations, and remained stable for a control group. Happiness was unchanged in these conditions, however. Polynomial regression indicated that expectations and achievements explained a substantial 35% of incremental variance in satisfaction, and their three-dimensional curvilinear interaction accounted for a further 6% (a considerable 41% overall). The moderating effect of social identity on this relationship also approached significance. Implications Increases in achievements increase satisfaction, and disproportionately so for high achievements. However, satisfaction is also increased by lowering expectations, particularly for supporters identifying strongly with their teams. For supporters identifying less strongly, though, moderate expectations increase satisfaction most.
Article
Research question The number of co-hosted sports events has significantly increased in recent years. In view of society’s changing expectations for more sustainability, greater consideration of social concerns and an increasingly critical analysis of sports events, this research paper explores the social value of co-hosted sports events. Research methods A mixed-method design was employed. For exploratory study one, 23 semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with senior managers involved in seven different co-hosted sports events. To test findings from study one, 561 spectators of the Men’s Handball World Championship in Denmark and Germany were surveyed. Structural equation modelling was used to test the hypotheses derived from study one. Results and findings Co-hosted sports events provide great opportunities for generating different kinds of social value. However, the event organisers are not fully aware of this potential and have no strategy in place to take advantage of it. One of the preconditions for leveraging a co-hosted sports event for (social) value is that people perceive the event as one event. This significantly increases the perceived event benefits as well as consumer support for the event. Implications This study extends the knowledge of the management of co-hosted sports events and identifies specific features for delivering (social) value through co-hosted sports events. It is strongly recommended that event organisers develop and implement a social leveraging plan and pay attention to a common and uniform presentation of the event. Policymakers should reconsider the promotion of and subsidies for co-hosted sports events.
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Competitive computer gaming, known as electronic sport or esport, is growing and professionalizing profoundly during the past years with experts struggling to allocate it in society. This scoping review explores existing evidence and identifies potential societal impact of esport by applying the Mapping Elite Sports Societal Impact Model. Main findings included insights on the motivation of passive and active esport consumption, beneficial socializing, pedagogical or educational aspects, hegemonial clinical pictures in esport, differing popularity regarding demographics and games, and potential interference of the esport economy in traditional sports. The findings implicate a paradigm shift in the world of sport. It can be stated that esport affects society in a positive and a negative way, although the fragmented body of research has only given superficial evidence so far. Future research needs to go into detail regarding the peculiarities and find approaches of isolating the positive aspects, while reducing the negative spin-offs and allow a well-regulated handling of esport on a broad societal level.
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The economic and social-cultural impacts of events are well documented in the existing events literature. The emergence of quality of life (QOL), well-being and happiness in the positive psychology literature has accelerated research on events and individuals’ subjective well-being (SWB). Taking a narrative synthesis approach, this study identifies a total of 46 peer reviewed journal articles on SWB and events and reviews how SWB has been discussed and investigated in the events context. The results of this study reveal three key approaches to SWB and events. The first approach takes SWB as synonymous with the benefits and impacts of events. The second approach examines SWB in terms of its relationship with the motivations and satisfaction of event participants and local residents. The final approach to SWB examines the relationship between SWB and the event (including festivalscape) experience. The review findings also identify areas of potential weakness in the existing literature. The existing event studies relating to SWB primarily focus on sporting events, with only a few festivals, are often undertaken from a Western perspective, and generally rely on quantitative approaches. More importantly, the extant event literature appears to use the SWB concept loosely without agreement on its structure or key components. Suggestions for future research lie in further conceptualisation of SWB in the events context with validated measurement tools and conceptual models, and closer examination of the causal relationship between event (experience) and levels of SWB.
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We revisit the magnitude of home advantage at the Summer and Winter Olympic Games, looking back all the way to Athens in 1896. By comparing a host country’s success with their performances in previous and subsequent games, we find that home advantage has declined over time as participation and the diversity of competition have increased. Hosts of the Summer Olympics between 1988 and 2016 enjoyed a two-percentage-point boost in their shares of medals and finalists, compared with their performances overseas, in both men's and women's events. In this same contemporary period, the home advantage effect at the Winter Olympics was around fifty percent larger in men's events but non-existent in women's events. We also find evidence of significant performance spill overs on the previous and next Olympiads for countries when they hosted the Summer Games.
Article
Research question This paper aims to evaluate the interest of adopting a comprehensive approach to study sporting event impacts. Research methods The study case is the Alltech FEI World Equestrian Games™ 2014 in Normandy. Measurement of the economic impact is based on the Wilson multiplier. The calculation of social benefits relies on a typical cost–benefit analysis, through the Clawson–Knetsch Travel cost and the Contingent valuation methods, completed by a qualitative work. The analysis of the environmental impact and the long-term legacy is more descriptive and relies on miscellaneous indicators. Results and Findings The economic impact is significant for the region and reaches 125% of the organizational budget. Social benefits resulting from spectators and local inhabitants exceed the amount invested by the public sector. Negative environmental effects had been partly reduced because of accompanying measures, illustrating their importance. In the long term, an heritage for the equestrian sector, and to a lesser extent for the tourism sector, is underlined. Implications This study shows the interest to consider the event impacts globally. To this end, methodologies deeply rooted in the literature can be used for economic and social effects but new approaches and methodologies need to be developed for environmental impacts and legacy.
Article
Research question Our study investigates the relationship between elite sport performance and sportive nationalism in Great Britain. Research methods We utilise the Taking Part Survey (TPS), which gathers data from a representative sample of around 10,000 adults aged 16 and over residing in England each year. Between July 2011 and March 2016, the TPS included a question to identify the components of national pride in Great Britain. We examined ‘British sporting achievements’ as one of 12 domains that made people in England feel most proud of the country (Great Britain). The determinants of sportive nationalism were assessed using logistic regression analysis. Associations between monthly variations in sportive nationalism (57 data points) and specific events that might influence its level were explored. Results and Findings Sportive nationalism was shown by only a small minority of the sample and was typically of a lesser magnitude compared with other more stable factors such as the British countryside, its history and health service. Certain population segments were more inclined to be sportive nationalists such as those who participated in sport or followed it online. Changes in sportive nationalism were seen to coincide with the performances of British athletes and teams, albeit these were temporary in nature. Implications Our study provides limited evidence to justify government investment in elite sport on the grounds of success generating national pride. A wide range of events might influence sportive nationalism and reductions in this domain of national pride may be associated with both perceived failure and a general waning effect.
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Delivering community-based benefits is oftentimes cited to justify the high costs associated with hosting large-scale events. The current research is embedded in positive psychology to examine how an event impacts host community members’ PERMA domains, reflected through positive emotions, engagement, relationships, meaning, and accomplishment. Adopting a longitudinal approach, the authors interviewed 15 host community members before and after a large-scale sport event to determine if and how the event impacted their well-being. The findings uncovered evidence that the event activated positive emotions, relationships, and meaning across both phases, and evidence of accomplishment within the postevent phase. The findings contribute to the knowledge by examining the links between large-scale sport events and well-being throughout the event lifecycle. This research forwards implications for event bidding committees, event organizers, and host community officials to maximize community well-being through hosting large-scale events and to help justify associated expenses from a social–psychological perspective.
Article
This paper evaluates two infrastructure mega-projects connected to the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver’s downtown peninsula: the renovation of BC Place Stadium and the Vancouver Convention Centre expansion. These projects correspond to two categories of mega-projects often constructed alongside sporting mega-events with intended tourism development legacies that have a history of financial underperformance. Touching upon literatures concerning mega-events, event leveraging, urban development, as well as the public finance of sport and convention venues, this work focuses on fiscal impacts and opportunity costs for venue site locations where there are already high property values, with the aim of providing lessons for comparable future mega-event hosts contemplating similar event-related mega-projects. In addition to arguing for the alignment of venue design to efficiently maximize long-term operating returns and event portfolios for tourism development, this article highlights that venue location within a host city shapes the opportunity costs for government investors and that cost overruns to meet a fixed event deadline can undermine what may other be a sustainable financial structure. While a mega-event-related stadium or convention centre is at significant risk of becoming a financial loser when considering both capital and operating costs, as well as a sub-optimal platform for maximising an event portfolio, this does not have to be the case. Beyond more traditional measures of project return, this article highlights and further develops another key measure of evaluating financial and revenue outcomes, which can be summed up as the opportunity cost of alternative land uses on a venue site.
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We contribute to the happiness literature by analyzing the causal relationship between sports and happiness. Using longitudinal data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP), we find a positive correlation between sports participation and reported life satisfaction. This relationship is stronger at younger and older ages than in middle age, and for people in bad health compared to those in average health. We further provide evidence for both causal directions. It turns out that the causal impact of engaging in sports on happiness is about four times higher than the effect of happiness on engaging in sports.
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Happiness is often seen as the fruit of an easy life, but empirical studies show that happiness can go together with considerable hardship. Average happiness is high in current western nations, in spite of chronic problems such as criminality, time-pressure and social inequality. Likewise, the happiness of the average citizen is not affected by calamities such as the 11 September terrorist attack on New York. At the individual level there are also examples of happiness in hardship: the happiness of poor and handicapped people is only slightly below average. These paradoxical findings can be explained in three ways: one explanation is that they do not adequately reflect reality, because of measurement bias or false consciousness. A second explanation holds that subjective happiness is insensitive to objective conditions. A third explanation is that we can live with some problems and even flourish when confronted with challenge. These three explanations are considered in the light of the available evidence. It is concluded that the last one fits best. Happiness requires livable conditions, but not Paradise.
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Abstract Human,well-being is important but hard to measure. Using data on approximately
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It is common for a city to use expensive incentives such as a state-of-the-art stadium or tax exemptions to induce a major professional sport team to relocate to or remain in its area. A city does so because it expects a professional sport team to enhance the local economy. In this article, the authors use an event study approach to evaluate the advisability of this strategy. Their results suggest that major league sports franchises from the four major U.S. team sports (baseball, football, basketball, and hockey) have an adverse impact on local per capita income for U.S. markets in both the short and long run.
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This study considers the factors behind the poor performance of ASEAN countries at the 2000 Sydney Olympics. We find that, inter alia, relative GNP, hosting activity, the political system, climate, and relative population size of a country are jointly able to predict its likely performance. In the ASEAN context, we show that although economic and demographic factors are significant, improvements in these variables through governmental policy are likely to have only a limited effect on the actual number of medals won. In contrast, an increasing cultural focus on sport offers some potential for increased Olympic performance but is likely to be outside direct policy influence. We also derive projections for future ASEAN Olympic medal performance based on economic forecasts.
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Rivalry and habit have often been conceived in terms of irrationality or externality by mainstream economists. This chapter argues that this perspective is insufficient. The two classes of phenomena are empirically shown to provide a major source of human happiness, a fact that should not be ignored nor underplayed. A more realistic use of the economist's tools is called for. Examples are discussed on the choice between consumption and leisure, benefits from public expenditure, and redistribution.
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