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Social identification, stress and citizenship in teams: A five-phase longitudinal study

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Abstract

Previous theorizing and research in the social identity tradition suggests that identification with a group is a major determinant both of individuals' citizenship behaviour and their experience of, and responses to, social and organizational stressors. To provide a longitudinal exploration of these processes, the present study examines the patterns of group identification, work-related attitudes and burnout within two theatre production teams on five occasions, from audition to post-performance. As predicted, identification with the production team at the outset predicted positive perceptions and attitudes at the productions' conclusion. Specifically, high identifiers were more willing to display organizational citizenship, had greater work satisfaction and had more pride in their work than those lower in identification. Compared with low identifiers, high identifiers were also less likely to experience burnout during the most demanding phases of a production (i.e. dress rehearsal and performance). Moreover, path analysis indicates that the effect of initial identification on the level of citizenship that was ultimately displayed was partly attributable to the role that group identification played in protecting individuals from burnout during these demanding periods. Findings thus suggest that social identification not only motivates individuals to contribute to group success but also protects them from the stressors they encounter in the process of making that contribution. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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... Haslam et al., 2003). In particular, a shared identity within a group is a basis for coordination and cooperation between group members because it increases their psychological sense of interconnection and common purpose (Haslam et al., , 2009). At the same time, social identity provides group members with a basis for developing a shared understanding of situations, as well as common norms for behaving in those situations (Reicher et al., 2010). ...
... At the same time, social identity provides group members with a basis for developing a shared understanding of situations, as well as common norms for behaving in those situations (Reicher et al., 2010). Consequently, these shared definitions and common norms can improve group behaviour in those who perceive themselves to share social identity (i.e., who are bound together by a common sense of 'us'; Drury et al., 2009;Haslam et al., 2009) while also fostering trust and respect among group members (Haslam et al., 2012;Turner et al., 1987). ...
... Demonstrating these positive effects, Haslam et al. (2009) showed that individuals who had high group identification were more willing to display organization citizenship than those with lower levels of identification. More generally, a large body of research demonstrates that when group members perceive themselves to share a social identity, this increases their motivation to contribute to the group's success, as well as their ability to do so (as reviewed by Ellemers et al., 2004;Haslam, 2004). ...
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Recent research has shown that multiagency emergency response is beset by a range of challenges, calling for a greater understanding of the way in which these teams work together to improve future multiagency working. Social psychological research shows that a shared identity within a group can improve the way in which that group works together and can facilitate effective outcomes. In the present study, 52 semistructured interviews were conducted with 17 strategic and/or tactical responders during the COVID‐19 pandemic to understand the possible role of shared identity in the multiagency response to COVID‐19 and whether this was linked to factors that facilitated or challenged interoperability. Findings show evidence of a shared identity at a horizontal intergroup level among responders locally. However, there was limited evidence for a shared identity at the vertical intergroup level between local and national responders. Three key factors linked to shared identity appeared to contribute to effective multiagency working. First, pre‐existing relationships with other responders facilitated the ease with which responders were able to work together initially. Second, a sense of ‘common fate’ helped bring responders together, and finally, group leaders were able to strategically reinforce a sense of shared identity within the group.
... Recent incidents in the UK, such as the Manchester Arena Attack, 1 the Grenfell Tower fire 2 (both 2017), the Salisbury nerve-agent common purpose [18,19] that is a basis for coordination and cooperation between groups. In addition, shared social identity can provide group members with shared definitions of situations and common norms for behaving in those situations [20], in ways that increase the ability of the group to work together effectively [19,21], and that foster trust and respect among group members [22]. ...
... Recent incidents in the UK, such as the Manchester Arena Attack, 1 the Grenfell Tower fire 2 (both 2017), the Salisbury nerve-agent common purpose [18,19] that is a basis for coordination and cooperation between groups. In addition, shared social identity can provide group members with shared definitions of situations and common norms for behaving in those situations [20], in ways that increase the ability of the group to work together effectively [19,21], and that foster trust and respect among group members [22]. ...
... In this sense, it appears the responders experienced a sense of 'common fate' -"a coincidence of outcomes among two or more persons that arises because they have been subjected to the same external forces or decision rules" [35]; p,118). In research on behaviour in mass emergencies, a shared sense of common fate among group members has been shown to facilitate the development of a shared social identity [36], which subsequently increases the ability of a group to work together effectively [19,21]. ...
Article
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Previous research shows there are persistent challenges with multi-agency response centring on problems of communication and coordination. The Social Identity Approach provides an important psychological framework for analysing relations within and between groups which can be used to understand why challenges in multi-agency response occur, and what can be done to prevent them re-occurring in the future. To explore this issue, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 14 responders from the Police, and Fire and Rescue Services who were involved in Pandemic Multi-Agency Response Teams (PMART) during the initial months of the COVID-19. These teams responded to suspected COVID-19 deaths in the community. Interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. Results show that responders appeared to share the pre-existing superordinate identity of all being members of the blue-light service. This identity was made salient as a result of responders experiencing positive contact with each other. Responders also shared the situational superordinate identity of PMART which was both created, and then made salient, through positive contact with each other, as well as responders sharing difficult experiences. At the same time though, structural factors such as inequalities in building access and different shift patterns increased the salience of sub-group identities in ways that created conflict between these identities, as well as operational challenges for joint working. This research advances our understanding of multi-agency working from a social identity perspective by providing evidence of a shared social identity at an operational level of emergency response. Practical implications of this research are discussed.
... In blended MTMs, identifying with a permanent team, typically the first and most enduring team in which an individual participates (Scott, 1997;Van Knippenberg & van Schie, 2000), could offset identity-related strain generated by participation in multiple temporary teams. Social identity theory suggests that a permanent team can provide a social category from which individuals construct an identity, and strongly identifying with such a team provides individuals with a sense of belonging that can buffer against experiencing identity-related strain when participating in multiple temporary teams (Haslam et al., 2009). By integrating role and social identity theories, our model helps to explain how the number of temporary teams in which individuals participate can impact their turnover decisions in blended MTMs and answers calls for research on identity in MTMs (O'Leary et al., 2011;Rapp & Mathieu, 2019). ...
... Building on this logic and incorporating the buffer perspective from the social identity literature more generally (Haslam et al., 2009) as well as other recent work on the buffering effects of team identification more specifically (Greco et al., 2022), we argue that higher, rather than lower, permanent team identification weakens the positive relationship between number of temporary teams, a stressor, and MTM identity strain. Specifically, a permanent team offers a stable identity target that enables employees to feel essential, secure, and psychologically integrated with their team (Ashforth & Mael, 1989;Mael & Ashforth, 1995). ...
... Research supports the buffering effects of identification on the relationships between stressors and strain. For example, Haslam et al. (2009) investigated the relationship between identification and stressors in a study in which individuals belonging to theater groups were subjected to stressors to understand how social identity plays a protective role in stressor reactions. They found that individuals who had developed high levels of group identification were less likely to experience burnout because social identification acts as a buffer between stressors and burnout. ...
Article
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As the prevalence of multiple team membership (MTM) arrangements continues to grow, researchers have argued that shifting between teams and work roles induces MTM identity strain and other harmful outcomes. Drawing from work role transitions research on role identity and integrating it with social identity theory, we investigate this line of reasoning by conducting two studies, one field and one online panel study, focusing on blended MTMs, in which employees are concurrently assigned to a permanent team and several temporary project teams. Specifically, we examine the theoretical mechanisms explaining a positive relationship between number of temporary teams and turnover decisions. In Study 1, we surprisingly found that number of temporary teams negatively related to turnover decisions through MTM identity strain with permanent team identification strengthening this effect. In contrast, in Study 2, we found support for the hypothesized relationships: number of teams indirectly positively related to turnover intentions, mediated by MTM identity strain and cognitive depletion, and permanent team identification weakened the indirect effect. We provide explanations for these mixed findings and suggest theoretical and practical implications for MTM research.
... Social identity theorising points to the fact that when people define themselves in terms of a particular social identity (e.g., as a member of the Police Service) this has important implications for their cognition and behaviour. In particular, a sense of shared social identity (i.e., a common sense of 'us-ness') between members of a group provides a psychological sense of inter-connection and common purpose (Haslam et al., 2009;2021) that is a basis for coordination and cooperation between groups. In addition, shared social identity can provide group members with shared definitions of situations and common norms for behaving in those situations (Reicher et al., 2010), in ways that increase the ability of the group to work together effectively (Drury et al., 2009;Haslam et al., 2009) and that foster trust and respect among group members (Haslam et al., 2012). ...
... In particular, a sense of shared social identity (i.e., a common sense of 'us-ness') between members of a group provides a psychological sense of inter-connection and common purpose (Haslam et al., 2009;2021) that is a basis for coordination and cooperation between groups. In addition, shared social identity can provide group members with shared definitions of situations and common norms for behaving in those situations (Reicher et al., 2010), in ways that increase the ability of the group to work together effectively (Drury et al., 2009;Haslam et al., 2009) and that foster trust and respect among group members (Haslam et al., 2012). ...
... In this sense, it appears the responders experienced a sense of 'common fate' -"a coincidence of outcomes among two or more persons that arises because they have been subjected to the same external forces or decision rules" (Brewer, 2000, p,118). In research on behaviour in mass emergencies, a shared sense of common fate among group members has been shown to facilitate the development of a shared social identity (Drury, 2018) which subsequently increases the ability of a group to work together effectively (Drury et al., 2009;Haslam et al., 2009). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Previous research shows there are persistent challenges with multi-agency response centring on problems of communication and coordination. The Social Identity Approach provides an important psychological framework for analysing relations within and between groups which can be used to understand why challenges in multi-agency response occur, and what can be done to prevent them re-occurring in the future. Pandemic Multi-Agency Response Teams (PMART) were introduced in some areas of the UK during the initial months of the COVID-19 pandemic to respond to suspected COVID-19 deaths in the community. We conducted 14 semi-structured interviews with responders from the Police and Fire and Rescue Services who were involved in these teams. Interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. Results show that responders appeared to share a pre-existing superordinate identity of all being members of the blue-light service. This identity was made salient through responders experiencing positive contact with each other. Responders also shared the situational superordinate identity of PMART which was both created, and then made salient, through positive contact with each other as well as responders sharing difficult experiences. Structural factors such as inequalities in building access and different shift patterns increased the salience of subgroup identities and caused conflicts between these identities, creating operational challenges for multi-agency working. This research advances our understanding of multi-agency working from a social identity perspective by providing evidence of a shared social identity at an operational level of emergency response. Practical implications of this research are discussed.
... At the same time, it can provide group members with shared definitions of situations, as well as common norms for behaving in those situations (Reicher et al., 2010). Consequently, these shared definitions and common norms can increase the ability of those who perceive themselves to share social identity (i.e., who are bound by a common sense of 'us') to work effectively together (Drury et al., 2009;Haslam et al., 2009) while also fostering trust and respect among group members (Haslam et al., 2012;Turner et al., 1987). ...
... Demonstrating these positive effects, Haslam et al. (2009) showed that individuals who had high group identification were more willing to display organization citizenship, Qeios, CC-BY 4.0 · Article, October 12, 2021 ...
... It is well documented within the social identity literature that when individuals identify with members of their group this can help the group work more effectively together (Drury et al., 2009;Haslam et al., 2009) and can foster trust in other group members (Turner et al., 1987). In other words, when these relationships are already formed and individuals have had recent experience of a shared identity with each other in the past, it makes it easier for them to act as a group in the present. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Recent research has shown that multi-agency emergency response is beset by a range of problems, calling for a greater understanding of the way in which these teams work together to improve future multi-agency working. Social psychological research shows that a shared identity within a group can improve the way in which that group works together and can facilitate effective outcomes. In the present study, 52 semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 strategic and tactical responders during the COVID-19 pandemic to understand the possible role of shared identity in the multi-agency response to COVID-19. Findings suggest that two forms of group relations were particularly relevant: horizontal intergroup relations – the relationships among responders at the local level; and vertical intergroup relations – the relationship between responders at the local level and national level. Three key factors appeared to contribute to an effective multi-agency response. First, pre-existing relationships with other responders facilitated the ease with which responders were able to work together initially. Second, a sense of ‘common fate’ helped bring responders together, and finally, Chairs of groups were able to strategically reinforce a sense of shared identity within the group.
... Based on faultline theory's theoretical underpinnings, self-categorization theory (Turner et al., 1987) and social identity theory (Tajfel and Turner, 1986), we argue that team identification is a mediator in the positive association of faultlines and burnout: In-group and out-group perception and the resulting intergroup bias (Tajfel and Turner, 1986) are detrimental to team identification, which, in turn, is beneficial for well-being (Onyett et al., 1997;Haslam et al., 2005Haslam et al., , 2009Cicero et al., 2007;Jimmieson et al., 2010). ...
... Because team members may not only identify with the whole team but also with their subgroup, furthermore, we consider subgroup identification as a moderator of the relationship between team identification and burnout. Assuming that team identification mitigates burnout (Onyett et al., 1997;Haslam et al., 2009), we argue that identification with a part of the team can be beneficial, too. ...
... Beyond that, we chose to investigate team identification as a mediator, because of the existing evidence for a link between team identification and burnout (i.e., emotional exhaustion). Team identification has positive effects on well-being in general as well as curative effects on burnout in particular (Onyett et al., 1997;Haslam et al., 2005Haslam et al., , 2009Cicero et al., 2007;Jimmieson et al., 2010). Another study in a longitudinal design even showed that the initial level of team identification had a curative effect on burnout in a later time point when the group was exposed to great strains (Haslam et al., 2009). ...
Article
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We investigate the relationship between (hypothetical) subgroup splits (i.e., faultlines), subjectively perceived subgroups, and team identification and emotional exhaustion. Based on the job demands-resources model and on self-categorization theory, we propose that faultline strength and perceived subgroups negatively affect emotional exhaustion, mediated by team identification. We further propose that subgroup identification moderates the mediation such that subgroup identification compensates low levels of team identification. We tested our hypotheses with a two-wave questionnaire study in a sample of 105 participants from 48 teams from various contexts. We found an effect of perceived subgroups on emotional exhaustion mediated by team identification, but no direct or indirect effect of faultline strength on emotional exhaustion. We also could not find that subgroup identification moderates the effect of team identification on emotional exhaustion. We discuss the need for further research on the link of subgroup splits in work teams and the rise of psychological health issues and derive that measures to prevent burnout should primarily focus on avoiding or reducing subgroup perception whereas affecting the actual demographic composition of work team should be of lower priority.
... During disasters, members of the public may even risk their own lives to help others who are perceived to be ingroup members (Drury et al., 2009a). A shared social identity also promotes trust in other group members, in the belief that they will be supportive (Drury and Reicher, 2009) and generates motivation to contribute to shared group goals (Haslam et al., 2009). Thus, if responders' recommended actions are in line with (i.e. ...
... The provision of healthfocused information is more likely to help to reduce public anxiety if responders are perceived as being members of a relevant ingroup (in relation to the disaster) (Haslam et al., 2004). Shared social identity can also reduce stress by increasing shared expectations of group support (Haslam et al., 2004(Haslam et al., , 2005(Haslam et al., , 2009) and increasing individuals' ability to work together to challenge and reduce shared stressors (Haslam and Reicher, 2006). The positive role of expected support in adaptive crowd behavior has been demonstrated empirically across a range of disasters and potentially dangerous mass gatherings (Alnabulsi and Drury, 2014;Drury et al., 2015Drury et al., , 2016. ...
... Haslam and Reicher, 2006). During mass emergencies, identification among members of the public is likely to facilitate a sense of collective agency among the group, by promoting a belief that members of the public will be able to work together and support each other to achieve shared goals (Haslam et al., 2009;Drury, 2012). To the extent that members of the public identify with emergency responders, they should also expect support from them in carrying out responder-normative actions, and hence a sense of collective agency should also develop between members of the public and emergency responders. ...
Article
When addressing public behaviour during mass emergencies and disasters, it is important to consider that such emergencies and disasters will often involve crowds. An understanding of emergency crowds is therefore crucial in ensuring that incidents are managed as effectively as possible. The elaborated social identity model of crowd behaviour emphasizes that the way in which emergency responders manage crowds during an incident can play a crucial role in determining how members of the public react. Specifically, if affected casualties see emergency responders' instructions and actions as legitimate, this will result in increased identification and cooperation between emergency responders and members of the public. In this paper, we show how the social identity approach can be applied to best explain crowd behaviour during mass emergencies and disasters, and how this improved theoretical understanding can be used to generate specific recommendations for operational good practice during incident management.
... The social identity model of stress was developed by Haslam and colleagues (e.g. Haslam, Jetten, & Waghorn, 2009;see Haslam & van Dick, 2011) who proposed that individuals' identification with groups has important positive eff ects on their health and well-being. They proposed various reasons for this link. ...
... For example, van Dick and Wagner (2002) found significant negative relationships between identification on the one hand and withdrawal and physical symptoms on the other. To better understand how social identity can play a protective role in stress reactions, Haslam et al. (2009) examined the nature of the relationship between identification and stress in a longitudinal study across five phases, where the group was exposed to diff erent levels of stressors. Results showed that participants with high levels of identification were less likely to experience burnout in critical phases when the group was exposed to the greatest levels of strain suggesting that social identification buff ers the stressor-burnout linkage. ...
... However, the causal direction we proposed is in line with the social identity theory of stress (Haslam & van Dick, 2011) and longitudinal (e.g. Haslam et al., 2009) and experimental (e.g. Häusser et al., 2012) studies have supported the view that identification can impact well-being. ...
Article
We contribute to the understanding of the relationship between organisational identification and work-related stress by examining the role that expanded forms of organisational identification play in explaining the nature of this relationship. The current study explores the extent to which organisational identification and other expanded forms of identification predict employee strain. We hypothesise that ambivalent identification, neutral identification, and disidentification will moderate the negative relationship between organisational identification and exhaustion and ego depletion, such that the link between identification and strain will be stronger when the other dimensions are low. We tested these predictions in a survey among 228 employees of care homes for the elderly (72% social-sanitary operators, 27% nurses). Results largely supported the hypotheses and show reliable interactions for ambivalent, neutral identification, and disidentification on both exhaustion and ego depletion. Results showed a significant moderation by ambivalent identification for exhaustion but for ego depletion. We discuss limitations and future implications for research and practice of the expanded model of organisational identification in organisational interventions that deal with work-related stress.
... Social identification should also be meaningfully related to trajectories of solidarity-based action over time (Louis et al., 2020). Identification has been shown to have an important buffering effect on stress and burnout, in ways that may work to maintain commitment to the cause even in the face of inertia and opposition (e.g., Haslam et al., 2009). Thomas et al. (2020) demonstrated using cross-lagged longitudinal methods that social identification was associated with subsequent increases in collective action, among both structurally privileged and disadvantaged group members. ...
... Given that this is a committed supporter sample overall, it may be that group efficacy plays a more important role in explaining initiation and change for people who are inactive (and/or more lowly identified; van Zomeren, Spears, & Leach, 2008). Inconsistent with evidence suggesting that social identification provides a buffer against the stressors of maintaining commitment over time (e.g., Haslam et al., 2009), we found that identification predicted the intercept but did not predict the slope in the sample overall. Social identification did predict the activist supporter trajectory, however, suggesting that, consistent with theorizing on this topic, identification is not just about the here and now, but also has a future oriented element allowing people to sustaining high-level (albeit slightly diminished) action over time ("becoming the change"; G. E. . ...
Article
Social change occurs over years and decades, yet we know little about how people sustain, increase or diminish their actions over time, and why they do so. This article examines diverging trajectories of solidarity-based collective action to support people in developing nations more than 5 years. We suggest that sustained, diminished, and/or increased action over time will be predicted by identification as a supporter, group efficacy beliefs, and discrete emotions about disadvantage. Latent Growth Mixture Models ( N = 483) revealed two trajectories with unique signatures: an activist supporter trajectory with a higher intercept and weakly declining action; and a benevolent supporter trajectory with a lower intercept but weakly increasing action. The activist trajectory was predicted by social identification, outrage, and hope, whereas the benevolent supporter trajectory was predicted by sympathy. The results highlight the role of combinations of emotions and the need for person-centered longitudinal methods in collective action research.
... As discussed in this series of reports previously (1-3), a shared social identity (i.e. a sense of 'we' instead of 'I') can help different groups within an organization work more effectively together (4)(5) and fosters trust in other group members (6). ...
... One way a shared social identity can improve the ability of a group to work more effectively together is through increased resilience. When people identify with members of the teams they work with, they get more support and are consequently less susceptible to stress (11), as well as being more willing and able to work together to achieve shared goals (5). ...
Technical Report
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This is the third in a series of ongoing reports that aim to understand the current challenges faced by Local Resilience Forums (LRFs) during the Covid-19 pandemic in the UK, with the goal of supporting the ongoing development of good working practice.
... According to this theory, different groups have different identities and norms. A shared identity within a group enables co-ordination and co-operation between group members because they share the same norms and goals, thus increasing the ability of the group to work more effectively together (4,5), as well as fostering trust in other group members (3). For two different groups to work together effectively, therefore, they need a shared identity at the superordinate level. ...
... To maintain organisational resilience, it is important that emergency responders identify with their own organisation. When people identify with their organisation and members of the teams they work with, they are less susceptible to stress and are more resilient (12), as well as more willing and able to work together to achieve shared goals (5). ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This is the first in a series of ongoing reports that aim to understand the current challenges faced by Local Resilience Forums in the Covid-19 pandemic, with the aim of supporting the ongoing development of good working practice.
... This theory was tested by Griffin, Steptoe and Cropley (1999), who found that the same situations appeared less stressful to teachers who had higher levels of perceived social support and effective coping behavior. In a rare longitudinal study, Haslam, Jetten and Waghorn (2009), found that over a five-year period, high work-group identifiers were more likely to experience morale and pride, and less likely to experience stress when the group was exposed to their highest workload, highlighting the benefits of group identification. Even the most recent literature is finding that poor social job characteristics, such as social exclusion from the workgroup, increases a teacher's perceived stressors and disrupts their sleep pattern which aids stress recovery, meaning that their resources to cope are diminished (Kottwitz, Gerhardt, Pereira, Iseli & Elfering, 2018). ...
... In relation to stress, these findings contradict past longitudinal studies which found either positive organizational climate perceptions or stronger identification appeared to lead to less stress over time (Angelo & Chambel, 2015;Haslam, 2004;Haslam et al., 2009). It is possible that school climate or social identification did not predict stress over time because the longitudinal sample was less stressed. ...
Article
Full-text available
In organizational psychology, staff perceptions of organizational climate have been found to be an important predictor of employee outcomes, such as employee stress. However, only a small pool of research has investigated the psychological mechanism that underpins the relationship, and no past literature has explored how the relationship persists over time. This paper uses the social identity approach to investigate whether social identification predicts and mediates the relationship between staff perceptions of organizational climate and their levels of stress and self-esteem over time. Employing a sample of public school teachers, the study was conducted over two years (N = 281, 65 schools). The results indicated that social identification fully mediated the relationship between organizational climate and self-esteem longitudinally but showed no significant relationship with stress. The implications of these findings are discussed, with recommendations for future research.
... Accordingly, work-identity has mostly been framed in terms of social identity (Van Knippenberg, 2000;Van Dick and Wagner, 2002;Bjerregaard et al., 2015) and related to health and wellbeing outcomes (Haslam et al., 2009a,b;Jetten et al., 2012;Haslam, 2014;Jetten et al., 2014;Steffens et al., 2016). More precisely, negative associations between different types of collective work-identity and chronic anxiety and depression (Bizumic et al., 2009;Cruwys et al., 2014), workplace stress (Haslam et al., 2005;Haslam et al., 2009b), and psychological distress (Wegge et al., 2006) have been reported. Collective work-identities have also been shown to reduce self-reported stress (Haslam and Reicher, 2006;Wegge et al., 2012) as well as to negatively correlate with exhaustion and other burnout components (Wegge et al., 2006;Haslam et al., 2009b). ...
... More precisely, negative associations between different types of collective work-identity and chronic anxiety and depression (Bizumic et al., 2009;Cruwys et al., 2014), workplace stress (Haslam et al., 2005;Haslam et al., 2009b), and psychological distress (Wegge et al., 2006) have been reported. Collective work-identities have also been shown to reduce self-reported stress (Haslam and Reicher, 2006;Wegge et al., 2012) as well as to negatively correlate with exhaustion and other burnout components (Wegge et al., 2006;Haslam et al., 2009b). All in all, this indicates that high levels of collective work-identity may operate as a psychological buffer against the negative impact of work-related stress (Jetten et al., 2012;Haslam et al., 2009a,b). ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to investigate relationships between emotion and cognition components of personal and collective work-identity and self-reported general mental health and exhaustion, in Swedish teachers (N = 768). In line with our predictions, we showed that the emotion component of personal work-identity and the cognition component of collective work-identity associated positively with general mental health and negatively with exhaustion. The reverse result was found, however, for the cognition component of personal work-identity and emotion component of collective work-identity. In general, all this indicates that person-work bonding might, to some degree, account for general mental health and exhaustion in employees. In particular, the findings suggest that general mental health and exhaustion may vary symmetrically across the: (1) Type of person-work bonding (personal vs. collective work-identity); and (2) Type of psychological component (emotion vs. cognition) involved in personal- and collective work-identity.
... This nding is well supported as, the negative impact isolation and loneliness has on mental health is widely reported across research (e.g., (45,46), and as demonstrated in an overview of systematic reviews (47)). The ability to create a shared sense of social identity with colleagues, which is protective of workplace stress (48) and burnout (49), may be hindered by homeworking (50) which can result in feelings of isolation or loneliness. This nding suggests that opportunities for social integration should be promoted by managers and team leaders. ...
Preprint
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Background As of March 2020, the UK public were instructed to work from home and as a result, nearly half of those in employment did so during the following month. Pre-pandemic, around 5% of workers chose to work from home; it was often seen as advantageous, for example due to eliminating commuting time and increasing flexibility. However, homeworking also had negative connotations, for example, blurred boundaries between work and home life due to a sense of constant connectivity to the workplace. Therefore, understanding the psychological impact of working from home in an enforced and prolonged manner due to the COVID-19 pandemic is important. Therefore, this review sought to establish the impact of working from home in terms of mental health and productivity. Methods In January 2022, literature searches were conducted across four electronic databases: Medline, Embase, PsycInfo and Web of Science. In February 2022 grey literature searches were conducted using Google Advanced Search, NHS Evidence; Gov.uk Publications; and the British Library directory of online doctoral theses. Published and unpublished literature which collected data after March 2020, included participants who experienced working from home for at least some of their working hours, and detailed the impact of homeworking in relation to mental health or productivity were included. Results In total 6,906 citations were screened and 25 papers from electronic databases were included. Grey literature searching resulted in two additional papers. Therefore, 27 studies were included in this review. Findings suggest the impact of homeworking on mental health and productivity varies considerably, suggesting a complex relationship, with many factors having an influence on the relationship. Conclusion We found that there was no clear consensus as to the impact of working from home on mental health or productivity. However, there are indications that those who start homeworking for the first time during a pandemic are at risk of poor productivity, as are those who experience poor mental health. Suggestions for future research are suggested.
... Dass soziale Identifikation nicht nur mit (Arbeits-) Einstellungen und -verhalten zusammenhängt, sondern auch mit dem Wohlbefinden, zeigen zwei kürzlich durchgeführte Meta-Analysen Postmes et al. 2018 (Haslam et al. 2009). ...
Chapter
Die Mitgliedschaft in einer Gruppe und die Identifikation mit dieser ist förderlich für die eigene Gesundheit, was diverse empirische Studien belegen. Dazu zählt nicht nur die Zugehörigkeit zu Familie und Freunden, sondern auch die soziale Identifikation am Arbeitsplatz. Basierend auf diesen empirischen Befunden ist der Aufbau und die Stärkung von sozialer Identifikation im Unternehmen sowohl von Mitarbeitenden als auch von Führungskräften ein möglicher Ansatzpunkt für die organisationale Gesundheitsförderung.
... This demonstrates a less surprising, albeit very significant, correlation between psychological distress and isolation, but a more significant demonstration of the health challenges of being alone. This pairs well with the research on the effects of interpersonal dynamics on stress, and the positive relationship between sociality and stress reduction (Haslam et al., 2009). This study highlights the influence that belongingness can have on both our mental and physical health, looking specifically at stress, one of the more detrimental human experiences (Kemeny, 2003). ...
Article
This project comes from a deep love of the idea of creating cultures of belonging, originating from my own relationship with community, in which my life was saved by the loving generosity of the 12-step community. This connects to contemporary research on both the nature of, and need for, a sense of belonging to something bigger than oneself. This project begins with a review of current literature on the experience of belonging in the workplace, and the influence that feeling a sense of belonging within one’s organization has on well-being. It then goes into an exploration of current interventions that can be utilized to create cultures of belonging, most notably high-quality connection (HQC) building and appreciative inquiry. The remainder of the paper is a collection of suggestions for interventions and next steps to take when seeking to create a more comprehensive culture of belonging in the workplace. This work helps to drive deeper the importance of having organizational community and healthy interpersonal dynamics in the workplace. The broader implication is that belonging in the workplace is becoming more of a necessity for organizations, and this work helps to guide organizations on their first steps towards a more nourishing workplace community and a culture of belonging.
... However, individuals with bad interaction with a leader tend to perceive resource loss threat and develop emotional exhaustion. Accordingly, it is possible to state that leader-member exchange is an important determinative related to individuals experiences related to job stressors and their answers (Haslam et al., 2009). In this study, it was found that individuals who have a bad interaction with leaders and experience emotional exhaustion had low citizenship behavior level. ...
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The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of toxic leadership perception, leader-member exchange, job stress and emotional exhaustion to predict organizational citizenship behavior of hotel employees. The study is conducted with 623 participants from four and five-star hotel firms in Alanya which is among the top destinations in Turkey. Decision tree analysis is applied to determine the variables that decisive predicting organizational citizenship behavior of the employees. The external validity of the results obtained with the decision tree model is tested with artificial neural networks. The analysis showed that the most significant variable to predict employee organizational citizenship behaviors is leader-member exchange. Findings are discussed in terms of theoretical and practical implications for hospitality literature and sector practitioners.
... In turn, group ID and interpersonal ID (with a supervisor and colleagues) are positively related to organizational civic behavior, job satisfaction, group morale [7][8][9][10][11], knowledge sharing [12], known to decrease relationship conflicts within work groups [13], etc. Not only individual IDs, but also the interactions among them and their ratio are capable of creating such effects. ...
Article
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This research addresses: (1) the salience of employees’ social (organizational, sub-organizational, group, micro-group), interpersonal, and personal identifications and their dimensions (cognitive and affective); (2) and the relationship and structure of the identifications of employees in different areas of professional activity. The study was conducted on independent samples of employees in the socio-economic sphere (241 participants), in the law enforcement agency (265), and in higher education (172). To assess the respective identification foci and dimensions, the study employed four questionnaires. The personal identification was the weakest and the micro-group identification was the strongest for both dimensions in all samples. The affective dimension prevails over the cognitive in all identifications, except for interpersonal. Social identifications were significantly positively correlated to each other in all samples whereas personal identification was significantly negatively correlated with all social identifications (on the affective dimension) in two samples. The results expand our understanding of the identifications of employees in organizations.
... But there is evidence on the importance of and changes in adaptivity with age. On the one hand, a range of psychological resources (such as increased competence, emotional regulation, sense of control or mastery, and social responsibility; e.g., Lachman, 2004;Lachman & Firth, 2004;Lang, 2001) and adaptive capacities (such as emotion regulation and social integration; e.g., Haslam et al., 2009) protect from stressors, minimize the negative of losses that ageing brings, and are essential for adapting to new work challenges. Such psychological resources and adaptive capacities are "robust well into late life" (Wagner et al., 2013) and impact on adaptive performance by "enable[ing] an individual to guide his or her goal-directed activities On the other hand, major life changes in midlife may also challenge adaptive capacity. ...
Article
Despite suggestions that work performance varies with age, the empirical evidence is inconclusive and contradictory. Possible reasons for this are the lack of differentiation between different types of performance and a naïve assumption of a negative linear relationship between age and task performance across the working lifespan. With this study we question and revisit these expectations. We take a lifespan perspective to explore differential and curvilinear relationships between age (measured as chronological age) and three types of task performance (task proficiency, proactivity, and adaptivity), moderated by job complexity (measured as cognitive demands). Using Bayesian polynomial regression on survey data from 903 employees, we tested the relationships between age and each performance type, with job complexity as a moderator. The data indicated a U-shaped age-adaptivity relationship (main effects for job complexity) and an S-shaped age-proactivity relationship that was more pronounced under low job complexity (interaction effect). We identify the turning points for these changes, which show midlife as a critical period for changes in performance where the job context itself shapes the gradient and direction of these changes. Our findings provide crucial evidence that different types of job performance vary by age and the role of perceived job complexity in explaining trajectories in proactivity and adaptivity. Implications for job design, organizational interventions, and human resource management are discussed.
... Social identities are key to addressing a lack of social group-based belonging (social loneliness, S. Cacioppo et al., 2015). Group memberships provide individuals with a range of social and psychological resources that help them deal with the challenges they face in everyday life (S. A. Haslam et al., 2009). These include shared materials that enable them to readily gain access to required advice and support, which provides reassurance, reduces stress, and enhances feelings of being able to cope (S. A. Haslam et al., 2005). ...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic is worsening loneliness for many older people through the challenges it poses in engaging with their social worlds. Digital technology has been offered as a potential aid, however, many popular digital tools have not been designed to address the needs of older adults during times of limited contact. We propose that the Social Identity Model of Identity Change (SIMIC) could be a foundation for digital loneliness interventions. While SIMIC is a well-established approach for maintaining wellbeing during life transitions, it has not been rigorously applied to digital interventions. There are known challenges to integrating psychological theory in the design of digital technology to enable efficacy, technology acceptance, and continued use. The interdisciplinary field of Human Computer Interaction has a history of drawing on models originating from psychology to improve the design of digital technology and to design technologies in an appropriate manner. Drawing on key lessons from this literature, we consolidate research and design guidelines for multidisciplinary research applying psychological theory such as SIMIC to digital social interventions for loneliness.
... Recent longitudinal research has highlighted the positive long-term impact of SI on individuals' health, well-being, and morale. Scholars have attributed these positive effects to the support and appreciation that groups provide-two mechanisms that protect group members from burnout during demanding periods (Haslam et al., 2009b). ...
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The comprehensive, twofold goal of this paper is to investigate how social identities in a multilayered social platform of a public hospital are shaped, and to explain the impact of these identities on staff interrelations, patients, and the organization’s overall ability to meet challenges. We conducted a qualitative study, collecting data from 30 employees working in a medium-sized public hospital in Israel using a semi-structured interview guide. Using a thematic analysis approach and drawing on social identity theory, we found that departmental identity is the most prominent social identity associated with the hospital staff. This identity was strengthened by strong in-group management, but little influenced by senior out-group management; its importance also caused organizational goals to be overlooked. We discuss these findings and offer recommendations for addressing the adverse impacts of departmental identity on staff, patients, and the organization’s ability to meet challenges. This study has clarified sources and impacts of SI in a hospital context. It has also demonstrated the need for a more unified hospital identity to improve the hospital’s daily work and achieve the organization’s goals in a dynamic, competitive environment. Most literature on social identity has addressed personal- and group-level antecedents of social identity, neglecting the potential participation of in-group and out-group management in shaping these identities, as well as management’s contribution to the achievement or nonachievement of organizational goals. By adopting a qualitative approach, the current study provides a deeper understanding of how senior management and direct in-group management can shape social identities—a perspective heretofore missing from the research. Recognizing these identity-shaping forces is essential for understanding the challenges that hospitals face, and the various (at times, life-or-death) consequences of these forces.
... There is evidence that receiving social support can boost prosocial motivation to engage in collective action to improve the welfare of other group members Haslam et al., 2009). For example, in the aftermath of the devastating earthquake in Chile in 2010, a study found that the participants who expected to receive social support from others also reported having participated more in prosocial activities to support others in their communities (Drury et al., 2016). ...
Article
We examined whether (the lack of) social support can explain why researchers have found lower rates of adherence to follow public health guidelines amongst people who perceived themselves as coming from lower social class backgrounds during the COVID-19 pandemic. To do this, we surveyed 5818 participants from 10 countries during the first wave of lock-down. Contrary to previous findings, social class was not related to general adherence to COVID-19 regulations or desire to engage in citizenship behaviours (e.g., showing initiatives to help others during the pandemic). However, we found evidence of an indirect effect whereby those who perceived themselves as higher social class were more likely to be both the recipient and provider of social support which in turn predicted greater adherence and desire to engage in citizenship behaviours during the earlier wave of the pandemic. Our findings highlight the importance of social support in unlocking potential for collective cooperation (i.e., adherence to COVID-19 rules and desire to engage in citizenship behaviours). They suggest that instead of enforcing strict regulations, government authorities need to address existing social support barriers within lower income communities to facilitate cooperation from everyone in the community.
... As a result, compilation team burnout emergence emphasizes variation of contributions (Kozlowski & Chao, 2012;Kozlowski & Klein, 2000;González-Romá, 2011). Hence, team members will display compatible (but not equal) burnout levels, cognitive representations and congruent behavioral and affectivity patterns (Haslam et al., 2009;Salanova et al., 2011). Accordingly, (Figure 1, central part): ...
Article
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Because we work in teams more than ever, we should craft them fostering team members’ motivation, wellbeing, and performance. To that aim, we propose a multi-level model explaining the emergence of team burnout, articulating the interplay between individual and team level mechanisms around ten empirically testable research propositions. Drawing from the JD-R theory, we formulated an emergence model of team burnout by combining team effectiveness and occupational health literatures. Our model explains how cycles of attention, information integration, and information-affect sharing on burnout cues foster the emergence of team burnout. It also explains how team burnout moderates the relationship between team structural variables and team members’ burnout and how team burnout impairs team effectiveness through co-regulatory mechanisms. This model is timely because it addresses the importance of team burnout through a systematic effort connecting individual and team levels in explaining its emergence and the mechanisms through which it impairs team effectiveness.
... Hand in hand with their declining identification the guards also reported higher burnout as the study progressed, such that, by Day 6, they were significantly more burnt-out than the guards. In another longitudinal study, Haslam et al. [20] surveyed members of a theatre production team at various stages of the production (after audition, at dress rehearsal, before and after the final production) and found that those who were more strongly identified with the team were less likely to suffer from burnout-especially at critical phases of the production. ...
Article
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Do leaders who build a sense of shared social identity in their teams thereby protect them from the adverse effects of workplace stress? This is a question that the present paper explores by testing the hypothesis that identity leadership contributes to stronger team identification among employees and, through this, is associated with reduced burnout. We tested this model with unique datasets from the Global Identity Leadership Development (GILD) project with participants from all inhabited continents. We compared two datasets from 2016/2017 (N = 5290; 20 countries) and 2020/2021 (N = 7294; 28 countries) and found very similar levels of identity leadership, team identification and burnout across the five years. An inspection of the 2020/2021 data at the onset of and later in the COVID-19 pandemic showed stable identity leadership levels and slightly higher levels of both burnout and team identification. Supporting our hypotheses, we found almost identical indirect effects (2016/2017, b = −0.132; 2020/2021, b = −0.133) across the five-year span in both datasets. Using a subset of N = 111 German participants surveyed over two waves, we found the indirect effect confirmed over time with identity leadership (at T1) predicting team identification and, in turn, burnout, three months later. Finally, we explored whether there could be a “too-much-of-a-good-thing” effect for identity leadership. Speaking against this, we found a u-shaped quadratic effect whereby ratings of identity leadership at the upper end of the distribution were related to even stronger team identification and a stronger indirect effect on reduced burnout.
... In addition to belonging to a group, research demonstrates that identification with a social group reduces the likelihood of suffering from depression (Cruwys et al., 2014;Sani et al., 2012), post-traumatic stress (Muldoon & Downes, 2007;Muldoon et al., 2017Muldoon et al., , 2019, burnout, anxiety (Haslam, Jetten, & Waghorn, 2009;Haslam et al., 2005;Rubin & Stuart, 2018) and improves individuals' well-being (Greenaway et al., 2016;Iyer et al., 2009). ...
Article
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Background: Social distancing and mass quarantines were implemented worldwide in response to the current COVID-19 pandemic. Prior research has shown that such measures bear negative consequences for population mental health and well-being. Conversely, a growing body of evidence suggests that feeling positively identified with a group is associated with physical and mental health benefits. Aims: This study tested whether national identification could promote wellbeing and physical health during the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: We used survey data conducted among 67 countries (N = 46,450). Results: Mixed-model analyses revealed that national identity was associated with wellbeing – despite adjustment on social belonging, COVID-19 perceived risk, exposure and ideology. This effect did not extend to physical health. Conclusions: These results suggest that the mere feeling of belonging to a national group may have mental health benefits. We discuss the implications of our findings within the social cure framework and their relevance for population mental health under COVID-19
... Social identities are key to addressing a lack of social group-based belonging (social loneliness, S. Cacioppo et al., 2015). Group memberships provide individuals with a range of social and psychological resources that help them deal with the challenges they face in everyday life (S. A. Haslam et al., 2009). These include shared materials that enable them to readily gain access to required advice and support, which provides reassurance, reduces stress, and enhances feelings of being able to cope (S. A. Haslam et al., 2005). ...
Preprint
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The COVID-19 pandemic is increasing older people's existing challenges in engaging with their physical and social worlds, and is thereby likely to worsen their loneliness. Digital technology has been offered as a potential aid for social connectedness during social distancing/isolation. However, many popular digital communication tools have not been designed to specifically address the needs of older adults impacted by social isolation. We propose that the social identity approach to health and the Social Identity Model of Identity Change (SIMIC) could be a foundation for digital interventions to address loneliness. While SIMIC applies to maintaining wellbeing during life transitions, it has not previously been rigorously applied to digital interventions. There are known challenges to integrating psychological theory to the design of digital technology, such as efficacy, user-autonomy, and engagement. The interdisciplinary field of Human Computer Interaction has a history of drawing on models originating from psychology to improve the design of digital technology and to design technologies in an appropriate manner. Drawing on key lessons from this literature, we consolidate design guidelines that could assist in applying SIMIC to digital interventions for loneliness in older people affected by the pandemic.
... Shared identity within a group facilitates coordination and cooperation between group members because this leads to an increased sense of inter-connection and common purpose, and greater capacity for mutual social influence. The emergence of shared norms and goals also increases the ability of the group to work more effectively together (6,7), as well as fostering trust in other group members (5). For two different groups to be able to work effectively together they need to have some form of shared identity at a superordinate level (e.g. a sense that they share higher-order goals). ...
Technical Report
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The Covid-19 pandemic presents a unique set of challenges for UK emergency responders due to the scale and complexity of the response required. The emergency services and partner agencies across the UK have come together within their Local Resilience Forums (LRF) to put a response in place. These usually independent teams have been required to work collectively and interdependently to achieve the superordinate goal of reducing harm and saving life. However, previous research has consistently highlighted that coordination between responding agencies is a key challenge that hinders effective response, leading to a call for a greater understanding of how these teams work together. Within the field of psychology, the Social Identity Approach can be applied to help understand the way in which responders from different organisations came together to work with each other in the response to Covid-19. This approach suggests that a shared identity within a group can facilitate coordination and cooperation between group members because they share the same norms and goals, thus increasing the ability of the group to work more effectively together. To understand how responders at the local level came together in the response to Covid-19 and to identify any challenges that they faced, we conducted interviews with responders from across the UK from the Police, Fire and Rescue, and Ambulance Service involved in the response at a strategic or tactical level. Our findings are organized under two key themes: (i) horizontal intergroup relations which refers to the relationship between organisations within the LRF partnership, and (ii) vertical intergroup relations which refers to the relationship between LRFs and national government agencies. Based on these findings, we have identified a number of evidence and theory-based suggestions of ‘what works’ in a multi-agency response to support the ongoing development of good working practice in the response to Covid-19, as well as to inform improved understanding of multi-agency working and enhance preparedness for future incidents.
... Dass soziale Identifikation nicht nur mit (Arbeits-) Einstellungen und -verhalten zusammenhängt, sondern auch mit dem Wohlbefinden, zeigen zwei kürzlich durchgeführte Meta-Analysen Postmes et al. 2018 (Haslam et al. 2009). ...
... We build on a central strand of the SIAH or "social cure" literature, namely stress and adversity (e.g., Gallagher, Meaney, & Muldoon, 2014;Haslam, Jetten, & Waghorn, 2009;Haslam, O'Brien, Jetten, Vormedal, & Penna, 2005;Häusser, Kattenstroth, van Dick, & Mojzisch, 2012;Muldoon, 2013). Within social and political psychology, the social identity approach has been repeatedly applied to understand behavior in difficult situations. ...
Article
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Post‐traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has always been controversial and highly politicized. Here, using a social identity approach, we review evidence that trauma and its aftermath are fundamentally linked to social position, sociopolitical capital, and power. We begin this contribution by demonstrating how a person's group memberships (and the social identities they derive from these memberships) are inherently linked to the experience of adversity. We then go on to consider how it is through group memberships that individuals are defined by their trauma risk and trauma histories—that is, a person's group memberships and their trauma are often inherently linked. Considering the importance of group memberships for understanding trauma, we argue that it is important to see these, and group processes more generally, as more than just “demographic” risk factors. Instead, we argue that when groups are defined by their trauma history or risk, their members will often derive some sense of self from this trauma. For this reason, attributes of group memberships are important in developing an understanding of adjustment and adaptation to trauma. In particular, groups' status, their recourse to justice, and the level of trust and solidarity within the group are all central to the impact of traumatic events on individual‐level psychological resilience. We review evidence that supports this analysis by focusing on the exacerbating effects of stigma and social mistrust on post‐traumatic stress, and the value of solidarity and strong identities for resilience. We conclude that because of these group‐related processes, trauma interweaves the personal with the political and that post‐traumatic stress is fundamentally about power, positionality, and politics.
... For these academics with a salient relational contract, their poor time management in the workplace triggered their anxiety and exhaustion; while the collegial atmosphere with their colleagues, university, school, profession, and supervisors as encapsulated in the work theme, facilitated their communal and intrinsic needs, and consequently, their engagement in the workplace. It seems that Malaysian academics' strong workplace attachments led them to act together towards a collective goal, and thus shielded them from workplace distress and uplifted their self-efficacy (Haslam, Jetten, & Waghorn, 2009;Reicher et al., 2010, pp. 45e62). ...
Article
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Being aware of the interplay between an individual type of workplace psychological contract and burnout and engagement experiences is relevant when responding to scholastic calls for a greater understanding of the underlying psychological mechanisms influencing individual experiences. Prior studies have digressed from understanding this phenomenon in its entirety and consequently the complexity of the interplay as well as the outcomes involved were less understood. This paper provides a nuanced knowledge about individual burnout and engagement through the lens of relational and transactional contracts in a cross-national context. Specifically, this was explored through asking the question ‘How relational and transactional psychological contracts explain burnout and engagement experiences of cross-national academics?‘. A qualitative approach was adopted using semi-structured interviews with 20 Australian and 20 Malaysian university academics. The outcomes of the analysis first revealed that, Australian academics’ contracts were primarily more transactional while Malaysian academics’ contracts were primarily more relational. Second, the interplay between individual relational and transactional contracts and burnout and engagement experiences was found to be moderately elusive for both Australian and Malaysian academics. The outcomes also revealed both direct and indirect influences to explicate the interplay.
... In addition to belonging to a group, research demonstrates that identification with a social group reduces the likelihood of suffering from depression (Cruwys, Haslam, Dingle, Haslam, & Jetten, 2014;Sani, Herrera, Wakefield, Boroch and Gulyas, 2012), post-traumatic stress (Muldoon and Downes, 2007;Muldoon et al, 2017;Muldoon et al., 2019), burnout, anxiety (Haslam, Jetten, & Waghorn, 2009;Haslam, O'Brien, Jetten, Vormedal, & Penna, 2005;Rubin & Stuart, 2017) and improves individuals' well-being (Greenaway, Cruwys, Haslam, & Jetten, 2015;Iyer, Jetten, Tsivrikos, Postmes and Haslam, 2009). ...
Preprint
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Social distancing and mass quarantines were implemented worldwide in response to the current COVID-19 pandemic. Prior research on the effects of social isolation has shown that such measures bear negative consequences for population health and well-being. Conversely, a growing body of evidence suggests that feeling positively identified with a group is associated with a range of physical and mental health benefits. This effect is referred to as the social cure and generalizes to various identities. In line with these findings, this study tested whether national identification could promote wellbeing and physical health during the COVID-19 pandemic. To do so, we used survey data conducted among 67 countries (N = 46,450) which included measures of wellbeing, national identification, and subjective physical health. Mixed-model analyses revealed that national identity was indeed associated with wellbeing-despite adjustment on social belonging, COVID-19 perceived risk, exposure, and ideology. This effect did not extend to subjective health. These results suggest that the mere feeling of belonging to a national group may have mental health benefits and could be leveraged by governments. We discuss the implications of our findings within the social cure framework and their relevance for population mental health under COVID-19.
... In other words, individuals can see themselves as 'we' as well as 'I'. When there is a strong sense of "we" within a group this can help the group to work more effectively together (5,6), and fosters trust in other group members (7). ...
Technical Report
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This is the second in a series of ongoing reports that aim to understand the current challenges faced by Local Resilience Forums (LRFs) during the Covid-19 pandemic in the UK. The goal is to support the ongoing development of good working practice
... In a longitudinal field study of theater production team members, Haslam, Jetten, and Waghorn (2009) found that identifying with the group at the beginning of the production was associated later on with higher levels of pride in their work, higher satisfaction, organizational citizenship behaviors, and less burnout. Delvaux, Meeussen, and Mesquita (2016) also studied pride using longitudinal social network analysis and found across two studies that group members mutually reinforce each other's group pride, but not self-pride, with increases in pride accentuated for higher status group members. ...
Article
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By considering moral emotions in light of a team context, we offer a new way of thinking about the socially embedded nature of moral emotions and how they influence various types of ethical behaviors in teams. To achieve this goal, we review the key literature on moral emotions within teams. We integrate this literature with Bandura's (1991, 2002, 2008) theory of moral thought and action, coupled with the social functional account of emotions (Keltner & Haidt, 1999) to examine how team norms are connected, through their influence on individual team members' moral emotions, to ethical behavior within team contexts. This review and integration highlights how team norms regarding moral approbation and moral perspective taking influence members' proscriptive (e.g., fear, guilt, shame, embarrassment) and prescriptive (e.g., sympathy/compassion, pride) moral emotions. In turn, each of these moral emotions has unique action tendencies linked to 1 or more of 3 different types of ethical behaviors witnessed in teams: compliance behaviors, humanistic behaviors, and supererogatory behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
... The preceding discussion suggests a mediated path from relational identification via forgiveness to relationship resilience. Indeed, research suggests that identification can mitigate the experience of stressful events (Haslam, Jetten, & Waghorn, 2009;Haslam & Reicher, 2006). The relationship itself is a source of social support; thus, highly identified individuals are better able to cope with stressors on the relationship. ...
Article
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The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between relational identification, forgiveness, and relationship resilience. We conducted two different studies: study 1 (n = 177) employed the critical incident technique to assess responses to offenses committed by a coworker; study 2 (n = 298) conducted a field study of working professionals to evaluate responses to offenses committed by a supervisor. Within both coworker and supervisor-subordinate relationships, those who identify with the relational other are more likely to forgive. Forgiveness facilitates relationship resilience such that the relationship becomes stronger than it was prior to the offense. We suggest that understanding the influence of relational identification and forgiveness on relationship resilience may be a key to unlocking stronger workplace relationships that become increasingly resistant to the negative effects of workplace offenses. Knowing that offenses can serve as an impetus toward stronger relationships (rather than a thrust toward impoverished relationships) is essential in dynamic work environments where offenses are inevitable. We examined how relationships that endure relational adversity well become stronger as a result of forgiveness. We replicated and extended our findings across methods and contexts, demonstrating the pervasiveness of the proposed relationships.
Article
The present study examines (a) the relationships of employees’ identifications (interpersonal, subgroup, and group) in two components (cognitive and affective) and their personal communicativeness with two dimensions of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and (b) the moderating role of identifications in association between personal communicativeness and the two OCB dimensions: offering quality ideas and suggestions and providing help and support. The study was carried on a sample (N = 265) of employees of the regional department of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia (FPSR), whose work largely unfolds in extreme conditions. To measure the FPSR employees’ identifications in both their components, the study employed three relevant questionnaires. OCB dimensions and organizational communicativeness were measured by expert assessments of supervisors using two specially designed questionnaires. The following results were found. Subgroup identification (in its affective component only) was significantly positively associated with one OCB dimension—offering quality ideas and suggestions, as was interpersonal identification (only in its affective component though) positively associated with both OCB dimensions. Group identification (in both its components) was not associated significantly with either of the two studied OCB dimensions. Personal communicativeness was positively correlated with both dimensions of OCB, and this association was stronger than for either of the identifications. Subgroup identification moderates the relationship between personal communicativeness and the two dimensions of OCB. Conceptual and practical implications of the study results are discussed.
Article
Maintaining social connectedness is crucial for health and well‐being—especially during uncertain times such as the COVID‐19 pandemic. The present study examined (1) the effects of general and organizational indicators of connectedness on employee well‐being and (involuntary) remote work experiences during lockdown and (2) whether organizational connectedness attenuated the ill effects of isolation on employee well‐being. Full‐ and part‐time workers (N = 188) recruited during the UK's second national COVID‐19 lockdown completed a questionnaire measuring time spent interacting and alone during lockdown, social connectedness, organizational identification, perceived organizational support, organizational communication, ill‐being, organizational well‐being (i.e., well‐being at work), and remote working experiences. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that those with greater social connectedness and organizational support reported less ill‐being. In contrast, those spending more time alone and, unexpectedly, those strongly identifying with their organization, reported more ill‐being. Additionally, those who felt greater organizational support had more positive remote working experiences, whereas stronger organizational identification negatively related to the latter. Only organizational support was significantly associated with (more positive) well‐being at work. Furthermore, moderation analyses showed that time spent alone during the pandemic was associated with poorer organizational well‐being but only among those with lower levels of organizational identification, and those whose organizational communication strategies were poorer. These findings demonstrate that indicators of organizational connectedness played a distinct role in explaining ill‐being, workplace well‐being, and remote working experiences, above and beyond the effects of general connectedness, during lockdown.
Article
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A growing body of research has shown that people with dementia are using digital technologies to enhance lived experience. The COVID-19 pandemic has brought new digital opportunities and challenges and so provides a unique opportunity to understand how people with dementia have adapted to this new digital landscape. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 19 people with dementia and analysed thematically. We generated five themes, showing how participants used digital means to combat the stresses of the pandemic by facilitating social connection, self-actualisation, enhanced well-being and by assisting with activities of daily life. These technologies helped to reduce isolation, provide access to support groups, create opportunities for cognitive stimulation and self-development, and engendered a sense of identity at a time of perceived loss. Despite these benefits, participants also reported challenges regarding cognitive fatigue and usability issues. We recommend that training on how to use digital technologies is co-produced with people with dementia and designers engage with the voices of people with dementia throughout the design process. In turn, this could promote the social connectedness, well-being and self-worth of people with dementia.
Article
The article provides an overview of the research on the association between identifications (ID) of employees and their organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), and reports findings of a meta-analysis of empirically observed correlations (k = 149) between the two. Our analyses distinguished among six ID levels (personal, interpersonal, micro-group, group, sub-organizational, and organizational) and five OCB types identified as directed toward: individual performance, other individuals, relationships, organizational (group) performance, and maintaining rules and regulations. In addition, we systematically collected, analyzed, and reported data on geography of research, field of organization’s activity, respondents’ demographic characteristics, methods of measuring ID and OCB. In particular, we found that organizational identification is more often considered as a correlate of OCB than group and interpersonal identifications are, the cases of correlation between either sub-organizational or micro-group identifications with the OCB measures are exceedingly rare, whereas no empirical investigation of the association between personal identification and OCB could be found. The overall weighted average effect size indicates moderate positive relationships between employees’ identifications and their citizenship behaviors. Subsequent analyses of moderator variables discovered various degrees of strength of association between ID and OCB, depending on their specific combinations, so that the same level of identification could have uneven correlations with different types of OCB and vice versa. The associations between identifications and OCB strongly depend on how the latter is assessed: trough employees’ self-reports, supervisors’ evaluation, or colleagues’ assessment. Our review also addresses gaps and limitations in the existing empirical literature and discusses directions for future research.
Chapter
Anhaltender Stress kann zu verminderter Leistung, Krankheiten und Fehlzeiten führen, was u. a. eine geringere Produktivität und Wettbewerbsfähigkeit von Organisationen zur Folge hat. Dieses Kapitel betrachtet das Thema Stress aus der sozialpsychologischen Perspektive, genauer, aus der Perspektive des Social Identity Approach. Dazu wird das Transaktionale Stressmodell von Lazarus um die Komponente der sozialen Identität erweitert. Die beiden Bewertungsdimensionen (primary appraisal: „Ist die Situation belastend für mich?“ und secondary appraisal: „Kann ich mit der Belastung umgehen?“) werden in Situationen differenziert, in denen die personale Identität aktiviert ist und solche, in denen die soziale Identität salient ist. Ist Letzteres der Fall, verschiebt sich die Frage nach dem primary und secondary appraisal in Richtung einer kollektiven Beantwortung, d. h. die Person fragt sich, ob die Situation für die Gruppe belastend ist und ob man sie als Gruppe bewältigen kann. Das Kapitel beginnt mit einem Überblick über den Social Identity Approach und seinen Implikationen für das Transaktionale Stressmodell. Anschließend werden aktuelle Feld- und Laborstudien sowie Meta-Analysen vorgestellt, die für die vorgeschlagene Modellerweiterung sprechen und den Nutzen der neuen, identitätsbasierten Analyse von Stress im Arbeitskontext belegen.
Article
Suicidal ideation and intent are strongly linked with suicidal attempts and completions; however, no study to date has explored the predictors of ideation and intent within a sample receiving computerized cognitive behavioral therapy (cCBT) as an intervention for mild to moderate depression. The current study investigates the impact of social group identification and socioeconomic deprivation, together with a number of important clinical and demographic factors, on suicidal ideation and intent within a Scottish primary care sample. Participants (N = 1062) were recruited from referrals to a cCBT program, “Beating the Blues” (BtB), over a 33-month period. Participants completed three versions of the group identifications scale (GIS), one for each of three groups: family, community, and a social group of choice. Single-item questions on suicidal ideation and intent were delivered through the BtB program, and demographic and clinical information were collected on commencing BtB. More severe psychological distress, fewer group identifications, younger age, and being male, all significantly predicted the presence of suicidal ideations, however only greater severity of psychological distress was associated with more serious suicidal intent. These results provide valuable insight into factors associated with suicidal ideation and intent within a clinical population from a psychosocial, psychopharmacological, and demographic perspective.
Preprint
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Older adults face significant challenges in regards to the various stereotypes associated with ageing, which have consequences for their mental health and wellbeing. The COVID-19 pandemic has heightened these age-based stereotypes due to older adults' proportionally higher vulnerability to the virus. The present research explored how the pandemic has exacerbated the challenges of ageing by impacting on the social identities of older adults and how these challenges have been met. Eleven focus groups were conducted with 32 UK older adults from a range of household compositions. Guided by the social identity approach, a thematic analysis found that participants faced a number of recognisable stereotype threats: loss of opportunities COVID-19 Exacerbates Age-Based Stereotypes 2 to enact meaningful identities, loss of autonomy and loss of usefulness. Despite these threats, we also found participants used identity management strategies and mobilised existing or new social identities to give and receive of support and to retain a meaningful and purposeful life. The implications of this research are that governments and those supporting older adults can attend to the negative psychology impact of protective policies and know that fostering group connections can be a source of pandemic resilience.
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Student-athletes in their first-year transition to university experience many psychological and social stressors as they balance multiple commitments. Our study examined whether a student-athlete social identity affected psychosocial adjustment as students transition to postsecondary, and whether it acted by reducing stress to foster academic adjustment. Student-athletes enrolled in an introductory psychology course at a Canadian university (n = 331) were recruited. We assessed whether a relationship existed between student-athlete social identity and key academic indicators of psychosocial adjustment (perceived control, perceived stress, learning-related anxiety); and whether ratings of perceived stress mediated the relationship between student-athlete social identity and psychosocial adjustment measures five-months later. Our findings revealed that student-athlete social identity (a) predicted psychosocial adjustment later in the course; and (b) indirectly enhanced academic control and lowered negative emotions via reductions in perceived stress. This study offers insights on how social identities may promote positive adjustment during the critical transition to university.
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The COVID-19 pandemic is increasing older people's existing challenges in engaging with their physical and social worlds, and is thereby likely to worsen their loneliness. Digital technology has been offered as a potential aid for social connectedness during social distancing/isolation. However, many popular digital communication tools have not been designed to specifically address the needs of older adults impacted by social isolation. We propose that the social identity approach to health and the Social Identity Model of Identity Change (SIMIC) could be a foundation for digital interventions to address loneliness. While SIMIC applies to maintaining wellbeing during life transitions, it has not previously been rigorously applied to digital interventions. There are known challenges to integrating psychological theory to the design of digital technology, such as efficacy, user-autonomy, and engagement. The interdisciplinary field of Human Computer Interaction has a history of drawing on models originating from psychology to improve the design of digital technology and to design technologies in an appropriate manner. Drawing on key lessons from this literature, we consolidate design guidelines that could assist in applying SIMIC to digital interventions for loneliness in older people affected by the pandemic.
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Organizations are increasingly adopting non-territorial organizational models with unassigned desks. However, previous research has: (1) shown mixed results regarding the impact of non-territorial working on employees, (2) largely examined non-territorial working in its purest sense without considering the nuanced differences in non-territorial working, and (3) not understood the mechanisms underlying the relation between non-territorial working and employee outcomes. To address these research gaps, we apply self-determination theory, which argues that meeting basic psychological needs of autonomy and belonging allows optimal human development, to the physical environment of office spaces. Specifically, we investigated whether the relationship of two types of non-territorial working with employee work engagement, emotional exhaustion, job satisfaction, and affective commitment is mediated via autonomy over office spaces and belongingness. Data were collected from 127 working New Zealanders who have adopted two types of non-territorial working (i.e., work arrangement 1 and work arrangement 2) in an organization. We found that although workers with work arrangement 2 did not report higher belongingness than those with work arrangement 1, workers with work arrangement 1 reported higher autonomy over office spaces than those with work arrangement 2. Moreover, belongingness was related to higher work engagement, job satisfaction, and affective commitment but lower emotional exhaustion, while autonomy over office spaces was related to increased job satisfaction and affective commitment but decreased emotional exhaustion. We also found that autonomy over office spaces, but not belongingness, mediated the relationship of non-territorial working with emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction.
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Family financial stress research has typically examined negative effects of deprivation on mental health, which in turn erode financial coping. While this work acknowledges family support’s role in buffering these effects, it has typically overlooked how family identification can act to structure the experience of, and response to, economic challenge. We adopt a Social Identity approach, arguing that family identification predicts increased social support and improved well-being, which predicts more effective coping with financial problems. We explore this in two community surveys (N=369; N=187). In the first we show that stronger family identification and support predict better well-being, which predicts better evaluation of economic coping. In the second we replicate these findings, and also show that the relationship between well-being and financial distress is fully mediated by perceptions of ‘Collective Family Financial Efficacy’. These findings point to a more positive understanding of how family cohesion can promote mental well-being/resilience.
Chapter
This chapter has three key aims. First, to describe research into likely public behaviour during mass emergencies, and to demonstrate how the way in which an incident is managed will affect the way in which members of the public respond. Second, to highlight how an effective responder management strategy can promote positive public behaviours during mass decontamination. Third, to outline some specific recommendations for optimising the way in which incidents involving mass decontamination are managed.
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The ‘Spectacle’ element to Musical Theatre is defined as “The visual elements of the play created for theatrical event” (Adair-Lynch, 2004). This definition caters to many aspects that contribute to a performance including: costume, lighting, set, stage positioning and; the area which this writing focuses on - large mechanical props. Multi-award winning lighting designer Andrew Bridge argues that “It is the extraordinary detail that makes the “spectacle”, looking at the costumes and props backstage one is still amazed in 2008 at the complexity” (Withers, 2009, p.25-26). This statement, in itself, juxtaposes the very idea of the spectacle; how can it be that the smallest details are what provide the effect of such an important theatrical area? Would an audience member notice the eloquence of the shade of paint on set, a mere parergon compared to a whirring helicopter or a large mechanical head at centre stage? Would a spectator know the importance of each of the 632 crystals per strand in comparison to the overall effect of Phantom of the Opera’s falling chandelier? (Vendeville, 2015). Creating the question of whether the details are there to be noticed at all? Theatre goers fundamentally just want to see something that they cannot see anywhere else. If Rebellato’s idea about franchising the theatre industry is the way to do it, though it may not satisfy every ‘theatre snob’; it provides a sustainable industry. A field providing jobs for many people within theatre: from the actors and producers involved on the stage, the set designers and engineers behind the scenes, and even the ticket sellers and theatre ushers who make sure the market, or in this case, audience, can reach the product. Surely this is the evidence needed to prove theatre cannot be suffering entirely as it adapts to the needs of the day? As Nicholas Hynter once said, “It’s not the technology that can get in the way but how you use that technology. The real issue is with design and how that fits the piece. If technology is used appropriately it can really draw out the emotional quality of a piece” (cited Withers, 2009, p. 28). Perhaps this provides the written glue to conclude a happy future for on-stage mechanics and engineering, and suggests what we can expect of a performance as a whole within upcoming productions in the West End and on Broadway.
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Over 29,000 foreign nationals are detained yearly in British Immigration Removal Centres (IRCs) for undefined periods. This study investigated the role played by social identities in the way detainees are affected by, make sense of, and deal with detention. An opportunity sample of 40 detainees were interviewed on topics including support, identity, and well‐being, and data were analysed using theoretical thematic analysis. Participants struggled with loss of social networks, loss of rights, loss of agency and joining a stigmatised group. Social identities guided exchange of support, aided meaning‐making, and mitigated distrust, serving as ‘Social Cures’. However, shared identities could also be sources of burden, ostracism, and distress, serving as ‘Social Curses’. Inability to maintain existing identities or create new ones fuelled feelings of isolation. Participants also reported rejection/avoidance of social identities to maximise their benefits. This study is the first to apply the Social Identity Approach to the experience of immigration detention. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Debt and financial insecurity are associated with stress, low self-worth, and poor health. Joining and identifying with social groups (social identification) promotes better health and higher self-esteem. Here, we examined whether identifying with one's local neighborhood protected people from developing mental health symptoms associated with financial stress. We analyzed data from a general population survey (Study 1, N = 4319) and a student mental health survey (Study 2, N = 612) conducted in the North West of England. We administered measures of financial stress, self-esteem, neighborhood identity, and mental health, and conducted moderated mediation analyses to test our predictions. Study 1 (population survey) demonstrated that stronger identification with one's local neighborhood attenuated the adverse effects of financial stress on self-esteem and subsequent mental health. Study 2 (student survey) showed that strong host town identities buffered students from mental health symptoms related to financial stress. Strong hometown identities, however, showed no buffering effect. The findings suggest that one way financial stress impacts mental health is by eroding self-esteem. Identifying with one's current place of residence appears to disrupt this pathway, while identifying with one's previous place of residence does not provide the same psychological protection.
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It has been almost twenty years since the term "burnout" first appeared in the psychological literature. The phenomenon that was portrayed in those early articles had not been entirely unknown, but had been rarely acknowledged or even openly discussed. In some occupations, it was almost a taboo topic, because it was considered tantamount to admitting that at times professionals can (and do) act "unprofessionally." The reaction of many people was to deny that such a phenomenon existed, or, if it did exist, to attribute it to a very small (but clearly mentally disturbed) minority. This response made it difficult, at first, for any work on burnout to be taken seriously. However, after the initial articles were published, there was a major shift in opinion. Professionals in the human services gave substantial support to both the validity of the phenomenon and its significance as an occupational hazard. Once burnout was acknowledged as a legitimate issue, it began to attract the attention of various researchers. Our knowledge and understanding of burnout have grown dramatically since that shaky beginning. Burnout is now recognized as an important social problem. There has been much discussion and debate about the phenomenon, its causes and consequences. As these ideas about burnout have proliferated, so have the number of empirical research studies to test these ideas. We can now begin to speak of a "body of work" about burnout, much of which is reviewed and cited within the current volume. This work is now viewed as a legitimate and worthy enterprise that has the potential to yield both scholarly gains and practical solutions. What I would like to do in this chapter is give a personal perspective on the concept of burnout. Having been one of the early "pioneers" in this field, I have the advantage of a long-term viewpoint that covers the twenty years from the birth of burnout to its present proliferation. Furthermore, because my research was among the earliest, it has had an impact on the development of the field. In particular, my definition of burnout, and my measure to assess it (Maslach Burnout Inventory; MBI) have been adopted by many researchers and have thus influenced subsequent theorizing and research. My work has also been the point of departure for various critiques. Thus, for better or for worse, my perspective on burnout has played a part in framing the field, and so it seemed appropriate to articulate that viewpoint within this volume. In presenting this perspective, however, I do not intend to simply give a summary statement of ideas that I have discussed elsewhere. Rather, I want to provide a retrospective review and analysis of why those ideas developed in the ways that they did. Looking back on my work, with the hindsight of twenty years, I can see more clearly how my research path was shaped by both choice and chance. The shape of that path has had some impact on what questions have been asked about burnout (and what have not), as well as on the manner in which 2 answers have been sought. A better understanding of the characteristics of that path will, I think, provide some insights into our current state of knowledge and debate about burnout. In some sense, this retrospective review marks a return to my research roots. The reexamination of my initial thinking about burnout, and an analysis of how that has developed and changed over the years, has led me to renew my focus on the core concept of social relationships. I find it appropriately symbolic that this return to my research roots occurred within the context of a return to my ancestral roots. The 1990 burnout conference that inspired this rethinking took place in southern Poland, from which each of my paternal grandparents, Michael Maslach and Anna Pszczolkowska, emigrated to the United States in the early 1900s. Thus, my travel to Krakow had great significance for me, at both personal and professional levels.
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The relationship between the self and the collective is discussed from the perspective of self-categorization theory. Self-categorization theory makes a basic distinction between personal and social identity as different levels of self-categorization. It shows how the emergent properties of group processes can be explained in terms of a shift in self perception from personal to social identity. It also elucidates how self-categorization varies with the social context. It argues that self-categorizing is inherently variable, fluid, and context dependent, as sedf-categories are social comparative and are always relative to a frame of reference. This notion has major implications for accepted ways of thinking about the self: The variability of self-categorizing provides the perceiver with behavioral and cognitive flexibility and ensures that cognition is always shaped by the social context in which it takes place.
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Predictions of social identity and self-categorization theories about the relevance of social identification in organizational contexts are presented. We propose that different foci of identification (e.g. with own career, team, organization, occupation) as well as different dimensions of organizational identification (cognitive, affective, evaluative, and behavioural) can be separated. Furthermore, these different aspects of organizational identification are assumed to be differentially associated with work-related attitudes and behaviours. Predictions are first tested in a questionnaire study of 515 German school teachers. Confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that dimensions and foci can indeed be differentiated. In addition, results indicate that different aspects correlate differentially with different criteria. The results are cross-validated in two samples of 233 German school teachers and 358 bank accountants, respectively.
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The processes involved in well-being maintenance among African Americans who differed in their attributions to prejudice were examined. A rejection–identification model was proposed where stable attributions to prejudice represent rejection by the dominant group. This results in a direct and negative effect on well-being. The model also predicts a positive effect on well-being that is mediated by minority group identification. In other words, the generally negative consequences of perceiving oneself as a victim of racial prejudice can be somewhat alleviated by identification with the minority group. Structural equation analyses provided support for the model and ruled out alternative theoretical possibilities. Perceiving prejudice as pervasive produces effects on well-being that are fundamentally different from those that may arise from an unstable attribution to prejudice for a single negative outcome. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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In this chapter we take a fresh look at personality and individuality by making use of insights from self-categorization theory (SCT). The fact of human individuality is striking. We take for granted that people are characterized by individual differences and, where these are sufficiently stable and consistent and seem related to their underlying psychological make-up, we talk of personality. Explaining personality is one of the major tasks which psychology has attempted over the last hundred years. Every significant psychological perspective, from Freudian psychodynamics to classical and social learning theory to the cognitive perspective, has developed one or more ways of understanding personality. It is not our aim to review this huge literature, or to deny the importance of the many factors it has explored. Rather we wish to outline a way of thinking about personality which we believe addresses significant gaps and problems in mainstream understanding. We suggest that the implicit model of personality which has taken root in psychology is problematic in significant ways. We shall first sketch the basic analysis of personal and social identity provided by SCT and then summarize briefly the key points about individuality which immediately arise. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Judgments of intragroup variability were examined as a function of relative group status and identification with the group. In the first study (n = 131), psychology students received false feedback that their group was more or less intelligent than a comparable outgroup (business students) in order to manipulate relative ingroup status. Subjects were divided into high and low identifiers on the basis of their scores on an ingroup identification measures. As well as rating both groups on a series of comparative dimensions, subjects rated the similarities within their group. Although there was no difference in similarity ratings between high and low identifiers when ingroup status was high, low status subjects who identified weakly with their group rated within-group similarity as significantly less than high identifiers. In the second study (n = 101) both status and group identification were manipulated experimentally. Subjects were categorized as belonging to one of two groups, ostensibly on the basis of their problem solving style, and they received false feedback on a subsequent task indicating that their group had performed better or worse than the other group on a series of personnel decision problems. Group identification was manipulated by means of false feedback reinforced by a "bogus pipeline" procedure. Ratings of ingroup (and outgroup) variability as measured by the perceived range of group scores on various positive dimensions, replicated the interaction obtained the first study. In the high status condition, ingroup identification did not affect the perceived range of group scores whereas under low group status, subjects in the low identification condition perceived greater intragroup variation than did subjects in the high identification condition. The differential perception and use of variability judgments by high and low group identifiers in the face of a threatened group image is discussed in terms of social identity principles.
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The social identity/self-categorization model of stress suggests that social identity can play a role in protecting group members from adverse reactions to strain because it provides a basis for group members to receive and benefit from social support. To examine this model, two studies were conducted with groups exposed to extreme levels of strain: patients recovering from heart surgery (Study 1), bomb disposal officers and bar staff (Study 2). Consistent with predictions, in both studies there was a strong positive correlation between social identification and both social support and life/job satisfaction and a strong negative correlation between social identification and stress. In both studies path analysis also indicated that social support was a significant mediator of the relationship between (a) social identification and stress and (b) social identification and life/job satisfaction. In addition, Study 2 revealed that group membership plays a significant role in perceptions of how stressful different types of work are. Implications for the conceptualization of stress and social support are discussed.
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Participants in the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) prison study were randomly assigned to high-status (guard) and low-status (prisoner) groups. Structural interventions increased the prisoners' sense of shared group identity and their willingness to challenge the power of the guards. Psychometric, physiological, behavioral, and observational data support the hypothesis that identity-based processes also affected participants' experience of stress. As prisoners' sense of shared identity increased, they provided each other with more social support and effectively resisted the adverse effects of situational stressors. As guards' sense of shared identity declined, they provided each other with less support and succumbed to stressors. Findings support an integrated social identity model of stress that addresses intragroup and intergroup dynamics of the stress process.
Book
Alex Haslam has thoroughly revised and updated his ground-breaking original text with this new edition. While still retaining the highly readable and engaging style of the best-selling First Edition, the author presents extensive reviews and critiques of major topics in organizational psychology - including leadership, motivation, communication, decision making, negotiation, power, productivity and collective action - in this thoroughly revised edition. New to the Second Edition: An entirely new chapter on organizational stress which deals with highly topical issues of stress appraisal, social support, coping and burnout.; New, wider textbook format and design making the entire book much more accessible for students.; A wide range of pedagogical features are included - suggestions for further reading at the end of each chapter and comprehensive glossaries of social identity, social psychological and organizational terms
Conference Paper
The processes involved in well-being maintenance among African Americans who differed in their attributions to prejudice were examined. A rejection-identification model was proposed where stable attributions to prejudice represent rejection by the dominant group. This results in a direct and negative effect on well-being. The model also predicts a positive effect on well-being that is mediated by minority group identification. In other words, the generally negative consequences of perceiving oneself as a victim of racial prejudice can be somewhat alleviated by identification with the minority group. Structural equation analyses provided support for the model and ruled out alternative theoretical possibilities. Perceiving prejudice as pervasive produces effects on well-being that are fundamentally different from those that may arise from an unstable attribution to prejudice for a single negative outcome.
Article
We argue that additional understanding of work motivation can be gained by incorporating current insights concerning self-categorization and social identity processes and by examining the way in which these processes influence the motivation and behavior of individuals and groups at work. This theoretical perspective that focuses on the conditions determining different self-definitions allows us to show how individual and group processes interact to determine work motivation. To illustrate the added value of this approach, we develop some specific propositions concerning motivational processes underpinning leadership and group performance.
Article
I. Overview. Introduction. The Design of This Study. II. The Antecedents of Cooperative Behavior. Why Study Cooperative Behavior in Groups. Instrumental Motivations for Engaging in Cooperative Behavior. Internally-driven Cooperative Behavior. III. The Influence of Justice: Procedual Justice and Cooperation. The Influence of Justice Based Judgments. Procedural Justice and Cooperative Behavior. IV. The Meaning of Procedual Justice: The Four Component Model. Relational Models of Procedual Justice. A Two Component Model of Procedural Justice: Quality of Decision-making and Quality of Treatment. Creating a Four Component Model of Procedural Justice: Adding the Distinction Between Formal and Informal Sources of Justice. V. Social Identity and Cooperative Behavior: Status and Psychological Engagement. Social Identity and Cooperative Behavior. Justice and Group Status: The Antecedents of Status Evaluations. Psychological Engagement with the Group. VI. Discussion Conclusion: Understanding Group Behavior From a Non-Instrumental Perspective. VII. References. VIII. Appendices
Article
Stage fright has not previously been systematically assessed in actors. A survey was therefore carried out of 178 senior full-time drama students at six London colleges: 9.6 per cent reported stage fright to be a severe problem, while 36.7 per cent considered it to be a moderate problem. Levels of stage fright were higher in women than men, but were not associated with age or years of acting experience. Stage fright was positively correlated with neuroticism and negatively associated with extraversion. The features of performance adversely affected included physical components such as posture and breath control, and emotional aspects such as characterization. Factor analysis of cognitive coping responses identified two independent dimensions—thoughts centred on panic or loss of control and thoughts concerning physical collapse—that were associated with stage fright independently of confounding factors such as neuroticism. Relaxation and meditation were frequently used prior to public performance, but were not associated with stage fright levels. In contrast, self-distracting behaviours and memory checking were more common in those with higher performance anxiety. A variety of health-related symptoms were reported to increase prior to public performance, and difficulty eating properly, increased irritability and more frequent skin rashes were associated with stage fright independently of negative affectivity. The implications of these findings for aspiring actors are discussed.
Article
Traditional needs theories centre around hierarchies ranging from ‘lower-level’ needs for security, existence, or hygiene through to ‘higher-level’ needs for self-actualisation, achievement, and growth. As applied to the organisational domain, such theories tend to assume that an employee’s personal need for challenge and development is the best source of work motivation. Based on social identity and self-categorisation theories, this paper interprets needs hierarchies as reflections of the variable definition of self. It suggests that the motivational impact of different needs changes as a function of the salience of norms and goals associated with self-categories defined at varying levels of abstraction (personal, social, human). As a result, no one level of need is inherently more relevant to employee motivation than any other. This analysis also suggests that group-based needs will play an especially important motivational role in situations where an individual’s social identity is salient. Following work by Tyler, data that support this argument are provided by a study in which employees’ willingness to engage in citizenship behaviour increased following manipulations of group-based pride and respect. Results point to the productive and sustainable potential of self-actualisation at a collective rather than just a personal level.
Chapter
Social Identity ConceptsSocial Identity ControversiesSocial Identity ContributionsConclusion: What the Social Identity Approach Offers and What It Does NotAcknowledgementsReferences
Article
An experiment was conducted to investigate the role that social influence plays in the appraisal of a potentially stressful situation. Participants (N = 40) preparing for a mental arithmetic task were exposed to a message in which the task was described as stressful or challenging. The message was delivered by the same person in each condition but this person was said to be either an ingroup member (a University student) or an outgroup member (a stress disorder sufferer). Consistent with predictions derived from self-categorization theory, message source and message content interacted to determine the stress experienced while performing the task. Findings imply that the impact of informational support is not constant but varies systematically as a function of the group membership of the support provider. Implications for theory and practice are discussed with emphasis on the importance of social context as a determinant not only of what information people are exposed to about stress but also of how that information is construed. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Social identity research has transformed psychology and the social sciences. Developed around intergroup relations, perspectives on social identity have now been applied fruitfully to a diverse array of topics and domains, including health, organizations and management, culture, politics and group dynamics. In many of these new areas, the focus has been on groups, but also very much on the autonomous individual. This has been an exciting development, and has prompted a rethinking of the relationship between personal identity and social identity - the issue of individuality in the group. This book brings together an international selection of prominent researchers at the forefront of this development. They reflect on the issue of individuality in the group and on how thinking about social identity has changed. Together, these chapters chart a key development in the field: how social identity perspectives inform understanding of cohesion, unity and collective action, but also how they help us understand individuality, agency, autonomy, disagreement, and diversity within groups. This text is valuable to advanced undergraduate and postgraduate students studying social psychology where intergroup relations and group processes are a central component. Given its wider reach, however, it will also be of interest to those in cognate disciplines where social identity perspectives have application potential.
Article
The group engagement model expands the insights of the group-value model of procedural justice and the relational model of authority into an explanation for why procedural justice shapes cooperation in groups, organizations, and societies. It hypothesizes that procedures are important because they shape people's social identity within groups, and social identity in turn influences attitudes, values, and behaviors. The model further hypothesizes that resource judgments exercise their influence indirectly by shaping social identity. This social identity mediation hypothesis explains why people focus on procedural justice, and in particular on procedural elements related to the quality of their interpersonal treatment, because those elements carry the most social identity-relevant information. In this article, we review several key insights of the group engagement model, relate these insights to important trends in psychological research on justice, and discuss implications of the model for the future of procedural justice research.
Article
Coping, defined as the thoughts and behaviors used to manage the internal and external demands of situations that are appraised as stressful, has been a focus of research in the social sciences for more than three decades. The dramatic proliferation of coping research has spawned healthy debate and criticism and offered insight into the question of why some individuals fare better than others do when encountering stress in their lives. We briefly review the history of contemporary coping research with adults. We discuss three primary challenges for coping researchers (measurement, nomenclature, and effectiveness), and highlight recent developments in coping theory and research that hold promise for the field, including previously unaddressed aspects of coping, new measurement approaches, and focus on positive affective outcomes.
Article
The present study contributes to theory and practice through the development of a model of shift-work tolerance with the potential to indicate interventions that reduce nurses' intention toward turnover and increase job satisfaction in hospital-based settings. Survey data from 1257 nurses were used to conduct structural equation modeling that examine the direct and indirect effects of supervisor and colleague support, team identity, team climate, and control over working environment on time-based work/life conflict, psychological well-being, physical symptoms, job satisfaction, and turnover intention. The analysis of the proposed model revealed a good fit The chi-square difference test was non-significant (chi2(26) = 338.56), the fit indices were high (CFI = .923, NFI = .918, and NNFI = .868), the distribution of residuals was symmetric and approached zero, the average standardized residual was low (AASR = .04), and the standardized RMR was .072. In terms of the predictor variable, the final model explained 48% of the variance in turnover intention. The data revealed considerable evidence of both direct effects on adjustment and complex indirect links between levels of adjustment and work-related social support, team identity, team climate, and control. Nurses with high supervisor and coworker support experienced more positive team climates, identified more strongly with their team, and increased their perceptions of control over their work environment. This in turn lowered their appraisals of their time-based work/life conflict, which consequently increased their psychological well-being and job satisfaction and reduced their physical health symptoms and turnover intention. The type of shift schedule worked by the nurses influenced levels of turnover intention, control over work environment, time-based work/life conflict, and physical symptoms.
Identity and bystander intervention: How social group membership shapes helping behavior
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Levine, R.M., Prosser, A., Evans, D., & Reicher, S.D. (2005). Identity and bystander intervention: How social group membership shapes helping behavior. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 43-453.
DOI: 10.1002/smi Stress and citizenship in teams Copyright
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S. A. Haslam, J. Jetten and C. Waghorn Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Stress and Health 25: 21–30 (2009) DOI: 10.1002/smi Stress and citizenship in teams Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Stress and Health 25: 21–30 (2009) DOI: 10.1002/smi References Branscombe, N.R., Schmitt, M.T., & Harvey, R.D. (1999).
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Social identity, self-categorization and group goal setting: Engaging the collective self to enhance organizational outcomes
  • J Wegge
  • S A Haslam
Wegge, J., & Haslam, S.A. (2003). Social identity, self-categorization and group goal setting: Engaging the collective self to enhance organizational outcomes. In S.A. Haslam, D. VanKnippenberg, M.J. Platow, & N. Ellemers (Eds), Social identity at work: Developing theory for organizational practice (pp. 43-59). New York: Psychology Press.
Statistics with confi dence
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Smithson, M. (2000). Statistics with confi dence. London and Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Taking the strain: Social identity, social support DOI: 10.1002/smi and the experience of stress
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Haslam, S.A., O'Brien, A., Jetten, J., Vormedal, K., & Penna, S. (2005). Taking the strain: Social identity, social support S. A. Haslam, J. Jetten and C. Waghorn Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Stress and Health 25: 21-30 (2009) DOI: 10.1002/smi and the experience of stress. British Journal of Social Psychology, 44, 355-370.
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Identity and bystander intervention: How social group membership shapes helping behavior
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