Article

Feeling Good About Giving: The Benefits (and Costs) of Self-Interested Charitable Behavior

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Abstract

In knowledge-intensive settings such as product or software development, fluid teams of individuals with different sets of experience are tasked with projects that are critical to the success of their organizations. Although building teams from individuals with diverse prior experience is increasingly necessary, prior work examining the relationship between experience and performance fails to find a consistent effect of diversity in experience on performance. The problem is that diversity in experience improves a team's information processing capacity and knowledge base, but also creates coordination challenges. We hypothesize that team familiarity - team members' prior experience working with one another - is one mechanism that helps teams leverage the benefits of diversity in team member experience by alleviating coordination problems that diversity creates. We use detailed project- and individual-level data from an Indian software services firm to examine the effects of team familiarity and diversity in experience on performance for software development projects. We find the interaction of team familiarity and diversity in experience has a complementary effect on a project being delivered on time and on budget. In team familiarity, we identify one mechanism for capturing the performance benefits of diversity in experience and provide insight into how the management of experience accumulation affects team performance.

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... While psychologists have tended to investigate what some claim to be a causal link (Dunn et al. 2014;Aknin et al 2018) between spending money on others (pro-social spending) and happiness, economists have put forth the hypothesis as a potential answer to the question of why people give 2 (Andreoni 1989;1990). As a result, the hypothesis that people may derive a "warm glow" from their altruistic gift has been construed both as the underlying motive of the generous action of gifting (Harbaugh 1998;Harbaugh et al. 2007;Tonin & Vlassopoulos 2011;2012;Ribar & Wihelm 2002;Andreoni 1989;1990;Andreoni et al. 2017;Gebaueur et al. 2008;Park et al. 2017;Amegashie 2006) and as a positive side-effect of one's charitable behavior (Anik et al. 2009;Aknin et al. 2013a;Aknin et al. 2013b;Aknin et al. 2018;Aknin & Whillans 2020;Dunn et al. 2014;Dunn et al. 2011) 3 . ...
... 10 Lalin Anik and her colleagues addressed the question of whether or not it is wise for charitable organizations to try to increase the amount of donation they receive by advertising the emotional benefits of giving (see : Anik et al. 2009). They concluded that incentivizing people to donate by advertising the emotional benefits of giving might encourage individuals to give more (ibid., p.17). ...
... One element worth stressing out at that point is that findings regarding the psychological benefits of helping or giving are often grouped under the label of "happiness", as a quick look at the articles' headlines on the subject can illustrate (for instance: Aknin & Whillans 2020;Dunn et al. 2014;Dunn et al. 2011;Dunn et al. 2008). Similarly, positive feelings or good feelings (Aknin et al. 2018;Anik et al. 2009), which may be considered to be interchangeable with "pleasure" in this context, are often used to describe the psychological benefits of giving. In the light of this, it is legitimate to wonder if some kind of hedonism about happiness is assumed by 22 That strikes me as intuitive. ...
Thesis
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Recently a growing body of literature on the pleasure of giving – also known as “warm glow feeling” – has emerged in both economics and psychology. As a result, the hypothesis that people may derive a “warm glow” from their altruistic gift has been construed both as the underlying motive of the generous action of gifting and as a positive side-effect of one’s charitable behavior. In this paper, I address two related issues. I first deal with the nature of “warm-glow effects”, that is the nature of the affective states referred to as “warm glow” that are associated with giving, and then I explore in depth the warm-glow explanation of giving, henceforth ‘warm glow hypothesis’. One of the idea that lies at the core of the warm glow hypothesis is to explain why donors care to make donations despite the personal financial cost involved in the act by appealing to what they experience when they give, that is an emotional benefit, a reward, or to put it more simply, a warm glow. Accordingly, the main purpose of this work is to argue that one cannot simply pass from the observation of warm-glow effects of giving to a warm-glow explanation of why people give without further assumptions regarding the motivations underlying generous actions. This involves both a clarification of the nature of these explanations – as they can, in principle, be deployed to account for any type of prosocial behavior – and an examination of the main arguments given against them. The conclusion I will be inching towards has two parts. First, I argue that a decisive argument to the conclusion that ‘internal reward explanations’ are conceptually incoherent is yet to be provided. And second, I contend that even if the warm glow hypothesis turned out to be true – a possibility, which I argue, is worth exploring – it would not warrant the conclusion that all prosocial actions, and in particular charitable donations, are the result of narrow self-interest – by which I mean that it would not follow that people are motivated to help others only by considerations bearing on their own interest.
... Os sentimentos dos indivíduos também podem motivar doações, como a "alegria de doar" (Anik et al. 2009;Bekkers & Wiepking, 2010). Outros estudos têm fornecido evidências de que os sentimentos altruístas são determinantes na decisão de doar (Bekkers & Wiepking, 2011b). ...
... Indivíduos também doam por almejarem serem respeitados (Andreoni, 1990), quando estão preocupados (Verhaert & Van Den Poel, 2011), ou por se sentirem obrigados a doar (Hibbert & Horne, 1996). Assim, como estes motivadores estudados já citados, outras variáveis tendem a motivar indivíduos a doarem, como a lealdade criada junto à organização (Sargeant, 1999), a percepção da necessidade, a identificação com a causa que a organização defende (Bachke, Alfnes & Wik, 2014) e por ter semelhança entre o doador e o beneficiário que irá receber a doação (Bennett, 2003 (Bekkers, 2006;Anik et al., 2009;Bekkers & Wiepking, 2010;Bekkers & Wiepking, 2011b). ...
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Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo geral identificar os fatores pessoais que motivam os brasileiros a doarem dinheiro e/ou bens. Para alcançar tal objetivo foi realizada uma pesquisa descritiva, quantitativa com corte transversal. Inicialmente foram identificadas na literatura 58 características pessoais que tendem a motivar o comportamento de doação de dinheiro e/ou bens. Estas variáveis foram convertidas em afirmações e, posteriormente, estruturadas em um questionário. Este questionário foi aplicado junto à 1073 doadores brasileiros que afirmaram realizar com regularidade a doação de dinheiro e/ou bens. Após coletados os dados, foi realizada a análise fatorial exploratória. O agrupamento das variáveis na análise fatorial exploratória resultou em 10 fatores de características pessoais (Imagem Pessoal, Aspectos Sociais, Necessidade de Ajudar, Aspectos Econômicos, Comprometimento com o Próximo, Benefícios Psicológicos, Consciência da Necessidade, Valores Pessoais, Aspectos Demográficos e Disposição em Ajudar). Tal análise favoreceu a identificação de dimensões subjacentes das características pessoais que tendem a motivar a realização da doação de dinheiro e/ou bens.
... Pleasure and enjoyment are taken as drivers of effort in work (Grant, 2008). Helping others and charitable giving leads to higher levels of happiness and enjoyment and leads to benefits for the giver for the consideration of deep-rooted empathy and desire for public recognition (Anik et al., 2009). This study examines enjoyment in helping others as a type of intrinsic motivation to participate in online donation. ...
... Previous research has shown the effect of forwarding donation requests through social media (i.e., Twitter) on saving lives (Abbasi et al., 2018). There are countless forms of helping others (Anik et al., 2009), including both online donation and forwarding. Previous study indicated that the forwarding of information could be considered as time donation and time donation requires more human and social capitals than money donation (Chen et al., 2019). ...
Article
Online donation contributes significantly to marginalized and vulnerable people because it is helpful for beneficiaries or donation requesters to receive attention and finance funding from a large number of people. Drawing on social learning theory and trust transfer theory, this article proposes a model to investigate the effects of different factors on online donation intention and forwarding intention. Based on data collected from 266 responses, this study uses the structural equation modeling technique to test the research model. The results show that different antecedents impact online donation variously. Trust in online donation platform, peer influence, and enjoyment in helping others are positively related to online donation intention. Tie strength and enjoyment in helping others have direct and significant effects on forwarding intention. This research contributes to IS research by investigating different antecedents in the context of online donation and including the consideration of forwarding intention of the online donation request.
... It is also important to develop trust and commitment between the donor and the NPO, as previous research shows it is related to giving behaviour (Sargeant and Lee, 2004). Playing on the emotional benefits of prosocial behaviour does increase donations, but informing potential donors that giving makes people happy does not because that type of information acts only as an incentive, and therefore affects just short-term giving (Anik et al., 2011). Prosocial behaviour can also be driven simply by the need to shape self-identity as someone who helps others (Wilson and Musick, 1997), which can motivate individuals to donate. ...
... While previous research (Slovic, 2007;Small et al., 2007) has found that providing statistics can inhibit giving because the statistics make potential donors consider the information analytically rather than emotionallywhich has proven to be effective in motivating donors (Anik et al., 2011;Kogut and Ritov, 2011;Small, 2011)the methodology used by Smith and Louis (2008) was based on the group-norm approach to social identity, where perceived norms of a group in which an individual identifies himself or herself have a significant effect on behavioural intentions. Therefore, if individuals have a positive attitude toward the behaviour, the relationship between attitude and behaviour will be strong if they perceive the behaviour is supported by the referent group and weak if they perceive the opposite. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate how individuals respond to messages asking for donations in broadcast advertising. It does so by considering both preexisting attitudes and beliefs related to donating, as well as message processing. The goal is to uncover messages that may help nonprofit organisations increase donations. Design/methodology/approach The research combines the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) to measure preexisting beliefs and the elaboration likelihood model (ELM) to measure involvement in an investigation of donation responses to broadcast-quality advertisements developed by a professional ad agency featuring the following two messages: one that leverages social norms and another that legitimises minimal giving. Two studies collected data from a total of 544 respondents in two between-subjects 2 × 2 × 2 experiments. Findings Injunctive norm messages affect the intended donation behaviour of individuals who are pre-disposed to donating, but only if they are highly involved with the ad. Social legitimisation messages affect donations from individuals who look to referents to direct behaviour, but unlike what was expected, only by those not highly involved with the ad. Similarly, individuals who do not think they can donate increased donations when they saw the legitimisation message and had low advertisement involvement. Research limitations/implications Results extend the ELM-TPB integrated framework by discovering when and how involvement drives intended donation behaviour. The research also sheds light on message processing by focussing on the preexisting characteristics of recipients. Practical implications The results provide nonprofit managers with strategies to increase donations with targeted messages. Those who pay attention to the ad and have a positive attitude toward giving are going to donate if they are told others support the cause. Therefore, the focus should be on those who are not involved with the ad but still believe giving is appropriate. Originality/value This research is the first to use the ELM-TPB framework to discover that ELM has varying utilities and values from TPB in different ad contexts.
... Moreover, prosocial behaviors have positive effects on individuals' welfare. They have been shown to be protective against mental disorders (Caprara et al., 2005), to improve self-esteem (Barber & Erickson, 2001) and well-being (Anik, Aknin, Norton, & Dunn, 2009;Post, 2005), and to increase the perception of meaning in life (Klein, 2017). In addition, prosocialness has been shown to reduce the likelihood of engaging in substance use (Carlo, Crockett, Wilkinson, & Beal, 2011). ...
... They seem to be particularly prevalent in behavioral addictions, particularly gambling and gaming. Because reduced prosocialness may have a negative impact on an individual's physical and mental health (Anik et al., 2009;Barber & Erickson, 2001;Caprara et al., 2005), this evidence may be useful for treatment purposes, particularly those that include social reintegration programs (Volkow et al., 2016). Considering individual's prosocial abilities in treatment and social interventions may contribute to reducing their addictive behaviors, enhancing their quality of life, and improving their physical and psychological health. ...
Article
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Background and aims Social determinants are closely related to addiction, both as a cause and a consequence of substance use and other addictive behaviors. The present paper examines prosocialness (i.e. the tendency to help, empathize, and care for others) among a population of young males. We compared prosocialness across different types of addiction and examined whether prosocialness varied according to the presence of multiple addictions. Methods A sample of 5,675 young males, aged 19–29 years old (Mean = 21.4; Median = 21), completed a questionnaire that included screening tools to identify addictive behaviors with regards to alcohol, nicotine, cannabis, gambling, and gaming. The questionnaire also included a scale to measure prosocialness. Results Compared to a no-addiction control group, the subgroups of young men suffering from behavioral addictions (i.e., gambling and gaming) reported the lowest levels of prosocialness. Respondents with an alcohol addiction also showed lower prosocialness compared to no-addiction controls. By contrast, no significant differences in prosocialness were found between respondents with nicotine disorder or cannabis disorder and the no-addiction controls. Furthermore, the number of addictions had no clear, observable effects on prosocialness. Significant differences were found between the no-addiction control group and the groups reporting one or more addictions, but not between the separate groups reporting one, two, and three or more addictions. Discussion and conclusions A better understanding of the social dimension affecting young males with addiction, particularly gambling and gaming addictions, may be useful for their prevention and treatment.
... The decision to help others is both common and consequential. Scholars argue that humans' prosocial proclivities provide the necessary foundation for a functioning cooperative society (Aknin, Dunn, Whillans, Grant, & Norton, 2013;Anik, Aknin, Norton, & Dunn, 2009;Chudek & Heinrich, 2011;Dunn, Aknin, & Norton, 2008). ...
Article
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Whether deciding how to distribute donations to online requesters or divide tutoring time among students, helpers must often determine how to allocate aid across multiple individuals in need. This paper investigates the psychology underlying helpers’ allocation strategies and tests preferences between two types of allocations: distribution (allocating help to multiple requesters) and concentration (allocating help to a single requester). Six main experiments and three follow-up experiments (n = 3,016) show a general preference for distributing help, because distribution feels procedurally fairer than concentration. We provide evidence for this preference in Experiment 1, test its psychological mechanisms (Experiments 2-3), and examine consequences for the amount of help provided (Experiments 4, 5a, and 5b). Experiment 3 demonstrates a boundary condition to the preference for distribution, showing that if one requester seems needier than others it can feel fairer to concentrate help to him or her. Next, testing real donation decisions in Experiments 4-5b, helpers distributed their donations across multiple requesters, which led them to donate more in aggregate when there were more requesters. Finally, the preference for distribution only resulted in more donations to a larger number of requesters when the donation decision was “unpacked,” that is, when donors made allocations for each requester separately (Experiments 5a and 5b). Understanding helpers’ allocation strategies provides insight into how people help others, how much they help, and why they help.
... The decision to help others is both common and consequential. Scholars argue that humans' prosocial proclivities provide the necessary foundation for a functioning cooperative society (Aknin, Dunn, Whillans, Grant, & Norton, 2013;Anik, Aknin, Norton, & Dunn, 2009;Chudek & Heinrich, 2011;Dunn, Aknin, & Norton, 2008). ...
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Whether deciding how to distribute donations to online requesters or divide tutoring time among students, helpers must often determine how to allocate aid across multiple individuals in need. This paper investigates the psychology underlying helpers’ allocation strategies and tests preferences between two types of allocations: distribution (allocating help to multiple requesters) and concentration (allocating help to a single requester). Six main experiments and three follow-up experiments (n = 3,016) show a general preference for distributing help, because distribution feels procedurally fairer than concentration. We provide evidence for this preference in Experiment 1, test its psychological mechanisms (Experiments 2-3), and examine consequences for the amount of help provided (Experiments 4, 5a, and 5b). Experiment 3 demonstrates a boundary condition to the preference for distribution, showing that if one requester seems needier than others it can feel fairer to concentrate help to him or her. Next, testing real donation decisions in Experiments 4-5b, helpers distributed their donations across multiple requesters, which led them to donate more in aggregate when there were more requesters. Finally, the preference for distribution only resulted in more donations to a larger number of requesters when the donation decision was “unpacked,” that is, when donors made allocations for each requester separately (Experiments 5a and 5b). Understanding helpers’ allocation strategies provides insight into how people help others, how much they help, and why they help.
... Although multiple factors modulate donation decisions, fundamental cognitive processes, or mechanisms involved in such decisions have not been investigated extensively. A significant number of studies have looked at the effect of contextual factors like awe (Rudd et al., 2012), hunger (Briers et al., 2006), and happy moods (Anik et al., 2009) on prosocial appeals. However, we need to identify and understand domaingeneric cognitive processes that could underlie a large number of contextual factors. ...
Article
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A link between perceptual processing styles and (pro)social behavior has gathered supporting empirical evidence to show that people raised or trained in traditions of collectiveness, compassion, and prosocial beliefs are biased to the global level in perceptual processing. In this research, we studied the reciprocal link – whether contextually broadening perceptual scope of attention via global processing could make people more prosocial. We hypothesized that global processing linked previously to an interdependent compassionate self-orientation would make people more prosocial, compared to local processing. Four experiments manipulated perceptual scope through a Global-Local task using hierarchical stimuli. It was found that participants who performed a global processing perceptual task volunteered to donate more money across different donation frames, compared to those who performed a local processing task. While previous research showed prosocial mindsets lead to perceptual broadening, the current results suggest that perceptual broadening also leads to more prosociality, thus establishing a reciprocal link between perceptual broadening (attentional scope), and acting prosocially. It is proposed that perceptual scope of attention is one of the generic cognitive processes that underlie prosocial decisions. Explanations based on scope of attention can potentially be used as a framework that enables researchers to link the effects of different contextual cues on prosocial decisions.
... Considering both individual items and factors, it seems that contribution to the campus community, a sense of belonging, and peer interaction all scored highly in respondents' perceived benefits of participation in the leadership programmes. Research into altruistic behavior (Martela & Ryan, 2015) and research from the field of positive psychology (Anik, Aknin, Norton, & Dunn, 2009;Nathan & Delle Fave, 2014;Otake, Shimai, Tanaka-Matsumi, Otsui, & Fredrickson, 2006) suggest that all these forms of engagement contribute to people's overall well-being and life satisfaction. It would be interesting to speculate whether these research findings could inform recruitment campaigns to attract potential student leaders. ...
... A recent meta-analysis of PPIs including data from over four thousand adults indicated a highly significant, moderate effect of PPIs on both well-being (r = 0.29) and depressive symptoms (r = 0.31) 252 . PPIs included expressing gratitude 256,257 , reflecting upon one's ideal future self [257][258][259][260] , identifying one's strengths 256 , practicing mindfulness 261 , and practicing compassion/ acts of kindness [262][263][264][265] . Interventions delivered individually were most effective, followed by those administered in a group, then by selfadministered PPIs. ...
Article
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In contrast to traditional perspectives of resilience as a stable, trait-like characteristic, resilience is now recognized as a multidimentional, dynamic capacity influenced by life-long interactions between internal and environmental resources. We review psychosocial and neurobiological factors associated with resilience to late-life depression (LLD). Recent research has identified both psychosocial characteristics associated with elevated LLD risk (e.g., insecure attachment, neuroticism) and psychosocial processes that may be useful intervention targets (e.g., self-efficacy, sense of purpose, coping behaviors, social support). Psychobiological factors include a variety of endocrine, genetic, inflammatory, metabolic, neural, and cardiovascular processes that bidirectionally interact to affect risk for LLD onset and course of illness. Several resilience-enhancing intervention modalities show promise for the prevention and treatment of LLD, including cognitive/psychological or mind–body (positive psychology; psychotherapy; heart rate variability biofeedback; meditation), movement-based (aerobic exercise; yoga; tai chi), and biological approaches (pharmacotherapy, electroconvulsive therapy). Additional research is needed to further elucidate psychosocial and biological factors that affect risk and course of LLD. In addition, research to identify psychobiological factors predicting differential treatment response to various interventions will be essential to the development of more individualized and effective approaches to the prevention and treatment of LLD.
... But in addition to that, goodness and happiness appear to be in a positively circuitous relationship: goodness tends to be conducive to happiness, while happiness tends to incentivize goodness. Anik et al. (2009) discusses this relationship in the case of charitable giving. It concludes that giving (generosity) and being kind increases happiness, while happier people are kinder and more generous. ...
Article
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It will be argued that humans have a rational self-interest in voluntarily opting to subject themselves to moral bioenhancement. This interest is based on the fact that goodness appears to be conducive to happiness. Those who understand that will be inclined to opt for safe and effective moral bioenhancement technologies. The more people decide to follow this path, the likelier it is that states will adopt suitable policies that incentivize moral bioenhancement. Hence, goodness, happiness and state incentivized moral bioenhancement can operate in a circularly supportive fashion.
... In order to be able to evoke this positive feeling again and to be consistent with their own updated self-view, people would then be more eager to repeat behaviour displayed previously. 9 Another reason why pledgers may keep on pledging is that they discover that they are happy to have done so, even though they would not have pledged if that had not been the default (Anik et al., 2011). They would thus wish to repeat the experience. ...
Article
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Defaults may not directly get people to behave as intended, such as saving more, eating healthy food or donating to charity. Rather, defaults often only put people on the ‘right’ path, such as joining a savings plan, buying healthy food or pledging money to charity. This an issue because getting more people to take those first steps does not necessarily motivate them to go on with further steps. Indeed, the default does little to help them understand the benefit of doing so. This can greatly reduce the impact of the default. We test this idea in a charitable giving experiment where people first can promise to give to charity (‘pledge’) and then can go on to donate. We find that participants pledge more often when that is the default, but those who pledge in that case are less likely to take further steps to donate than those who pledge when pledging is against the default. We interpret this in terms of motivation and transaction costs. Some people pledge only to avoid the psychological costs of going against the default. Those people are closest to indifference between donating or not and are therefore less motivated to go on to donate. We also show that the intrinsic motivation of pledgers is lower when pledging is the default and that making pledges the default does not change attitudes to charities.
... Critically, however, research has also confirmed that people will often forgo self-interest, and even incur costs to self, in order to benefit others. For example, people frequently make anonymous donations to charity (Batson and Shaw 1991;Anik et al. 2009), sacrifice personal benefits (Savary, Goldsmith, and Dhar 2015), and endure physical pain (Olivola and Shafir 2013) to benefit the broader social collective. These findings highlight the perspective that although people may be motivated by self-interest, they also engage in activities for the benefit of others. ...
... Previous studies conducted in the neuroscience and sociology fields, confirm the generation of positive affective responses as a result of helping others (Harbaugh et al., 2007(Harbaugh et al., : 1624Meier and Stutzer, 2008: 46). Charitable organizations, which know these benefits and effects, try to capitalize on these beneficial outcomes ( Anik et al., 2009: 3). ...
Article
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The study targets to determine the factors which lead to affective responses of consumers toward the Cause Related Marketing (CrM) program and its behavioral outcomes. Findings of the study show that three factors, namely the affinity of consumer with the cause, the fit between the brand and cause and finally, the perception about the donation level are three important determinants of the generation of emotional responses toward the CrM program. These emotional responses in turn affect the purchase intention of consumers and their propensity to engage into WoM activity. However, the skepticism of consumers about the real intent of the brand in engaging in such CrM programs mediates this effect. The direct and strong positive effects of affective responses towards the CrM program on both intentions to purchase and engagement into WoM activity, becomes stabilized largely when the skepticism level increases. Based on the findings of the study, some practical implications which may help to generate more effective CrM programs are provided
... The emotional benefits of donating are greater when an individual is giving to those with whom he or she has strong (vs. weak) social ties (Anik et al., 2009). The role of social connections is considered important in fundraising. ...
... However, higher levels of gratitude were associated with students who performed community outreach regularly . This effect is likely explained by the student's interest to help and contribute to the community (Anik et al ., 2009) . As can be seen in Table 3 and Table 4, these resilience and gratitude effects sustained, controlling for age, sex, and socio-economic status . ...
Article
We assessed the relative impact of volunteerism on the resilience and gratitude of students based on participation. A convenience sample of 80 students (female = 53.75%; age range = 18-25 years) participated in the study, of which 38 (47.50%) had volunteer experience. The students completed measures of self-report for volunteer work hours, the Brief Resilience Scale, and the Gratitude Questionnaire. Following linear regression analysis, results indicated that volunteers reported significantly higher resilience and gratitude scores than peers who were non-volunteers. No notable interaction effect emerged after controlling for age, sex, and family monthly income. Among those with volunteer experience, results indicated that the more hours they spend volunteering, the higher their sense of resilience and gratitude. Findings suggest volunteerism is important in improving students’ well-being.
... Here, we focus on one widely studied behavior: donating money to philanthropic organizations. Donations are often used to measure prosocial behavior in psychological research (e.g., Anik, Aknin, Norton, & Dunn, 2009;Bekkers & Wiepking, 2011). Most often participants only need to decide between donating and not donating, which would pose a conflict between prosocial and egoistic values. ...
Article
According to the Schwartz value model, personal values relate to each other in a circumplex way, such that adjunctive values are compatible, while opposing values are conflicting. Thus, relations of values to other constructs should reveal a sinusoidal pattern. We examined how the complete value system relates to preferences for specific philanthropic foundations reflected in willingness to donate to philanthropic organizations that differed in value characteristics in their mission statements. Findings revealed a sinusoidal pattern in the relations of values to the amount donated to philanthropic organizations, indicating that values seem to foster donations to philanthropic organizations which promote compatible values. We conclude that prosocial behavior is not exclusively driven by prosocial values; rather, values like stimulation and achievement can be relevant as well and influence prosocial behavior (i.e., donating) if they are compatible with the values reflected in philanthropic organizations' mission statements.
... However a positive relationship between the two can be ascertained. Moreover it is likely that these may operate in a circular fashion (Anik et al., 2009). ...
... According to the hedonic contingency model (Bae, 2021), the sequential process of moving from negative to positive emotions (e.g., happiness) should lead to more message processing since recipients with positive emotions are more attentive to the message. The work of Anik et al., (2009) proposed that religious giving is associated with happiness more than secular giving (Konow & Earley, 2008). In light of the above, we predict that: -. ...
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In times of crises and subsiding government support, choosing the most effective advertising message appeal in motivating donation behavior is fundamental to charity success. This study investigates the relative effectiveness of popular culture celebrities (PCC) and religious celebrities (RC) as two message appeals in motivating donation intentions intended for a ‘child suffering’ donation campaign among Kuwaiti donors. The two message appeals were presented in alternated order to a sample of 385 potential donors and the data was used to test the conceptual model using MANOVA, CFA and Structural Equation Modeling. The results showed that the type of emotions evoked (negative and positive), and emotional intensity (strong/weak) differed between the two ad appeals. Intensely evoked emotion was positively associated with ad favorability, and the latter was also found to be an antecedent of donation intentions. Conclusions and practical implications are presented and discussed.
... Because of the ease of implementation of the language used in public health messages, our findings provide solid and quickly implementable suggestions on how to increase the persuasiveness of social distancing messages. Moreover, the literature on prosocial behavior shows that helping others increases the recipient's and the giver's well-being and happiness (e.g., Anik et al., 2009;Rudd et al., 2014). From the perspective of policymakers, framing the publicly conveyed social distancing messages around social benefits by slightly changing the pronouns used in the message can motivate individuals' willingness to help one another, and as a result, may contribute to the society's overall well-being. ...
Article
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This research responds to urgent calls to fill knowledge gaps on COVID-19 (new coronavirus) in communicating social distancing messages to the public in the most convincing ways. The authors explore the effectiveness of framing social distancing messages around prosocial vs. self-interested appeals in driving message compliance and helping behavior. The results show that when a message emphasizes benefits for everyone in society, rather than solely for the individual, citizens find the message more persuasive to engage in social distancing, and also more motivating to help others. The results further demonstrate that the proposed effects are higher for individuals who have a lower locus of control and lower fear of coronavirus as prosocial messages lead them to feel a joint responsibility in protecting from the pandemic. Theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed.
... COs are generally exempted from paying income or property taxes because these organizations perform functions of social welfare improvement, social equality enhancement, environmental protection, and other tasks for sustaining society that the government would normally have to perform [7]. Therefore, the government is willing to forgo the tax revenue in return for the public interest services rendered by COs [8][9][10][11][12]. In addition, the tax-exempt status is justified because COs follow a non-distribution constraint principle [13]. ...
Article
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Tax exemption plays an important role in the sustainability of charitable organizations (COs). The 2016 Charity Law of China provides stronger tax incentives for charity donations. Using 767 observations of Chinese charitable foundations (CFs) during 2010–2018 from the China Foundation Center database and manually collected tax-exempt status data, this study applies multivariate logistic regression analysis to examine the association between tax-exempt status and related key factors, such as transparency and donation dependency. This study found that a one-point increase in the transparency score of a CF is associated with a 3.9 percentage points higher likelihood of having at least one type of tax-exempt qualification (OR = 1.039, p < 0.01). There is in general a significantly positive association between tax-exempt status and donation dependency of CFs in China. After 2016, the CFs responded actively to the tax incentive provided by the Charity Law, which in return requires a higher level of transparency. These results suggest that taxation under the legal system may effectively function to promote the sustainability of charity foundations in China in the long run. Further studies are needed to explore in-depth why CFs with advanced tax-exempt qualifications concentrate in Beijing and Shanghai.
... For example, in a positive work reflection, the feeling of contribution increases proactive behavior (personal initiative and creativity) as well as organizational citizenship behavior (Binnewies et al., 2009). In line with this, Anik et al. (2009) demonstrated that charitable and giving behavior increases happiness. Gomez et al. (2010) and Ciampa (2014) ...
Article
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Creating emotionally engaging mobile applications requires consideration of constantly evolving technology, content richness, usability, and user experience (UX). UX plays an important role in promoting long-term usage. We focused on the emotional aspects of UX design of mobile applications. In particular, we adopted the concept of feelings of being (FoB) – also known as existential feelings – in the context of mobile UX design. We presented an in-depth literature review covering 112 articles (2005–2021) on human-computer interaction, UX, mobile application development, mobile learning, and emotional engagement. Of these articles, 16 discussed FoB in the context of mobile applications. Building on the results of literature analysis and other previous research, we presented a FoB model for mobile application design comprising 13 FoB (ownership, engagement, contribution, security, trust, adjustability, enjoyment, empowerment, effectiveness, frustration, excitement, gratification, and needs fulfilment) and the hedonic and eudaimonic aspects of UX. Finally, we validated the FoB model through nine design projects, proposed design recommendations based on the model, and present considerations on extending the model with additional elements.
... (1) This study complements previous research emphasizing egoistic considerations (Andreoni, 1990;Anik et al., 2009) by demonstrating that people could also consider altruistic outcomes when deciding whether to avoid donating (Leliveld et al., 2012). The path from perceived distributive injustice to SNS donation avoidance via altruistic outcome expectation indicates that the decision to avoid donating is not totally based on selfish thinking: avoidance behavior may be the chosen means to react to perceived injustice in the donation process, in the belief that donating through an unjust process would harm oneself and the potential recipients. ...
Article
Purpose The domain of monetary donation is evolving with the combination of professional donation platforms and social network sites (SNSs) in the agency process, potentially enhancing information communication and facilitating money transfers between donors and recipients. However, SNS donation avoidance hinders the leveraging of significant economic and social values. To address the limited understanding of the phenomenon of SNS donation avoidance, this study aims to investigate the influencing factors of people's avoidance behavior in the agency process of SNS donation. Design/methodology/approach A model was devised containing four process-related factors (requests overload, process ambiguity, channel security concerns and perceived distributive injustice) as antecedents of SNS donation avoidance, with probable mediating paths of negative emotions, altruistic outcome expectation and egoistic outcome expectation. Data were collected through a survey of 398 users of WeChat Moment in China. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the proposed model. Findings All four process-related factors have positive associations with SNS donation avoidance. Requests overload, channel security concerns and perceived distributive injustice all positively influence people's expectation of negative emotions and lead, in turn, to their SNS donation avoidance. Perceived distributive injustice also leads to SNS donation avoidance via negatively influencing people's expectations of both altruistic and egoistic outcomes. Originality/value Theoretically, this empirical study synthetically associates process-related factors to donation avoidance through the paths of emotional responses and rational outcome expectations. Practically, it emphasizes key factors to consider in the process management of SNS donation.
... Positive emotions such as pride positively influence the decision to donate, whereas gratitude can positively influence both the decision to donate and the amount donated (Paramita, Septianto, & Tjiptono, 2020). On the other hand, feeling sad about a situation or a victim also has a similar effect (Anik, Aknin, Norton, & Dunn, 2011). These negative emotions presumably act as one of the mechanisms that contribute to generating the identifiable victim effect, which is known to increase donations (Genevsky, Västfjäll, Slovic, & Knutson, 2013;Jenni & Loewenstein, 1997;Metzger & Günther, 2019a). ...
Article
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Finding mechanisms to promote prosocial spending behavior is fundamental to the well-being of our societies and is more urgent than ever in a time of key global challenges, including social and economic inequalities. Tax payment and charitable giving can be seen as two complementary ways to financially provide for the common good and, like many other social dilemmas, they both involve a conflict between what is good for oneself and what is good for others. The aim of the present article is to perform a comparative analysis of the main determinants of tax behavior and charitable giving to identify some common antecedents to gain insight to promote pro-social financial decisions at large. Despite the intrinsic differences, several commonalities were found, thus suggesting a transcending common core. By identifying well-established literature and under-investigated areas, a new research agenda is formulated.
... Conversely, as has been shown in Anik et al. (2009) andin Isen andLevine (1972), happiness tends to contribute to moral behavior. ...
Book
This book deals with good, evil, happiness and morally enhanced post-humans. It offers a succinct historical elaboration of philosophical stances towards morality and happiness, focusing on Kant's ideas in particular. Human augmented ethical maturity in a futuristic version of Kant’s Ethical Commonwealth implies, among else, the following features: 1. Voluntary Moral Bio-Enhancement (VMBE); 2. Consequently, more happiness – as morality and happiness are in a circularly supportive relationship; 3. Ultimate Morality (UM). In feature 2, deontological practice would result in a utilitarian outcome. By fulfilling our moral duties based on UM, we would gradually create a world of post-humans who approach moral and thus felicific perfection. UM is in its own way a universal morality. In line with the contention that Kant’s vision of the (not immediate but more distant) future of humanity is one of a cosmopolitan moral order in which humans act virtuously in the broadest possible community, that is, humanity, it is justified to conclude that successful VMBE is conducive to Kant’s vision. Therefore, this book is of great interest to a broad audience, such as those interested in VMBE and novel conceptions of morality, and those with an interest in the historical development of morality and happiness, in philosophy (specifically, ethics) and in post-humanity.
... The reward is associated with an emotional gain from the act (i.e. the "warm glow"). Emotional gains may include internal contentedness, a pleasant feeling or a boost in self-esteem (Anik et al., 2009). The strong motivational effect of warm-glow giving has been demonstrated in various experiments (e.g. ...
Article
Purpose Unauthorised file sharing (UFS) in online communities (OCs) is a major intellectual property concern. Researchers have traditionally viewed UFS as digital piracy and have suggested that deterrents, such as legal actions, should be in place. However, previous research has not considered the OC context and cannot explain why OC members share unauthorised files even when there is legislation against this in place. In OCs, UFS exhibits features of public goods contribution. Therefore, the authors claim that public goods contribution motivations can provide a compelling explanation for UFS in OCs. Design/methodology/approach The authors propose a theoretical model in which two egoistic public goods contribution motivations (namely, warm-glow giving and demand for resources) are tested alongside motivations informed by the sanctions described by deterrence theory, a theory widely used within the digital piracy perspective. Findings The authors find that warm glow and demand for resources are positively related to UFS in OCs; the effect of warm glow is moderated by users' attachment to OCs. Importantly, the results suggest that although sanctions significantly predict UFS, the effect of sanctions on UFS becomes insignificant in the presence of warm glow, demand for resources and attachment. Originality/value The study offers new insights into why users engage in UFS and highlights that public goods contribution should be taken into account in developing anti-piracy policies and practices.
... Over the past several decades, researchers have explored many psychological factors related to gift giving and gift receiving. In pursuit of understanding the former factor (gift giving), research has identified two main components that underlie it: egocentrism (Zhang & Epley, 2012) and warm glow (Andreoni, 1990;Anik et al., 2009). The first component, egocentrism, refers to givers focusing more on their own thoughts and feelings than on their recipients' perspective. ...
Article
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How people choose gifts is a widely studied topic, but what happens next is largely understudied. In two preregistered studies, one field experiment, and an analysis of secondary data, we show that giving gifts has a dark side, as it can negatively affect subsequent interpersonal behavior between givers and receivers. In Study 1, we found that giving a gift to one's romantic partner changes givers' interpretation of which behaviors constitute infidelity. Specifically, we found that givers (vs. nongivers) classified their questionable behaviors (e.g., sending a flirtatious text to someone other than their partner) less as a form of cheating on their partner. In Study 2, we examined how politely participants behave when delivering bad news to a friend. We found that givers (vs. nongivers) wrote significantly less polite messages to their friend. In Study 3, we tested real gifts that people give to friends and found givers (vs. nongivers) subsequently made more selfish decisions at their friends' expense. In all, our research refines the oft‐cited axiomatic assumption that gift giving strengthens relationships and illuminates the potential for future research to examine how decision making can alter interpersonal, romantic relationships.
... To account for this imbalance (i.e., why inter-dependents give more to in-group than out-group victims while independents give similarly), we propose that a belief system is at play. Mounting research suggests that acting charitably can promote personal well-being and happiness (Aknin et al., 2011;Anik et al., 2010;Duclos et al., 2014). Supporting this notion, prior work finds that individuals often help others to reap intra-psychic rewards, such as feeling good for having done a good deed (Andreoni, 1990) Similarly, people's beliefs about how happy they will feel from certain decisions in economic games have been shown to predict whether they will act generously in these games or not (Mellers et al., 2010). ...
Book
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Charitable contributions are a big part of our society. Some people prefer to give money while others enjoy the opportunity to get personally involved. Charitable organizations are increasingly under financial pressure. However, research examining consumer attitudes toward and motivations for giving to charity have yielded ambiguous results. This dissertation investigates the role of an individual’s self-construal impact on willingness to donate through mediating roles of altruistic and egoistic motives. Moreover, it also provided the moderating effects of self-enhancement, involvement, self-congruence and program-induced moods on subsequent processing of charity advertisements. These objectives were pursued through the implementation of quantitative (n=350) undergraduate students. Participants were induced to experience a happy or sad mood by watching a 3-minutes segment of a happy or sad TV program. Then they were shown charity ad and asked about their processing of the ad. As hypothesized, results indicated people who watched the sad program report greater behavioral intention than those who watched the happy program and interdependent participants tend to be more responsive to the negative appeal and independent self-construal is more likely to be persuaded by the positive appeal. Therefore advertisement placement is very important. Moreover, self-enhancement, self-congruence, and involvement play important roles in the relationship between self-construal and behavioral intention. We discuss the theoretical importance of the findings. Findings highlight the importance of appropriate ad placement.
... Jika terpaksa, maka pemberian seseuatu pada orang lain tidak memberi dampak apa-apa bagi individu yang bersangkutan. Ini menjadi perbandingan dengan studi studi terdahulu, misalnya Studi yang dilakukan Anik, et.al (2009) yang menyoroti perasaan bahagia dari sisi perilaku memberi/berbagi menyimpulkan bahwa memberi sesuatu (uang) kepada orang lain, ternyata dapat mengaktivasi otak yang berkaitan dengan kesenangan dan reward. Orang-orang yang bekerja sebagai relawan juga terbukti meningkat kesenangan dan mengurangi kecemasan dalam hidupnya. ...
Article
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This study aims to understand happiness in the review of sadaqah behavior in the analysis of Islamic psychology by taking a sample of the community of the Lhokseumawe City and North Aceh District. Happiness is the focus of humans in life that can be understood by people in various interpretations in accordance with knowledge, understanding, and habits of life. This study was designed with an explorative type by qualitative approach, in which the reality of sadaqah behavior became the focus of happiness felt by individuals. The results showed that knowledge about happiness and sadaqah gave importance to individuals as a virtue in lives. Based on this knowledge the individual understands that the reality of giving is able to provide peace of mind which is felt as happiness in his life. Therefore sadaqah behavior continues to be carried out by people in their lives to provide a sense of happiness and enjoyment of life. In accordance with the findings of this study, it was concluded that one source of happiness in the reality of the community of Lhokseumawe city and North Aceh district was to giving of sadaqah accompanied by sincere intentions.
... Kim et al. (2006), in their study, mentioned the meaning of individual behavior, methods, or ways of understanding their lives is not the same in the context of the reality of society in a region, region, and nation. Anik et al. (2009), who highlighted happiness in terms of the act of giving or sharing, concluded that giving something (money) to others can activate the brain part that is associated with pleasure and reward. People who work as volunteers have also shown an increase in their enjoyment and a decrease in the anxiety of their lives. ...
Article
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ABSTRAK Kesejahteraan sebagai konstruksi psikologis yang multitafsir sesuai konteks realitas sosial, budaya atau keyakinan agama masing-masing individu/masyarakat global menjadi kajian menarik di realitas studi psikologi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengeksprolasi konstruksi well-being dari perilaku altruistik dalam aspek pengetahuan, penghayatan dan realisasi perilaku warga di realitas Aceh dengan mengambil sampel warga Aceh Utara, Provinsi Aceh. Studi ini didesain secara kualitatif dengan model analisis tematik. Partisipan studi ini diambil secara acak yang bersifat insidental sampling. Temuan penelitian memberi informasi bahwa dari aspek pengetahuan, partisipan memandang kesejahteraan adalah tujuan hidup sesuai keyakinan agama yang dianut. Demikian juga rekaman penghayatan dan pemaknaan akan kesejahteraan juga sesuai keyakinan agama Islam yang mereka anut. Berlandaskan pada keyakinan agamanya, maka realisasi/tendensi perilaku berpatokan pada serapan ajaran agama, yakni mengedepankan kebajikan (perilaku altruistik) dalam segala aspek, termasuk praktik-praktik budaya/kebiasaan yang berlaku di realitas sosial yang melingkupinya. Kata kunci: Kesejahteraan psikologis, perilaku altruistik, nilai agama Islam, Realitas Masyarakat Aceh ABSTRACT Well-being as a psychological construct that has multiple interpretations according to the context of the social, cultural, or religious beliefs of each individual/society in this world is an interesting study in the reality of psychological studies. This study aims to explore the well-being construct of altruistic behavior in the aspects of knowledge, appreciation, and realization of citizens' behavior in the reality of Aceh by taking a sample of residents of North Aceh, Aceh Province. This study was designed qualitatively with a thematic analysis model. The participants were chosen using random sampling. The research findings provide information that in the knowledge aspect, participants perceive well-being as a goal according to their religious beliefs. Likewise, the record of the appreciation and meaning of well-being also follows their religious beliefs. Based on the aforementioned, the realization/tendency of behavior is based on the uptake of their religious doctrines, prioritizing virtue in all aspects, including cultural practices/traditions that prevail in the surrounding social reality.
... Emotions that are totally unrelated to the helping situation can also influence decisions to help (Anik et al., 2011;Carlson et al., 1988;Isen & Levin, 1972;Small & Lerner, 2008;. A positive mood makes it more likely that we notice need situations whereas a negative incidental mood makes us more self-focused. ...
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Charitable giving, volunteering, climate-friendly choices, and most recently changing one’s lifestyle to stop the spread of the coronavirus are all examples of prosocial behavior. Prosociality can be investigated from different perspectives including the “who-question” (which people are more likely to help), and the “when-question” (which situational factors stimulate helping?), but in this article we focus primarily on the “why-question” (which emotions and cognitions motivate helping?)Specifically, this article tries to organize and synthesize literature related to emotions, thoughts, and beliefs (i.e. psychological mechanisms) that motivate or demotivate human helping behavior. To do this, we present a new typology including four overarching interrelated categories, each encompassing multiple subcategories.(1) Emotions: (a) emotional reactions elicited by the need situation such as empathic concern/sympathy, (b) positive or negative attitudes toward the beneficiary or the requester, (c) incidental mood. (2) Moral principles: (a) personal responsibility, (b) fairness-concerns, (c) aversion towards causing harm. (3) Anticipated impact: (a) self-efficacy (e.g. “can I make a difference?”) and (b) response-efficacy (e.g., “is this cause/project efficient and worthwhile?”). (4) Anticipated personal consequences: (a) material, (b) social and (c) emotional costs and benefits that the helper expects will follow if she helps or if she does not help. Increased knowledge about the “who” (e.g. individual differences in demography or personality) and “when” (situational antecedents such as characteristic of those in need, or type of solicitation) can surely help predict and even increase prosociality, but we argue that to understand the psychology of helping we need to also consider the psychological mechanisms underlying prosocial decisions (the “why-question”).We compare our typology against related theoretical frameworks, and present the pros and cons with different methodological approaches of testing psychological mechanisms of helping, with the aim to help researchers and practitioners better organize and understand the many psychological factors that influence prosocial decisions.
Book
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History of service dogs, and how service dogs help people with autism, PTSD, and epilepsy.
Article
The study focusses on online community (henceforth OC), a dominant factor in the social media domain. OCs are growing in popularity and offer an accessible outlet for individuals who genuinely wish to contribute for the good of society by identifying motivations for contributing goods and services to OCs. Examples range from Couchsurfing, a global online exchange community for coordinating free travel accommodations, to Freecycle, on which members offer a variety of items for free. Drawing on the Uses and Gratifications, Social Identity and Self-Categorisation theories and on data gleaned from 1,229 respondents, we validate and examine factors that affect willingness to contribute goods and services on social media. We construct and validate a Willingness to Contribute on Social Media (WCSM) Scale, employing SEM to analyse the data. Findings corroborate positive effects of self-esteem, social interaction, social importance, exposure to and subjective value of contributions on the willingness to donate. Self-esteem and interactions mediate the relationship between status-seeking and the willingness to donate.
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Action research on positive orientation to education and critical friendship in teacher education
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كيف يتم استثمار رأس المال الديني من قبَل المنظمات الخيرية الإسلامية لحماية الأطفال الأيتام في مناطق النزاعات وكيف يطبقون مفهوم كفالة اليتيم في الإسلام
Article
This paper seeks to build on MacQuilllin and Sargeant's (2019) framework for normative fundraising ethics by considering how fundraising professionals might use these theories to support their fundraising practice. In the paper we will seek to identify the higher‐level ethical questions that underpin the majority of ethical decisions fundraisers will need to make: decisions around the acceptance and solicitation of donations and. We will then seek to address each of these questions through the lens of MacQuilllin and Sargeant's (2019) normative ethical theories. We will abstract from common ethical dilemmas the higher‐level or overarching questions that can encompass them. We will then consider each question through the lens of the normative theories developed by MacQuillin and Sargeant (2019), drawing on available evidence to support our arguments. Two core questions were identified: 1. Where are the lines in who we approach for/receive resources from for our organisation? 2. Where are the lines in how we approach people for resources for our organisation? To our knowledge, this will be the first academic paper that a) identifies the overarching ethical questions that affect fundraising practice, and b) applies the various normative theories of fundraising ethics directly to them. In practical terms, it may also be particularly useful to fundraising practitioners who want to explore the theories of ethics in relation to the dilemmas they encounter in practice.
Book
This book offers an innovative approach to moral enhancement. We, as humans, have a moral duty to be as good as we can be. Hence, moral bio-enhancement (MBE), if effective and safe, is our moral duty. However, it has to be voluntary because if it is made compulsory, human freedom (of the will) would be curtailed. As freedom (of the will) is an essential component of humanness, compulsory MBE would infringe upon our humanness. An essential question is; what will motivate humans to subject themselves voluntarily to MBE?The book argues - and supports by using empirical/experimental evidence - that morality and happiness operate in a circularly supportive relationship that applies to most humans most of the time: the better they are, the happier they will be; the happier they are, the better they will be. Hence, the grounding rationale for MBE ought not to be the prevention of “ultimate harm” based on compulsory MBE (as argued by Persson and Savulescu), but human happiness based on voluntary MBE. The primary objective of the book is to provide the readers with an original view on moral enhancement, whilst proposing a novel conception of moral enhancement that is informed by new biotechnological developments.
Article
Why does kindness matter? When you act kindly toward others, the benefits go both ways. Small, thoughtful acts—like helping, sharing, listening, or teaching—can change both how you are perceived and how you see yourself. When children are encouraged to be kind, their peers want to spend more time around them. Not only does kindness strengthen social relationships, but it also can show that your choices have an impact and that you have valuable skills (like the ability to make friends). In short, being kind to others is also being kind to yourself.
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Organisational justice has created an interest amongst scholars in the contemporary world since it is closely associated with the perceptions of individuals regarding the existence of fairness within organisational settings. The primary objective of this study is to examine and explore the relationship between organisational justice and organisational citizenship behaviour in a selected TVET college in Gauteng. Organisational justice has an impact on organisations when employees perceive unfair treatment in the workplace resulting in negative emotion and behaviour. Unfair treatment or injustices not only diminish job performances but also decrease the quality of workmanship and degree of cooperation among workers. In light of this, this study attempted to contribute to the literature by investigating the link between organisational justice and organisational citizenship behaviour among academic staff in a TVET college. The study employed a questionnaire for data collection. Thirty lecturers, out of a total of 65, took part in the study. Pearson Correlation Coefficient was used for data analysis. The results show that there is significantly no relationship between organisational justice and organisational citizenship behaviour. ISSN 1728 9157 [144] JMA Issue I 2019 The researcher, therefore, recommends possible ways to amend the situation.
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But in addition to moral behavior being conducive to happiness, happiness appears to stimulate moral behavior. Goodness and happiness operate in a circularly supportive fashion. Anik et al. (2009) discusses this relationship in the case of charitable giving. It concludes that giving (generosity) and being kind increases happiness, while happier people are kinder and more generous. Generosity and happiness operate in a positive feedback loop. There is reason to assume that other types of moral behavior (kindness, gratitude, making someone else happy) operate in a similar circularly supportive manner.
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Distributive justice is associated with the perceptions of an individual of the presence of equity and fairness in an organisation and how employees compare their expectations to the actual outcome. The primary objective of this article is to critically assess distributive justice within the South African financial services industry. A quantitative research design was employed. Non-probability sampling was used and 436 usable questionnaires were returned. The empirical results revealed that trustworthiness of management, extrinsic rewards and organisational climate have a positive influence on distributive justice, while employee engagement and two-way communication were found to have no significant influence on distributive justice. Furthermore, distributive justice had a positive influence on organisational citizenship behaviour and reputable employee retention in the financial services industry.
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Charitable giving takes different forms in a Muslim society like Pakistan. Monetary/non-zakat, zakat, in kind, giving time, usher, hides and giving at shrines etc. are different forms of charitable giving. Broadly it can be split into money and time. Monetary donations and time volunteered is given to individuals, organizations or both. This paper aims to identify socioeconomic determinants of charitable giving in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa along with an attempt to understand the relationship between charitable giving and volunteering. Further, it aims to find relationship between charitable giving to individuals and to organizations. The study tests the hypothesis that there is no relationship between charitable giving and volunteering in the study area. Using 2014 survey data of Pakistan Centre of Philanthropy (PCP), a correlation test has been used. The results show that there is a complementary relationship between charitable giving to individuals and to organizations whereas charitable giving and volunteering are substitutes. Multiple regression results show that gender, region of residence, monetary donations to organizations and zakat payments, significantly affect charitable giving to individuals whereas giving to organizations is also affected by region of residence. Income is another factor significantly affecting charitable giving to organizations.
Chapter
In this chapter, we discuss the psychological aspects of financial decisions related to charitable giving. We argue that affect plays a central role in driving charitable decisions. In our selective review, we explore two psychological phenomena that are based on affect: compassion fade and pseudoinefficacy. The first phenomenon may be regarded as a cognitive bias that predisposes decision makers to act more compassionately toward a single individual compared to a large number of anonymous people due to the effect of scope insensitivity. The second phenomenon—pseudoinefficacy—describes and explains why people deter from helping some people just because there are others they cannot help. However, there are some possible differences between fast and slow pseudoinefficacy on which we elaborate from the perspective of “dual-process theories” of thinking. Finally, we show that debiasing techniques, such as nudges and decision aids, may be employed to promote slow thinking and mitigate biases in charitable giving.
Book
The book discusses various ways how to enhance morality
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Explanation why the best option on offer is voluntary moral bioenhancement with happiness as its grounding rationale
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The COVID‐19 pandemic led many governments to implement lockdown regulations to curb the spread of the virus. Though lockdowns do minimise the physical damage caused by the virus, there may also be substantial damage to population well‐being. Using a pooled data set, we analyse the relationship between a mandatory lockdown and happiness in three diverse countries: South Africa, New Zealand and Australia. These countries differ amongst others in terms of lockdown regulations and duration. The primary aim is to determine, whether a lockdown is negatively associated with happiness, notwithstanding the characteristics of a country or the strictness of the lockdown regulations. Second, we compare the effect size of the lockdown on happiness between these countries. We use Difference‐in‐Difference estimations to determine the association between lockdown and happiness and a Least Squares Dummy Variable estimation to study the heterogeneity in the effect size of the lockdown by country. Our results show that a lockdown is associated with a decline in happiness, regardless of the characteristics of the country or the type and duration of its lockdown regulations. Furthermore, the effect size differs between countries in the sense that the more stringent the stay‐at‐home regulations are, the greater it seems to be.
Article
The study examined the association between religiosity and generosity, and whether it is mediated by secure attachment to God, among Christian young adults. A total of 154 participants (Mean age = 22.75, SD = 6.12) completed self-report measures on religiosity (religious activities and intrinsic religiosity), attachment to God, and generosity (generous behavior and interpersonal generosity). In terms of direct effects, religious activities were positively associated with secure attachment to God and generous behavior, whereas intrinsic religiosity was associated with higher levels of interpersonal generosity. In terms of indirect effects, secure attachment to God mediated the relations between both types of religiosity (religious activities and intrinsic religiosity) and interpersonal generosity. Secure attachment to God did not mediate the relation between religiosity and generous behavior. The results of the study highlight the role of religiosity and secure attachment to God in cultivating generosity among young adults. Implications of the study findings, especially with regard to the potential roles of clinicians and clergy in cultivating generosity among young adults, will be discussed.
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This study examined the accuracy of measuring happiness by a single item (Do you feel happy in general?) answered on an 11-point scale (0-10). Its temporal stability was 0.86. The correlations between the single item and both the Oxford Happiness Inventory (OHI; Argyle, Martin, & Lu, 1995; Hills & Argyle, 1998) and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985; Pavot & Diener, 1993) were highly significant and positive, denoting good concurrent validity. Moreover, the single item had a good convergent validity because it was highly and positively correlated with optimism, hope, self-esteem, positive affect, extraversion, and self-ratings of both physical and mental health. Furthermore, the divergent validity of the single item has been adequately demonstrated through its significant and negative correlations with anxiety, pessimism, negative affect, and insomnia. It was concluded that measuring happiness by a single item is reliable, valid, and viable in community surveys as well as in cross-cultural comparisons.
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This paper explores the impact of social capital—measured by social trust and social networks—on individual charitable giving to religious and secular organizations. Using United States data from the national sample of the 2000 Social Capital Community Benchmark Survey, we find that social trust, bridging social network, and civic engagement increase the amount of giving to both religious and secular causes. In contrast, organizational activism only affects secular giving. Volunteering activity, and human and financial capital indicators positively affect both religious and secular giving. Finally, those who are happy about their lives and those who are religious give more to religious causes, but these factors do not affect secular giving. We find evidence of important differences in the determinants of religious and secular giving, suggesting the need to distinguish these two types of charitable giving in future work.
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Models of giving have often been based on altruism. Examples include charity and intergenerational transfers. The literatures on both subjects have centered around neutrality hypotheses: charity is subject to complete crowding out, while intergenerational transfers are subject to Ricardian equivalence. This paper formally develops a model of giving in which altruism is not "pure." In particular, people are assumed to get a "warm glow" from giving. Contrary to the previous literature, this model generates identifiable comparative statics results that show that crowding out of charity is incomplete and that government debt will have Keynesian effects. Copyright 1989 by University of Chicago Press.
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We conducted a natural field experiment to explore the effect of price changes on charitable contributions. To operationalize our tests, we examine whether an offer to match contributions to a non-profit organization changes the likelihood and amount that an individual donates. Direct mail solicitations were sent to over 50,000 prior donors. We find that the match offer increases both the revenue per solicitation and the probability that an individual donates. While comparisons of the match treatments and the control group consistently reveal this pattern, larger match ratios (i.e., $3:$1 and $2:$1) relative to smaller match ratios ($1:$1) had no additional impact. The results have clear implications for practitioners in the design of fundraising campaigns and provide avenues for future empirical and theoretical work on charitable giving. Further, the data provide an interesting test of important methods used in cost-benefit analysis.
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A substantial body of evidence collected by Batson and his associates has advanced the idea that pure (i.e., selfless) altruism occurs under conditions of empathy for a needy other. An egoistic alternative account of this evidence was proposed and tested in our work. We hypothesized that an observer's heightened empathy for a sufferer brings with it increased personal sadness in the observer and that it is the egoistic desire to relieve the sadness, rather than the selfless desire to relieve the sufferer, that motivates helping. Two experiments contrasted predictions from the selfless and egoistic alternatives in the paradigm typically used by Batson and his associates. In the first, an emphatic orientation to a victim increased personal sadness, as expected. Furthermore, when sadness and empathic emotion were separated experimentally, helping was predicted by the levels of sadness subjects were experiencing but not by their empathy scores. In the second experiment, enhanced sadness was again associated with empathy for a victim. However, subjects who were led to perceive that their moods could not be altered through helping (because of the temporary action of a "mood-fixing" placebo drug) were not helpful, despite high levels of empathic emotion. The results were interpreted as providing support for an egoistically based interpretation of helping under conditions of high empathy.
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Reward is one of the most important influences shaping behavior. Single-unit recording and lesion studies in experimental animals have implicated a number of regions in response to reinforcing stimuli, in particular regions of the extended limbic system and the ventral striatum. In this experiment, functional neuroimaging was used to assess neural response within human reward systems under different psychological contexts. Nine healthy volunteers were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging during the performance of a gambling task with financial rewards and penalties. We demonstrated neural sensitivity of midbrain and ventral striatal regions to financial rewards and hippocampal sensitivity to financial penalties. Furthermore, we show that neural responses in globus pallidus, thalamus, and subgenual cingulate were specific to high reward levels occurring in the context of increasing reward. Responses to both reward level in the context of increasing reward and penalty level in the context of increasing penalty were seen in caudate, insula, and ventral prefrontal cortex. These results demonstrate dissociable neural responses to rewards and penalties that are dependent on the psychological context in which they are experienced.
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3 experiments with adult Ss investigated the effects of the experience of success or failure on subsequent generosity, helpfulness, and attention to the social environment. On the basis of an intuitive formulation, designated the "warm glow of success" hypothesis, it was expected that Ss who had succeeded on a task would subsequently behave more generously and more helpfully toward a stranger than would Ss who had not succeeded. It was predicted that Ss who had failed would be less attentive to the social environment than those who had succeeded. In the success and failure groups, Ss performed a series of tasks and were then informed that they had scored either well above the norm or well below it. Control Ss in 1 study were exposed to these tasks for about the same period of time, but had no opportunity to actually work on them, and thus received no feedback. In all conditions, after the independent variable manipulation was completed, the E left the room, and a confederate, who did not know the experimental condition of the S, entered. In Study I, the dependent measure was amount of money contributed to a charity collection can which the confederate placed on the table. In both Studies II and III, the dependent variables were helpfulness and attentiveness to the confederate. Results support the predictions. Internal analysis in Study III indicates that the findings regarding helping and those regarding attention were independent of each other. Several possible interpretations of the results are offered. The role of the S's feelings of competence and his expectancy for future incoming resources is suggested as a mediator 178 192 192 192 192 208 286 328 (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Advertisements for charities often display photographs of the people they help to evoke the kind of sympathy that engenders giving. This article examines how the expression of emotion on a victim's face affects both sympathy and giving. Building on theories of emotional contagion and sympathy, the authors propose that (1) people "catch" the emotions displayed on a victim's face and (2) they are particularly sympathetic and likely to donate when they see sad expressions versus happy or neutral expressions. Consistent with emotional contagion, participants felt sadder when viewing a sad-faced victim, and their own sadness mediated the effect of emotion expression on sympathy. Contagion effects are automatic and noninferential, but they are diminished by deliberative thought. The authors discuss the implications of using subtle emotional expressions on charitable and other marketing appeals.
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Based on recent theories of affect and cognition, this unobtrusive field experiment predicted and found that induced positive mood improved real-life customer service behaviors by less experienced sales staff, but had no effect on the behaviors of experienced long-term staff in several department stores. Positive or negative mood was unobtrusively induced in sales staff in major department stores by a confederate. A second confederate, blind to the mood induction, then asked employees for help to locate a non-existent item. The frequency and duration of helpful behaviors in response to the request was recorded. Consistent with Forgas' Affect Infusion Model (AIM), less experienced employees showed a significant mood-congruent pattern in their responses helping more in a positive than in a negative mood. Long-term employees who could rely on routine, direct access processing were not influenced by the mood induction. The implications of these findings for contemporary affect-cognition theorizing and for everyday affective influences on interpersonal behaviors and customer service delivery are considered. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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The “Hedonistic Paradox” states that homo economicus, or someone who seeks happiness for him- or herself, will not find it, but the person who helps others will. This study examines two questions in connection with happiness and generosity. First, do more generous people, as identified in dictator experiments, report on average greater happiness, or subjective well-being (SWB), as measured by responses to various questionnaires? Second, if the answer is affirmative, what is the causal relationship between generosity and happiness? We find a favorable correlation between generosity and happiness (i.e., SWB is directly related to several measures of happiness and inversely related to unhappiness) and examine various possible explanations, including that material well-being causes both happiness and generosity. The evidence from this experiment, however, indicates that a tertiary personality variable, sometimes called psychological well-being, is the primary cause of both happiness and greater generosity. In contrast to field studies, the experimental method of this inquiry permits anonymity measures designed to minimize subject misrepresentation of intrinsic generosity (e.g., due to social approval motives) and of actual happiness (e.g., because of social desirability biases) and produces a rich data set with multiple measures of subjective, psychological and material well-being. The results of this and other studies raise the question of whether greater attention should be paid to the potential benefits (beyond solely the material ones) of policies that promote charitable donations, volunteerism, service education, and, more generally, community involvement, political action, and social institutions that foster psychological well-being.
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The United States is distinctive among Western countries in its reliance on nonprofit institutions to perform major social functions. This reliance is rooted in American history and is fostered by federal tax provisions for charitable giving. In this study, Charles T. Clotfelter demonstrates that changes in tax policy—effected through legislation or inflation—can have a significant impact on the level and composition of giving. Clotfelter focuses on empirical analysis of the effects of tax policy on charitable giving in four major areas: individual contributions, volunteering, corporate giving, and charitable bequests. For each area, discussions of economic theory and relevant tax law precede a review of the data and methodology used in econometric studies of charitable giving. In addition, new econometric analyses are presented, as well as empirical data on the effect of taxes on foundations. While taxes are not the most important determinant of contributions, the results of the analyses presented here suggest that charitable deductions, as well as tax rates and other aspects of the tax system, are significant factors in determining the size and distribution of charitable giving. This work is a model for policy-oriented research efforts, but it also supplies a major (and very timely) addition to the evidence that must inform future proposals for tax reform.
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This essay incorporates a general treatment of social interactions into the modern theory of consumer demand. Section 1 introduces the topic and explores some of the existing perspectives on social interactions and their importance in the basic structure of wants. In Section 2, various characteristics of different persons are assumed to affect the utility functions of some persons, and the behavioral implications are systematically explored. Section 3 develops further implications and applications in the context of analyzing intra-family relations, charitable behavior, merit goods and multi-persons interactions, and envy and hatred. The variety and significance of these applications is persuasive testimony not only to the importance of social interactions, but also to the feasibility of incorporating them into a rigorous analysis.
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Subsidizing charitable giving—for example, for victims of natural disasters—is very popular, not only with governments but also with private organizations. Many companies match their employees' charitable contributions, hoping that this will foster the willingness to contribute. However, systematic analyses of the effect of such a matching mechanism are still lacking.This article tests the effect of matching charitable giving in a randomized field experiment in the short and the long run. The donations of a randomly selected group were matched by contributions from an anonymous donor. The results support the hypothesis that a matching mechanism increases contributions to a public good. However, in the periods after the experiment, when matching donations have been stopped, the contribution rate declines for the treatment group. The matching mechanism leads to a negative net effect on the participation rate. The field experiment therefore provides evidence suggesting that the willingness to contribute may be undermined by a matching mechanism in the long run. (JEL: C93, D64, H00) (c) 2007 by the European Economic Association.
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There is little evidence on unemployment duration and its determinants in developing countries. This study is on the duration aspect of unemployment in a developing country, Turkey. We analyze the determinants of the probability of leaving unemployment for employment or the hazard rate. The effects of the personal and household characteristics and the local labor market conditions are examined. The analyses are carried out for men and women separately. The results indicate that the nature of unemployment in Turkey exhibits similarities to the unemployment in both the developed and the developing countries.
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24 2nd and 3rd graders reminisced on matters that made them happy or sad. Subsequently, they were permitted to indulge themselves noncontingently with candies and to contribute money to other children, both in the absence of the E. Both happy and sad children self-gratified more than the 12 controls, but happy children contributed more than either the controls or unhappy ones. Among happy children, a strong positive correlation was obtained between self-gratification and altruism. Among unhappy children, that correlation was negative. Affect, therefore, moderates the relationship between self-gratification and altruism. (20 ref)
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The present experiment demonstrated that Ss led to believe that an external cause is responsible for their arousal at seeing a woman in pain will be less likely to help her than those attributing their arousal to sympathy for her. Ten men and 10 women were told that exposure to an aversive noise would produce symptoms of physiological arousal; another 10 men and 10 women were told that irrelevant symptoms might occur. Those expecting irrelevant symptoms from noise bombardment helped a woman with a hurt knee significantly more than those expecting the noise to cause symptoms typical of arousal; these results provided support for both Schachter's cognitive attribution theory of emotion and Aronfreed's empathy theory of altruism.
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Investigated the effects of a person's positive affective state on his or her subsequent helpfulness to others. "Feeling good" was induced (a) in 52 male undergraduates by having received cookies while studying in a library (Study I), and (b) in 24 female and 17 male adults by having found a dime in the coin return of a public telephone (Study II). In Study I, where the dependent measure involved volunteering in reply to a student's request, a distinction was made between specific willingness to help and general willingness to engage in any subsequent activity. In Study II, the dependent measure was whether Ss spontaneously helped to pick up papers that were dropped in front of them. On the basis of previous research, it was predicted that Ss who were thus made to "feel good" would be more helpful than control Ss. Results support the predictions.
Article
Induced feelings of either elation or depression in 120 male undergraduates by having them read structured sets of mood statements. Ss then listened to a tape-recorded interaction under imagine-self or listen conditions, and completed the Mood Adjective Check List. Later, when Ss were asked to perform a numbering task defined either as an experimental requirement or as a favor to the E, it was found that the mood and task definition variables interacted. Whereas the depression Ss in the requirement condition wrote more numbers than their elation counterparts, the elation Ss in the favor condition outperformed their depression counterparts. In addition, a greater proportion of elation Ss volunteered for an unpleasant future experiment. The helping differences between the 2 mood groups could not be attributed to activation level differences, but appeared to have been due, in part, to the depression Ss' resentment of their mood-lowering experience. The possibility that equity-restoring processes also mediated the results is discussed.
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This study, involving 139 employees from a variety of industries, organizations, and positions in Singapore, measured the effects of mood on the intentions of employees to contribute actions that are organizationally desirable but are not part of their formal job requirements (organizational citizenship behavior). After effects of established patterns of historical organizational citizenship behavior, demographic characteristics, and employee positive and negative affectivity had been controlled, stepwise regression analysis revealed that the amount of positive affect currently experienced by an employee significantly influenced the employee's intention to perform specific acts of organizational citizenship.
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Using two waves of panel data from Americans' Changing Lives (House 1995) (N = 2,681), we examine the relationships between volunteer work in the community and six aspects of personal well-being: happiness, life satisfaction, self-esteem, sense of control over life, physical health, and depression. Prior research has more often examined the effects of voluntary memberships than of volunteer work, has used cross-sectional rather than longitudinal data, and, when longitudinal, has emphasized social causation over selection effects. Focusing only on the consequences of volunteer work overlooks the antecedents of human agency. People with greater personality resources and better physical and mental health should be more likely to seek (or to be sought for) community service. Hence, we examine both selection and social causation effects. Results show that volunteer work indeed enhances all six aspects of well-being and, conversely, people who have greater well-being invest more hours in volunteer service. Given this, further understanding of self- versus social-selection processes seems an important next step. Do positive, healthy people actively seek out volunteer opportunities, or do organizations actively recruit individuals of these types (or both)? Explaining how positive consequences flow from volunteer service may offer a useful counterpoint to stress theory, which has focused primarily on negative life experiences and their sequelae.
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We conducted a natural field experiment to further our understanding of the economics of charity. Using direct mail solicitations to over 50,000 prior donors of a nonprofit organization, we tested the effectiveness of a matching grant on charitable giving. We find that the match offer increases both the revenue per solicitation and the response rate. Larger match ratios (i.e., $3:$1 and $2:$1) relative to a smaller match ratio ($1:$1) had no additional impact, however. The results provide avenues for future empirical and theoretical work on charitable giving, cost-benefit analysis, and the private provision of public goods. (JEL D64, L31)
Article
This study reports evidence from a field experiment that was conducted to investigate the relevance of gift exchange in a natural setting. In collaboration with a charitable organization, we sent roughly 10,000 solicitation letters to potential donors. One-third of the letters contained no gift, one-third contained a small gift, and one-third contained a large gift. Treatment assignment was random. The results confirm the economic importance of gift exchange. Compared to the no gift condition, the relative frequency of donations increased by 17 percent if a small gift was included and by 75 percent for a large gift. The study extends the current body of research on gift exchange, which is almost exclusively confined to laboratory studies. Copyright The Econometric Society 2007.
Article
When charitable contributions are tax deductible, the marginal price of charitable giving in other consumption foregone per dollar of contributions is generally less than unity. Further, if the income tax schedule is a progressive step function, the marginal price of contributions is generally a rising step function of the level of contributions. The problem of estimating a contributions demand function for individuals is therefore complicated by the spurious correlation between the level of contributions and the observed marginal price. We take this econometric problem into account in estimating a contributions demand function using data from the 1972-73 Consumer Expenditure Survey. After comparing our results with those of estimation techniques used by other authors, we provide evidence on the impacts of alternative tax policies on charitable giving using our estimates of the model parameters.
Article
Charitable contributions made by individuals constitute one of the principal sources of finance for the vast nonprofit sector in the United States. In spite of, or perhaps because of, the apparent incongruity between giving and the usual kind of selfish behavior portrayed in economics textbooks, economists have devoted considerable attention to it. This paper presents a discussion of the positive research on giving, particularly the empirical models that account for the effects of income and taxes.
Article
Volunteering constitutes one of the most important pro-social activities. Following Aristotle, helping others is "the" way to higher individual wellbeing. This view contrasts with the selfish utility maximizer, who avoids helping others. The two rival views are studied empirically. We find robust evidence that volunteers are more satisfied with their life than non-volunteers. The issue of causality is studied from the basis of the collapse of East Germany and its infrastructure of volunteering. People who lost their opportunities for volunteering are compared with people who experienced no change in their volunteer status. Copyright (c) The London School of Economics and Political Science 2007.
Article
Increasing environmental performance is one of the changes involved by sustainable development and became a condition of success in economic activities. Efforts invested in this direction are explained by a number of strategic advantages – operational ecoefficiency, reputation, strategic direction, risk management, human resources management, product differentiation - , which justifies economic suboptimal functioning on short term. Governmental policies contributed to the development of these advantages, but there still remain many unclear aspects regarding the reaction pattern of enterprises. The paper aims to address this area of uncertainty by analyzing the patterns that could become internal drivers of environmental performance in trading activity. Size, profitability and efficiency in the use of resources, identified by prior research as internal drivers of environmental performance, were not confirmed by the empirical analysis performed on a sample of companies with trading activities. The impact of changes in the conditions that allow participation in public procurement bidding, the way of evaluating environmental performance are possible explanations for these inconclusive results. Future research should address the relative importance of internal and external drivers, the possibilities to express environmental performance and inter-sector comparisons.
Article
The motivation crowding effect suggests that an external intervention via monetary incentives or punishments may undermine (and under different indentifiable conditions strengthen) intrinsic motivation. As of today, the theoretical possibility of crowding effects is widely accepted among economists. Many of them, however, have been critical about its empirical relevance. This survey shows that such scepticism is unwarranted and that there exists indeed compelling empirical evidence for the existence of crowding out and crowding in. It is based on circumstantial insight, laboratory studies by both psychologists and economists as well as field research by econometric studies. The presented pieces of evidence refer to a wide variety of areas of the economy and society and have been collected for many different countries and periods. Crowding effects thus are an empirically relevant phenomenon, which can, in specific cases, even dominate the traditional relative price effect. Keywords: Crowding effect, intrinsic motivation, principal-agent theory, economic psychology, experiments JEL-Codes: A12, J33, L22 1 Prof. Bruno S. Frey, Institute for Empirical Economic Research, Bl mlisalpstrasse 10, CH-8006 Z rich, Switzerland, Tel. +41-1-634-37-30/31, eMail: bsfrey@iew.unizh.ch 1. Background The basic idea that rewards, and in particular monetary rewards, may crowd out intrinsic motivation emanates from two quite different branches of literature in the social sciences. Thirty years ago in his book The Gift Relationship Titmuss (1970) argued that paying for blood undermines cherished social values and would therefore reduce or totally destroy peoples willingness to donate blood. Though he was unable to come up with any serious empirical evidence his thesis attracted much att...
Undermining children’s intrinsic interest with extrinsic reward Pursuing sustained happiness through random acts of kindness and counting one’s blessings: Tests of two six-week interventions. Unpublished data
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Lepper, M. R., Greene, D., & Nisbett, R.E. (1973). Undermining children’s intrinsic interest with extrinsic reward. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 28, 129–37. rFeeling Good about Giving 21 Lyubomirsky, S., Tkach, C., & Sheldon, K. M. (2004). Pursuing sustained happiness through random acts of kindness and counting one’s blessings: Tests of two six-week interventions. Unpublished data, Department of Psychology, University of California, Riverside
Federal tax policy and charitable giving Chicago rFeeling Good about Giving 19 Clotfelter The economics of giving
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Clotfelter, C. T. (1985). Federal tax policy and charitable giving. Chicago: University of Chicago Press (for National Bureau of Economic Research). rFeeling Good about Giving 19 Clotfelter, C. T. (1997). The economics of giving. In J. W. Barry & B. V. Manno (Eds.), Giving better, giving smarter (pp. 31–55), Washington, DC: National Commission on Philanthropy and Civic Renewal