Article

Do Colleges and Universities Increase Their Region's Human Capital?

Journal of Economic Geography (Impact Factor: 3.26). 01/2009; 12(401). DOI: 10.1093/jeg/lbr020
Source: RePEc

ABSTRACT

We investigate whether the degree production and R&D activities of colleges and universities are related to the amount and
types of human capital in the metropolitan areas where they are located. Our results indicate only a small positive relationship
exists between a metropolitan area's production and stock of human capital, suggesting that migration plays an important role
in the geographic distribution of human capital. We also find that academic R&D activities increase local human capital levels,
suggesting that spillovers from such activities can raise the demand for human capital. Consistent with these results, we
show that metropolitan areas with more higher education activity tend to have a larger share of workers in high human capital
occupations. Thus, this research indicates that colleges and universities can raise local human capital levels by increasing
both the supply of and demand for skill.

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    • "The effectiveness of management solutions in this sphere can be provided for the account of: а) revealing of key social factors, that influence the conditions for formation, development and use of human capital in the region; the authors of this article basing on the points, stated in the sources (Rodionov et al, 2013; Abel Jaison & Deitz et al., 2011), pointed out the most significant factors, connected with the education sysytem; b) developments of organized mechanism of human capital management on the regional level, which takes into account the existing system of regional management and relationships between subjects of regional economy; c) forming of integral index of assessment of conditions for formation and development of human capital in the region, which reflects key social factors that can be an indicator of effectiveness of solutions. "
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    ABSTRACT: The article suggests the method of assessment of conditions for formation and development of human capital (CFDHC) in a region for Russian conditions. This assessment is of integral character. It integrates 21 individual indices which measure deviations of the existing conditions for formation and development of human capital in the given region, from the best ones that have ever been achieved in any other Russian regions. Information base for calculations is an official statistics. There was suggested a scale for classification of regions according to the level of assessment (ranging from 0 to 1). The calculations of assessment of conditions for formation and development of human capital in all the regions of the Russian Federation for the period of 1999 - 2013 are presented in this article. The analysis of the assessments dynamics showed their growth in most regions and gradual approximation of indices to favourable ones. This means that the social policy of the federal centre and regions is correctly oriented. However the regions' assessment level is diverse, it needs the development of management decisions aimed at overcoming differentiations. Based on the assessment indices for 2012 there were distinguished three groups of regions - leaders, outsiders and neutral conditions regions. Separately there were conducted the analysis of assessments indices of conditions for formation and development of human capital for the region of Northwest Federal District which showed high assessments in St. Petersburg and low ones in other regions. The improvement of conditions for formation and development of human capital in these regions is possible only in case of active support of the federal centre, that's why the transfer of the centre of expenditures, connected with the social policy, to the level of constituent entities of the federation, is impossible with regard to these regions.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Asian Social Science
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    • "knowledge spillovers and network effects) from different types of organizations often positively influence the performance of high technology firms (Coenen et al., 2004; Döring and Schnellenbach, 2006; Gittelman, 2007; Kolympiris and Kalaitzandonakes, 2013a,b; Kolympiris et al., 2011) we include in both specifications variables that account for such potential influences. The first variable measures the number of universities that perform biotechnology related research and are located in the same MSA as the focal firm (UniversitiesInMSA ) and we expect a positive sign (Abel and Deitz, 2012; Anselin et al., 2000; Varga, 2000). As well, we account for potential proximity effects from the presence of VCFs and over-performing DBFs in the vicinity (Beaudry and Breschi, 2003; Gompers, 1995; Shane and Cable, 2002). "
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    ABSTRACT: A long stream of research has documented the positive effects that patents bring about to emerging firms in high technology industries. The general consensus is that patents contribute to firm growth because they confer monopolistic market rights, offer protection from competitors, increase the negotiating position of patent holders and other benefits. What has received relatively less attention in the literature is whether patents act as a signal that attracts investors such as venture capital firms. The handful of studies that have addressed that question has not analyzed whether the signaling function of patents decreases after the initial attraction of venture capital, as information asymmetries between investors and target firms reduce. In this study we hypothesize that patent activity has a signaling value that diminishes once information asymmetries between investors and funded firms lessen. To study our proposition we draw upon a longitudinal dataset of more than 580 U.S. – based biotechnology firms to empirically demonstrate that biotechnology firms that have submitted patent applications substantially increase the level of funding they receive for their first round of financing. In line with a reduction of information asymmetries once the initial investment has materialized, patent applications and granted patents have no effect on the growth of venture capital funds raised during the second round of financing. We conclude the study with a discussion of avenues for new research, implications for policy makers that consider the usefulness of the current patent system and with insights that can be employed by managers of firms in knowledge intensive areas such as biotechnology.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Research Policy
    • "In this context, colleges and universities can help to raise human capital levels in their region by increasing both the supply and demand for skilled labour (Abel and Deitz, 2009). This occurs as the presence of universities tilts the structure of local labour markets towards occupations that are more human capital intensive (Beeson and Montgomery, 1993; Faggian and McCann, 2006; Abel and Deitz, 2009). There is also a great deal of policy interest in the career paths of graduates, particularly in the light of recent government policy initiatives aimed at higher education in the UK. "
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    ABSTRACT: New university graduates are highly geographically mobile, but, as the literature has shown, often struggle in the labour market, working in non-graduate level jobs or in a field different from the one for which they are qualified. In this context, inter-industry moves can act as complements or substitutes for geographical moves, with graduates reacting to job mismatches by either changing location, industry, or both. Self-selection is also likely; industry movers may differ from non-movers in ways that also affect their career outcomes. We analyse the relationship between migration and inter-industry moves using longitudinal microdata for 7060 recent UK graduates.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Journal of Economic Geography
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