Heart Failure Treatment in the Intensive Care Unit in Children
Division of Cardiology, The Heart Institute at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45244, USA.Heart Failure Clinics (Impact Factor: 1.84). 10/2010; 6(4):531-58, ix-x. DOI: 10.1016/j.hfc.2010.06.001
Although pediatric heart failure is generally a chronic, progressive disorder, recovery of ventricular function may occur with some forms of cardiomyopathy. Guidelines for the management of chronic heart failure in adults and children have recently been published by the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation the American College of Cardiology, and the American Heart Association. The primary aim of heart failure therapy is to reduce symptoms, preserve long-term ventricular performance, and prolong survival primarily through antagonism of the neurohormonal compensatory mechanisms. Because some medications may be detrimental during an acute decompensation, physicians who manage these patients as inpatients must be knowledgeable about the medications and therapeutic goals of chronic heart failure treatment. Understanding the mechanisms of chronic heart failure may foster improved understanding of the treatment of decompensated heart failure.
Article: Cardiomyopathy in childhood[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cardiomyopathy is an important cause of heart failure and a major indication for heart transplantation in children. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of literature to guide the anesthesiologist who cares for these high-risk children. This review describes the cardiomyopathy phenotypes that occur in children and the factors that are associated with clinical outcomes and perioperative complications. Anesthesia considerations will be reviewed. During the past decade, there has been a dramatic increase in knowledge related to cardiomyopathy. New genotypes and phenotypes are recognized and new therapies have been devised. Multicenter pediatric cardiomyopathy registries are obtaining data essential for enhanced understanding of the disease. The diverse spectrum and complexity of pediatric cardiomyopathies mandate a thorough appreciation of the cardiac pathophysiology pertinent to an individual child's perioperative management. Important issues include multisystem disease associated with syndromic or genetic disorders, appropriate preoperative patient assessment to adequately characterize patient risk and guide therapy, and intraoperative and postoperative care plans that target optimal outcomes.
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ABSTRACT: Vasoactive amines play a crucial role in the management of pediatric acute decompensated heart failure, the etiology of which is multifactorial. This review aims to provide pediatricians a clinical approach to optimally diagnosing shock and appropriately using these medications. An algorithm is presented using the paradigm of postoperative low cardiac output syndrome (LCOS). The sites of action of select vaso-active amines as well as the sites of endogenous catecholamine receptors and effects of their action are tabulated with explanatory text examining their clinical relevance. Other inotropic agents used in pediatric shock are also discussed.
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of levosimendan in neonates with congenital heart disease undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Neonates undergoing risk-adjusted classification for congenital heart surgery (RACHS) 3 and 4 procedures were randomized to receive either a 72 h continuous infusion of 0.1 μg/kg/min levosimendan or standard post-CPB inotrope infusion. Sixty-three patients (32 cases and 31 controls) were recruited. There were no differences between groups regarding demographic and baseline clinical data. No side effects were observed. There were no significant differences in mortality (1 vs. 3 patients, p = 0.35), length of mechanical ventilation (5.9 ± 5 vs. 6.9 ± 8 days, p = 0.54), and pediatric cardiac intensive care unit (PCICU) stay (11 ± 8 vs. 14 ± 14 days, p = 0.26). Low cardiac output syndrome occurred in 37 % of levosimendan patients and in 61 % of controls (p = 0.059, OR 0.38, 95 % CI 0.14-1.0). Postoperative heart rate, with a significant difference at 6 (p = 0.008), 12 (p = 0.037), and 24 h (p = 0.046), and lactate levels, with a significant difference at PCICU admission (p = 0.015) and after 6 h (p = 0.048), were lower in the levosimendan group. Inotropic score was significantly lower in the levosimendan group at PCICU admission, after 6 h and after 12 h, (p < 0.0001). According to multivariate analysis, a lower lactate level 6 h after PCICU admission was independently associated with levosimendan administration after correction for CPB time and the need for deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. Levosimendan infused in neonates undergoing cardiac surgery was well tolerated with a potential benefit of levosimendan on postoperative hemodynamic and metabolic parameters of RACHS 3-4 neonates.
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