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Abstract

Although women representation in managerial positions is gradually increasing, the phenomenon of women being restricted to lower levels, under the glass ceiling effect is still valid in many countries. Different studies in several countries show that the increase of women in managerial positions is unbalanced compared to the total number of the workforce. According to the recent statistics, women managerial representation is less than 1% of the total construction work force in the UK. Several barriers for women's career advancement have been identified, most notably gender stereotypes. The stereotypical belief is that if women in managerial positions possess traditional male characteristic it is a better predictor for success, which reinforces the belief of "think manager-think male" and this discriminates women from reaching the higher positions with characteristics commonly associated with females. Since construction is one of the highest male dominated industries, the effect of stereotypes as a barrier for women's career progression in construction is salient. This paper reviews academic literature on gender stereotypes and its consequent effects on women managers. It attempts to discover the pertinent issues for women in the construction industry in order to reduce the stereotypical image.
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... Gurjao, 2007;Jahn, 2009), with some studies focussing on the economic sphere, few studies have critically examined the construction sector that is male-dominated. For example, Ginige et al. (2007) examined the career development of women in the construction industry. The findings revealed that gender stereotyping is a major challenge and that the culture of the construction industry is predetermined by men (Ginige et al., 2007). ...
... For example, Ginige et al. (2007) examined the career development of women in the construction industry. The findings revealed that gender stereotyping is a major challenge and that the culture of the construction industry is predetermined by men (Ginige et al., 2007). As a result, "gender stereotypes are visible in the construction industry as a direct antecedent of discrimination of women to achieve desired positions in the industry" (Ginige et al., 2007:8). ...
... Worrall (2010) examined the construction industry from a cultural perspective and noted that huge barriers exist for women who intend to join the workforce. These studies highlighted the reluctance of men in the construction industry to accept women into their fold, either as workers or small business owners (Ginige et al., 2007;Worrall, 2010). Those that have, are mostly in developed countries (Verwey, 2005;Blanchflower, 2009), where the gender inequality landscape is slightly different. ...
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The potential of the South African economy to achieve desired growth is greatly hampered by the systematic exclusion of women entrepreneurial activity in the key industries that drive the economy. One such industry is the construction industry that contributes positively to the South African’s economy. Yet, this industry is highly male-dominated. Despite seeming improvements in women’s entrepreneurial participation in different industries, there is still a huge gap between the percentages of men and women participating in the construction industry, particularly from a small business perspective. The construction industry has remained largely closed to women entrepreneurs and posing overwhelming challenges to the few women who have found their way into the industry. This study explores these challenges faced by women entrepreneurs in the construction industry as well as the strategies adopted by these women to overcome some of the obstacles they encounter in the construction industry in Pietermaritzburg, South Africa. Qualitative data was collected using in-depth interviews from a sample of 16 women entrepreneurs. The snowball sampling technique was used to identify the participants. Content analysis was used for data analysis. The results revealed that women face deeply rooted socio-cultural challenges, particularly patriarchal attitudes in the construction industry. The strategies used by the women toovercome some of the challenges include partnering with male business owners when bidding for construction jobs and forming reliable business networks. It is, therefore, important for policy makers to engage more with women running small businesses in the construction industry in order to develop a deeper understanding of the nature of these challenges. Support should be tailor made to mitigate the specific challenges.
... Consistent with the ndings for this study, numerous studies have examined gender differences in the effect of perceived social support on the career choice process of men and women studying STEM [37,38,39,40] subjects and found that girls received less encouragement and support from their social networks . Studies have been conducted to examine the stereotypical beliefs on career choice in male-dominated occupations and have hypothesized that the under-representation of women in the construction industry is because of gender-stereotyping of [41,42] [ 19,21] careers . Previous research provides evidence that men and women differ in their perception of gender stereotypes . ...
... Studies have examined gender differences in the barriers to career choices among undergraduate students in traditionally male occupations and have found [43,44] female students to perceive more barriers than did their male counterparts . Gender disparities exist in the barriers [41] experienced by students in choosing a construction career . Studies conducted to examine the barriers to participation in construction suggest that women compared to men experience barriers such as discrimination, harassment, lack of role models, [45,46] wage gap etc., which hinder their entry and participation in the industry . ...
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PURPOSE This study examines the gender differences in the perception of students as it relates to factors that determine their choices to undertake a career in construction. METHODOLOGY The study used a close-ended questionnaire in a survey of university students enrolled in construction-related programs in South Africa. A survey of 229 conveniently sampled undergraduate students, enrolled in construction-related programs was conducted. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to test for tnacingisdifferences between the gender groups concerning the nine constructs. FINDINGS Results from the questionnaire survey revealed that outcome expectations, perceived barriers, goal representations, social supports and gender stereotypes had the most ecneunion the career choice of men and women. Three of the nine predictor constructs (social supports, perceived barriers, and gender stereotypes) were found to have tnacingisdifferences between men and women. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS Findings of the current study have meaningful implication for practice in career choice and development in male-dominated environments and occupations.
... Globally, women"s progress in the workforce is subject to gender stereotypes and their roles in society (Schein, 2007). Indeed, gender stereotyping is considered the primaryand salient barrier that employed women face (Ginige et al., 2007;Schein, 2007), which affects their career progress and advancement (Heilman, 2012). Several scholars (e.g. ...
... Several scholars (e.g. Alfarran et al., 2018;Bahudhailah, 2019;Ginige et al., 2007;Schein, 2007) assert that women face several barriers and obstructions in their professional lives, particularly in relation to gender stereotypes. Indeed, the career interruptions that employed women may encounter differ according to intersectional barriers (Al-Asfour et al., 2017;Alfarran et al. 2018). ...
... Gender configures individual characteristics and behaviour (Ginige, et al., 2007). Characteristics, role behaviour, occupation and physical appearance are seen as gender differentiation; consequently, there are differences in character between two types of genders. ...
... The construction industry has always been associated with a male-dominated industry (Bagilhole, Dainty & Neale, 2002;Fielden et al., 2000;Gilbert & Walker, 2001;Ginige, et al.,2007;Worrall, Harris, Stewart, Thomas & McDermott, 2010). It becomes a barrier for women to have a career in it (English & Le Jeune, 2012;Fielden, et al., 2001;Worrall, Harris, Stewart, Thomas & McDermott, 2010). ...
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Women’s involvement in the Indonesian construction industry is considerably low accounting for less than 3% of the total workers. Construction as a male-dominated industry becomes a barrier for women to join the workforce. The increase in the need for workforces is proportional to the growth in construction development. The needs cannot only be provided by male workers. Women's participation in the construction industry will contribute to the shortage of human capital demand. The aim of this research is to find the factors that impede women to pursue their careers in the construction industry. 21 factors are gathered from an extensive literature review. After conducting expert interviews, the factors are developed into a questionnaire and distributed to women who are already in the workforce. The analysis based on the Relative Important Index shows that the most influential barrier to women in construction is the lack of worksite security. The factor analysis found five critical barriers to women’s careers in the construction industry. Developing these barriers to a framework gives a broader perspective about the sources of each critical barrier. Internal as well as external elements including worksite, organization, and the industry itself have been the cause that prevents women to pursue their careers in the construction industry.
... generation gender bias through the effects of implicit gender stereotyping (Eagly & Karau, 2002) and Ginige et al (2007) describe gender-stereotypes as the antecedents of workplace bias. The theory surmises that bias toward women in leadership occurs due to conflicts between the characteristics of social gender role stereotypes and qualities associated with archetypal leadership. ...
... The double-bind bias inhibits women from progressing due to traditional gender role stereotypes. Ginige et al (2007) maintains that due to intransigent occupation stereotypes in the construction industry, regardless of competence or experience, women are likely to be evaluated unfairly compared to 'masculine ideals' in recruitment. ...
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... Several studies detailing the status and participation of women in construction have argued that the barriers they encounter primarily influence the decision of women to take up careers in the field (Amaratunga et al., 2006;Ginige et al., 2007;English and Bowen, 2012). This signifies that it is vital to examine negative factors that hinder women's career choices in construction. ...
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This paper presents findings of a Delphi study which sought to identify the key factors that influence and determine the career choices of women in the construction industry in the South African context. Adopting the Socio-Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT) as the study's conceptual framework, a two-round iteration was performed to obtain the opinion of 14 experts actively involved in the South African construction industry. Consensus was achieved on ten predictors and 53 elements that influenced women's decisions to undertake a career in the construction profession. Findings from the study revealed women's career choices were influenced by gender, self-efficacy, socioeconomic status, outcome expectations, goal representations, learning experiences, interests, social supports, perceived barriers and access to opportunity structures. Ethnicity was found to have insignificant importance and impact on their career choices. The implication of the research is that results from the study provides insight into the factors that could conceivably increase the participation of women who want to enter and remain in the construction work.
... Women 'Take Care' Men 'Take Charge' (Welbourne 2005: 1). As long as women are anticipated to discharge certain responsibilities at homes which their counterparts namely, males, are excluded from, that could continue to retard their willingness to declare their availability for leadership roles in educational organisations (Ginige et al. 2007). ...
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