Neutralisation of Dkk-1 protects from systemic bone loss during inflammation and reduces sclerostin expression

Department of Medicine 3 and Institute for Clinical Immunology, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany.
Annals of the rheumatic diseases (Impact Factor: 10.38). 12/2010; 69(12):2152-9. DOI: 10.1136/ard.2010.132852
Source: PubMed


Introduction Inflammation is a major risk factor for systemic bone loss. Proinflammatory cytokines like tumour necrosis factor (TNF) affect bone homeostasis and induce bone loss. It was hypothesised that impaired bone formation is a key component in inflammatory bone loss and that Dkk-1, a Wnt antagonist, is a strong inhibitor of osteoblast-mediated bone formation.
TNF transgenic (hTNFtg) mice were treated with neutralising antibodies against TNF, Dkk-1 or a combination of both agents. Systemic bone architecture was analysed by bone histomorphometry. The expression of β-catenin, osteoprotegerin and osteocalcin was analysed. In vitro, primary osteoblasts were stimulated with TNF and analysed for their metabolic activity and expression of Dkk-1 and sclerostin. Sclerostin expression and osteocyte death upon Dkk-1 blockade were analysed in vivo.
Neutralisation of Dkk-1 completely protected hTNFtg mice from inflammatory bone loss by preventing TNF-mediated impaired osteoblast function and enhanced osteoclast activity. These findings were accompanied by enhanced skeletal expression of β-catenin, osteocalcin and osteoprotegerin. In vitro, TNF rapidly increased Dkk-1 expression in primary osteoblasts and effectively blocked osteoblast differentiation. Moreover, blockade of Dkk-1 not only rescued impaired osteoblastogenesis but also neutralised TNF-mediated sclerostin expression in fully differentiated osteoblasts in vitro and in vivo.
These findings indicate that low bone formation and expression of Dkk-1 trigger inflammatory bone loss. Dkk-1 blocks osteoblast differentiation, induces sclerostin expression and leads to osteocyte death. Inhibition of Dkk-1 may thus be considered as a potent strategy to protect bone from inflammatory damage.

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    • "Bone formation is also decreased during inflammation as shown in mice. When Dkk-1, a protein that is a member of the dickkopf family, is increased by TNFalpha, it exerts its negative regulation on WNT pathway, blocking osteoblast differentiation and inducing expression of sclerostin (SCL), leading to the death of osteocytes [17]. Higher levels of Dkk-1 are associated with an increased risk of articular erosions independent of age, baseline radiologic features, C-reactive protein (CRP), or disease activity [18]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Bone loss in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients results from chronic inflammation and can lead to osteoporosis and fractures. A few bone remodeling markers have been studied in RA witnessing bone formation (osteocalcin), serum aminoterminal propeptide of type I collagen (PINP), serum carboxyterminal propeptide of type I collagen (ICTP), bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), osteocalcin (OC), and bone resorption: C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (I-CTX), N-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (I-NTX), pyridinolines (DPD and PYD), and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP). Bone resorption can be seen either in periarticular bone (demineralization and erosion) or in the total skeleton (osteoporosis). Whatever the location, bone resorption results from activation of osteoclasts when the ratio between osteoprotegerin and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (OPG/RANKL) is decreased under influence of various proinflammatory cytokines. Bone remodeling markers also allow physicians to evaluate the effect of drugs used in RA like biologic agents, which reduce inflammation and exert a protecting effect on bone. We will discuss in this review changes in bone markers remodeling in patients with RA treated with biologics.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Mediators of Inflammation
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    • "In other studies, elevated levels of the WNT pathway antagonists sclerostin and DKK1 were reported in animal models of rheumatoid arthritis [16]. Expression of sclerostin and DKK1 was elevated in synovial tissue from rheumatoid arthritis patients compared to controls and bone repair was often delayed or repressed in patients with systemic inflammatory background [17]–[19]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Pathologic conditions impair bone homeostasis. The transcription factor NF-κB regulates bone homeostasis and is central to bone pathologies. Whereas contribution of NF-κB to heightened osteoclast activity is well-documented, the mechanisms underlying NF-κB impact on chondrocytes and osteoblasts are scarce. In this study, we examined the effect of constitutively active IKK2 (IKK2ca) on chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation. We show that retroviral IKK2ca but not GFP, IKK2WT, or the inactive IKK2 forms IKK2KM and IKK2SSAA, strongly suppressed osteogenesis and chondrogenesis, in vitro. In order to explore the effect of constitutive NF-κB activation on bone formation in vivo, we activated this pathway in a conditional fashion. Specifically, we crossed the R26StopIKK2ca mice with mice carrying the Col2-cre in order to express IKK2ca in osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Both chondrocytes and osteoblasts derived from Col2Cre/IKK2ca expressed IKK2ca. Mice were born alive yet died shortly thereafter. Histologically, newborn Col2Cre+/RosaIKK2ca heterozygotes (Cre+IKK2ca_w/f (het)) and homozygotes (Cre+IKK2ca_f/f (KI)) showed smaller skeleton, deformed vertebrate and reduced or missing digit ossification. The width of neural arches, as well as ossification in vertebral bodies of Cre+IKK2ca_w/f and Cre+IKK2ca_f/f, was reduced or diminished. H&E staining of proximal tibia from new born pups revealed that Cre+IKK2ca_f/f displayed disorganized hypertrophic zones within the smaller epiphysis. Micro-CT analysis indicated that 4-wk old Cre+IKK2ca_w/f has abnormal trabecular bone in proximal tibia compared to WT littermates. Mechanistically, ex-vivo experiments showed that expression of differentiation markers in calvarial osteoblasts derived from newborn IKK2ca knock-in mice was diminished compared to WT-derived cells. In situ hybridization studies demonstrated that the hypertrophic chondrocyte marker type-X collagen, the pre-hypertrophic chondrocyte markers Indian hedgehog and alkaline phosphatase, and the early markers Aggrecan and type-II collagen were reduced in Cre+IKK2ca_w/f and Cre+IKK2ca_f/f mice. Altogether, the in-vitro, in vivo and ex-vivo evidence suggest that IKK2ca perturbs osteoblast and chondrocyte maturation and impairs skeletal development.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    • "Inflammation can also affect the regulation of Wnt signaling [5]. The induction of Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) by TNF-alpha and the consequent inhibition of the Wnt signalling pathway have been observed both in human RA [12,13] and in murine arthritis models [14]. In this case, TNF-alpha-mediated DKK1 regulation represents a major factor in the blockade of osteoblast development, resulting in the inflamed joint going unrepaired [15]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with chronic inflammatory diseases have increased bone loss and bone fragility and are at increased risk of fracture. Although anti-resorptive drugs are effective in blocking inflammation-induced bone loss, they are less effective at rebuilding bone. We have previously shown that treatment with sclerostin antibody (Scl-AbI) builds bone and can prevent or restore bone loss in a murine model of inflammatory bowel disease. In this study, we tested the effect of Scl-AbI in a murine model of rheumatoid arthritis (the collagen-induced arthritis model, CIA). We hypothesised that sclerostin blockade can protect and restore bone both locally and systemically without affecting progression of inflammation. CIA was induced in male DBA/1 mice, which were treated with either PBS or Scl-AbI (10 mg/kg, weekly) prophylactically for 55 days or therapeutically for 21 days (starting 14 days post onset of arthritis). Systemic inflammation was assessed by measuring the serum concentration of anti-CII IgG1, IgG2a and IgG2b by ELISA. Changes in bone mass and structure, either at sites remote from the joints or at periarticular sites, were measured using DEXA and microCT. Bone focal erosion was assessed in microCT scans of ankle and knee joints. Circulating anti-CII immunoglobulins were significantly elevated in mice with CIA and there were no significant differences in the levels of anti-CII immunoglobulins in mice treated with PBS or Scl-ABI. Prophylactic Scl-AbI treatment prevented the decrease in whole body bone mineral density (BMD) and in the bone volume fraction at axial (vertebral body) and appendicular (tibial proximal metaphysis trabecular and mid-diaphysis cortical bone) sites seen in PBS-treated CIA mice, but did not prevent the formation of focal bone erosions on the periarticular bone in the knee and ankle joints. In the therapeutic study, Scl-AbI restored BMD and bone volume fraction at all assessed sites but was unable to repair focal erosions. Sclerostin blockade prevented or reversed the decrease in axial and appendicular bone mass in the murine model of rheumatoid arthritis, but did not affect systemic inflammation and was unable to prevent or repair local focal erosion.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Arthritis research & therapy
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