Article

Confirmation Studies of Soviet Research on Immunological Effects of Microwaves: Russian Immunology Results

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Abstract

This paper presents the results of a replication study performed to investigate earlier Soviet studies conducted between 1974 and 1991 that showed immunological and reproductive effects of long-term low-level exposure of rats to radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields. The early studies were used, in part, for developing exposure standards for the USSR population and thus it was necessary to confirm the Russian findings. In the present study, the conditions of RF exposure were made as similar as possible to those in the earlier experiments: Wistar rats were exposed in the far field to 2450 MHz continuous wave RF fields with an incident power density in the cages of 5 W/m² for 7 h/day, 5 days/week for a total of 30 days, resulting in a whole-body SAR of 0.16 W/kg. Effects of the exposure on immunological parameters in the brain and liver of rats were evaluated using the complement fixation test (CFT), as in the original studies, and an additional test, the more modern ELISA test. Our results, using CFT and ELISA, partly confirmed the findings of the early studies and indicated possible effects from non-thermal RF exposure on autoimmune processes. The RF exposure resulted in minor increases in formation of antibodies in brain tissue extract and the exposure did not appear to be pathological. In addition, a study was conducted to replicate a previous Soviet study on effects from the injection of blood serum from RF-exposed rats on pregnancy and foetal and offspring development of rats, using a similar animal model and protocol. Our results showed the same general trends as the earlier study, suggesting possible adverse effects of the blood serum from exposed rats on pregnancy and foetal development of intact rats, however, application of these results in developing exposure standards is limited.

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... This paper gives the IOC comments and conclusions on the differing results between the studies by Poulletier de Gannes et al. [2009] and Grigoriev et al. [2010]. ...
... Separate publications giving the full methodology and results of both the Russian and French studies are given in Grigoriev et al. [2010] and Poulletier de Gannes et al. [2009]. Every precaution was used to ensure that the facilities, and animal care and study conduct were according to the agreed protocol. ...
... The full results of both the French and Russian studies are given in Poulletier de Gannes et al. [2009] and Grigoriev et al. [2010] and only a brief summary is given to facilitate discussion. ...
Article
Results of key Soviet-era studies dealing with effects on the immune system and teratological consequences in rats exposed to radiofrequency (RF) fields serve, in part, as a basis for setting exposure limits in the USSR and the current RF standards in Russia. The World Health Organization's (WHO) International EMF Project considered these Soviet results important enough that they should be confirmed using more modern methods. Since the Soviet papers did not contain comprehensive details on how the results were obtained, Professor Yuri Grigoriev worked with Dr. Bernard Veyret to agree on the final study protocol and to conduct separate studies in Moscow and Bordeaux under the same protocol. The International Oversight Committee (IOC) provided oversight on the conduct of the studies and was the firewall committee that dealt with the sponsors and researchers. This paper gives the IOC comments and conclusions on the differing results between the two studies.
... Two essentially identical experiments were carried out, respectively in Russia [29] and in France [16]. Rats were exposed 7 hours daily 5 days/week during a 30 days period, to 2450 MHz cw at 5 W/m2. ...
... Typically inactivation lasts for 12 hours as discussed in section 3.1.2 , which is of the same order of the time period separating successive 7-hour exposures in [29] [16]. Therefore a number of T cells are permanently inactivated during the 30 days period (except possibly during the 2 days/week of non-exposure). ...
... In [29] at day 7, the ELISA test based on blood serum yielded a significant increase of the amount of 5 groups of antibodies in the exposed group relative to the sham group [28]. The fact that the exposed group had more antibodies than the sham group is characteristic of case (A) and attributable to the pro-auto-immune period taking place after the end of the 30-day period. ...
... The procedures previously adopted in Soviet Union and eastern countries utilized a large number of animals with lower ethical restrictions. In Soviet Union, experimental studies on longterm low level exposure of rats to radiofrequency EMFs, showed autoimmune and reproductive effects (21). These investigations were recently repeated showing the same general trend of the earlier studies evidencing that EMF exposure reduces the formation of antibodies in brain tissue with possible stimulation of autoimmune mechanisms; possible adverse effects on fetal development were also confirmed (21). ...
... In Soviet Union, experimental studies on longterm low level exposure of rats to radiofrequency EMFs, showed autoimmune and reproductive effects (21). These investigations were recently repeated showing the same general trend of the earlier studies evidencing that EMF exposure reduces the formation of antibodies in brain tissue with possible stimulation of autoimmune mechanisms; possible adverse effects on fetal development were also confirmed (21). Studies on humans. ...
... When rats were exposed 7 hours/day 5 days/week during 30 days to 2450 MHz at 5W/m2 in a Faraday cage in Russia, a proauto-immune effect was found 7 and 14 days after the end of the exposure period (Grigoriev et al 2010). Due to the lower power, more T lymphocytes survived positive selection as compared to (Szudzinski et al 1982). ...
... (iii) an effect on thymus selection based on mechanism INA at a peak instantaneous power of about 2W/m2 for GSM. For rare exposures this effect is anti-cancer due to temporary inhibition of lymphocytes in the negative selection part of the thymus, corresponding to the pro-auto-immune effect observed in rats after cessation of exposure between 0•5 and 5 W/m2 (Vinogradov and Dumanski 1975;Grigoriev et al 2010). This anti-cancer effect is attenuated by elimination during the positive selection step of T lymphocytes which otherwise would have been inactivated during the negative selection step. ...
... Hypotensive effects are another significant aspect of vessel microcirculatory reaction after EMF exposure. Our results showing 33.33% with hypothonia, 11.71% with dystonia, and 22.7% with ischemic strokes support the manifestation of this process, described in experiments as a first response mainly to low-frequency fields due to vasodilatation (Traikov et al. 2005) or to chronic exposures to EMF (Grigoriev et al. 2010). ...
... Skin problems such as erythema, hypersensitivity, and herpes simplex were first described by videodisplay workers in Norway, and later many researches obtain such confirmatory results from residents or office staff (Arnetz et al. 1997, Johansson and Liu 1995, Leitgeb and Schrottner 2003. Data obtained through our research show 40.82% for allergies and a non-negligible percentage of physiotherapists with herpes simplex (14.2%), which can be explained as the EMF's influence on immunity (Grigoriev et al. 2010, Kositsky et al. 2001). ...
Chapter
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In the practice of the Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine the electromagnetic fields (EMF) are an ordinary factor in the treatment process. Usually the medical equipment generates EMF in low-intensity range. This modality is proven in the clinical medicine as a reliable part of the treatment practice but scarcely studied as a potential hazard to professionals’ health. The question about possible personnel’s health adverse bioeffects unlocking remains neglected, except for a limited number of early and recent publications which assessing only some kinds of compliances and disturbances and dosimetry measurement problems as usual. The collected data on the adverse effects of EMF and our own observations on some specific physiotherapy health deviations and compliances with high possible relation to the specific background conditions have focused our attention to study this group. Here are presented and discussed the physiotherapy personnel clinical answers on chronically expositions with different, stochastically changing by frequency and density low-intensity EMF as a complex somatic-behavioral morbidity profile and the cause relation made, provided to the authors’ knowledge at first. The expositional subgroups’ analyzing with the statistical meaning comments presents the physiotherapy professionals as a group in aggravated risk with specific morbidity and specific needs for prevention and precautions. Periodontitis, cardiovascular disturbances, allergic manifestations, photosensibilisation, skin diseases as well as the musculoskeletal disorders have shown the greatest significance by somatic disorders. The diseases of the female reproductive system – leyomyoma uteri, breast cancer and miscarriages are less presented in personnel’s morbidity profile but they are under high social attention. Neurobehavioral disturbances are dominated from headache, fatigue, heart palpitation, sleep problems. The non-motivated mood changes, irritability, perspirations and shortness of breath are presented in smaller percent but they could affect the general condition seriously. The relation found of periodontitis, photosensibilisation, leiomyoma uteri and osteoporosis debuting, not recognized as predilections in other studies yet is presented and discussed, too. Thus, the medical low-intensity EMF work background adverse potential and it’s interfere on personnel health are better elucidating. The need of research protocols unifying is determinant to obtain comparable results, reliable base of which could be the here presented study. To reduce the over expositional burden and to prevent the adverse cumulating effects, adequate rules and care by the institutions without delay are recommended to be taken. KEY WORDS: physiotherapy personnel, medical low-intensity EMF, long-term (chronicle) expositions, complex morbidity profile, specific morbidity, specific precautions.
... A significant increase of ROS and nitrogen oxide generation in cells under non-thermal intensities of MW has been detected both in vivo [61][62][63][64][65][66][67] and in vitro [68][69][70][71][72]. Possibilities of mitochondrial and membrane NADH oxidase dependent ways of ROS generation in exposed cells have been suggested [71,72]. Accordingly, it was found that the first step in MW (875 MHz, 0.07 mW/cm 2 ) interaction with model cells (Rat1 and HeLa) was mediated in the plasma membrane by NADH oxidase, which can rapidly (during the minutes) generate ROS [72]. ...
Article
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In this review we discuss alarming epidemiological and experimental data on possible carcinogenic effects of long term exposure to low intensity microwave (MW) radiation. Recently, a number of reports revealed that under certain conditions the irradiation by low intensity MW can substantially induce cancer progression in humans and in animal models. The carcinogenic effect of MW irradiation is typically manifested after long term (up to 10 years and more) exposure. Nevertheless, even a year of operation of a powerful base transmitting station for mobile communication reportedly resulted in a dramatic increase of cancer incidence among population living nearby. In addition, model studies in rodents unveiled a significant increase in carcinogenesis after 17-24 months of MW exposure both in tumor-prone and intact animals. To that, such metabolic changes, as overproduction of reactive oxygen species, 8-hydroxi-2-deoxyguanosine formation, or ornithine decarboxylase activation under exposure to low intensity MW confirm a stress impact of this factor on living cells. We also address the issue of standards for assessment of biological effects of irradiation. It is now becoming increasingly evident that assessment of biological effects of non-ionizing radiation based on physical (thermal) approach used in recommendations of current regulatory bodies, including the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) Guidelines, requires urgent reevaluation. We conclude that recent data strongly point to the need for re-elaboration of the current safety limits for non-ionizing radiation using recently obtained knowledge. We also emphasize that the everyday exposure of both occupational and general public to MW radiation should be regulated based on a precautionary principles which imply maximum restriction of excessive exposure.
... In fact, appreciable non thermal effects of MW have been detected in different experimental models. These effects include substantial metabolic changes (Volkow et al., 2011) as well as significant changes in expression of heat shock proteins (Czyz et al., 2004;De Pomerai et al., 2000;Weisbrot et al., 2003), oxidative stress (Agarwal et al., 2009;Ozguner et al., 2005;Ozgur et al., 2010;Tkalec et al., 2007), DNA damage (De Iuliis et al., 2009;Lai and Singh, 1997;Sarkar et al., 1994), autoimmune pathology (Grigoriev et al., 2010;Ivanov et al., 2010;Vinogradov and Dumansky, 1974), and carcinogenesis (Chou et al., 1992;Repacholi et al., 1997;Szmigielski et al., 1982;Yang et al., 2010). ...
Article
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A wide range of non thermal biological effects of microwave radiation (MW) was revealed during the last decades. A number of reports showed evident hazardous effects of MW on embryo development in chicken. In this study, we aimed at elucidating the effects of MW emitted by a commercial model of GSM 900 MHz cell phone on embryo development in quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) during both short and prolonged exposure. For that, fresh fertilized eggs were irradiated during the first 38 h or 14 days of incubation by a cell phone in "connecting" mode activated continuously through a computer system. Maximum intensity of incident radiation on the egg's surface was 0.2 μW/cm2.The irradiation led to a significant (p<0.001) increase in numbers of differentiated somites in 38-hour exposed embryos and to a significant (p<0.05) increase in total survival of embryos from exposed eggs after 14 days exposure. We hypothesized that observed facilitating effect was due to enhancement of metabolism in exposed embryos provoked via peroxidation mechanisms. Indeed, a level of thiobarbituric acid (TBA) reactive substances was significantly (p<0.05-0.001) higher in brains and livers of hatchlings from exposed embryos. Thus, observed effects of radiation from commercial GSM 900 MHz cell phone on developing quail embryos signify a possibility for non-thermal impact of MW on embryogenesis. We suggest that the facilitating effect of low doses of irradiation on embryo development can be explained by a hormesis effect induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Future studies need to be done to clarify this assumption.
... Replication of the most important Soviet immunology studies was recommended in the WHO's EMF Project research agenda [WHO, 2006]. Experiments with a protocol similar to the early Soviet-era studies, but using more modern methodology, were subsequently conducted in Bordeaux [Poulletier de Gannes et al., 2009] and Moscow [Grigoriev et al., 2010]. While the French study was uniformly negative, the Moscow study found some positive trends in their results. ...
Article
The former Soviet Union (USSR) and the USA were the first countries to introduce standards limiting exposure to radiofrequency (RF) fields. However, the exposure limits in the USSR standards were always much lower than those in the USA and other countries. The objective of this article is to provide a history of the development of the Soviet and Russian RF standards. In addition, we summarize the scientific evidence used to develop the original USSR RF and subsequent Russian public health standards, as well as the mobile telecommunications standard published in 2003, but we do not critique them. We also describe the protective approaches used by the Soviet and Russian scientists for setting their limits. A translation of the papers of the key studies used to develop their standards is available in the online version of this publication. Bioelectromagnetics. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
... The possibility that MF exert teratogenic effects has been suggested on the basis of some epidemiological and laboratory evidence [Blaasaas et al., 2002;Li et al., 2002Li et al., , 2009Li et al., , 2010Chung et al., 2003;Rajendra et al., 2004;Grigoriev et al., 2010], but other findings are inconsistent [Robert et al., 1996;Blaasaas et al., 2003Blaasaas et al., , 2004Chung et al., 2003;Lee et al., 2009], and methodological limitations have also been noted [Shaw, 2001;Feychting et al., 2005;Wigle et al., 2007]. Here, we report the results of a study carried out in an Italian community to analyze whether maternal exposure to MF from high-voltage power lines during early pregnancy increased the risk of congenital anomalies in the offspring. ...
Article
The issue of adverse human health effects due to exposure to electromagnetic fields is still unclear, and congenital anomalies are among the outcomes that have been inconsistently associated with such exposure. We conducted a population-based, case-control study to examine the risk of congenital anomalies associated with maternal exposure to magnetic fields (MF) from high-voltage power lines during pregnancy in a community in northern Italy. We identified 228 cases of congenital malformations diagnosed in live births, stillbirths, and induced abortions among women living in the municipality of Reggio Emilia during the period 1998-2006, and a reference group of healthy newborns was matched for year of birth, maternal age, and hospital of birth. We identified maternal residence during early pregnancy and used Geographic Information System to determine whether the residences were within geocoded corridors with MF ≥0.1 μT near high-voltage power lines, then calculated the relative risk (RR) of congenital anomalies associated with maternal exposure. One case and 5 control mothers were classified as exposed, and the RR associated with MF ≥0.1 μT was 0.2 (95% CI: 0.0-2.0) after adjusting for maternal education. While small or moderate effects may have gone undetected due to low statistical power, the results of this study overall do not provide support for major effects of a teratogenic risk due to exposure to MF during early pregnancy.
... The overall results suggest that RF exposure could trigger depression of the antioxidant systems, due to increased lipid peroxidation and formation of free radicals. In [104] an in vivo study was performed with a whole body exposure of 0.160.04 W/kg at 2450 MHz continuous wave. ...
Article
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The understanding of possible nonthermal bio-effects has been an open question during the last five decades. In this paper, the authors present a critical literature review of the models of the interaction mechanisms, together with an overview of all the publications finding positive results for in vitro and in vivo studies. The systematic approach consisted of pooling together the positive studies on the basis of the endpoints and the biological systems, to identify specific plausible targets of the action of the electromagnetic fields and the related pathways. Such a classification opens the way to the discussion of some hypotheses of interaction mechanisms considered as first transduction step. The authors conclude that only through a multiscale methodology it is possible to perform a comprehensive study of the nonthermal effects, based on affordable and realistic in silico models.
... Amongst populations occupationally exposed to strong static and ELF-EMF, reduced male proportions of offspring have also been reported [Irgens et al., 1997]. Evidence from laboratory studies has sometimes shown similar results to those described in human populations, but remains largely contradictory [Grigoriev et al., 2010]. ...
Article
Studies have suggested that exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) may be associated with increased risk of adverse birth outcomes. This study tested the hypothesis that close proximity to residential ELF-EMF sources is associated with a reduction in birth weight and increased the risk of low birthweight (LBW), small for gestational age (SGA) and spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB). Closest residential proximity to high voltage cables, overhead power lines, substations or towers during pregnancy was calculated for 140356 singleton live births between 2004 and 2008 in Northwest England. Associations between proximity and risk for LBW, SGA and SPTB were calculated, as well as associations with birth weight directly. Associations were adjusted for maternal age, ethnicity, parity and for part of the population additionally for maternal smoking during pregnancy. Reduced average birth weight of 212 g (95% confidence interval (CI): -395 to -29 g) was found for close proximity to a source, and was largest for female births (-251 g (95% CI: -487 to -15 g)). No statistically significant increased risks for any clinical birth outcomes with residential proximity of 50 m or less were observed. Living close (50 m or less) to a residential ELF-EMF source during pregnancy is associated with suboptimal growth in utero, with stronger effects in female than in males. However, only a few pregnant women live this close to high voltage cables, overhead power lines, substations or towers, likely limiting its public health impact. Bioelectromagnetics. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
... Research on Escherichia coli bacteria cultures show power density windows for microwave resonance effects for 51.755 GHz stimulation of bacterial growth, observed at extremely low power densities of 10 −13 mW/cm 2 [29], illustrating an extremely low level bioeffect. More recently Russian studies confirmed earlier results of Soviet research groups on the effects of 2.45 GHz at 0.5 mW/cm 2 on rats (30 days exposure for 7 h/day), demonstrating the formation of antibodies to the brain (autoimmune response) and stress reactions [30]. In a long-term (1 -4 year) study comparing children who use mobile phones to a control group, functional changes, including greater fatigue, decreased voluntary attention, and weakening of semantic memory, among other adverse psychophysiological changes, were reported [31]. ...
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Background and aim: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) public health policy has focused on the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus and its effects on human health while environmental factors have been largely ignored. In considering the epidemiological triad (agent-host-environment) applicable to all disease, we investigated a possible environmental factor in the COVID-19 pandemic: ambient radiofrequency radiation from wireless communication systems including microwaves and millimeter waves. SARS-CoV-2, the virus that caused the COVID-19 pandemic, surfaced in Wuhan, China shortly after the implementation of city-wide (fifth generation [5G] of wireless communications radiation [WCR]), and rapidly spread globally, initially demonstrating a statistical correlation to international communities with recently established 5G networks. In this study, we examined the peer-reviewed scientific literature on the detrimental bioeffects of WCR and identified several mechanisms by which WCR may have contributed to the COVID-19 pandemic as a toxic environmental cofactor. By crossing boundaries between the disciplines of biophysics and pathophysiology, we present evidence that WCR may: (1) cause morphologic changes in erythrocytes including echinocyte and rouleaux formation that can contribute to hypercoagulation; (2) impair microcirculation and reduce erythrocyte and hemoglobin levels exacerbating hypoxia; (3) amplify immune system dysfunction, including immunosuppression, autoimmunity, and hyperinflammation; (4) increase cellular oxidative stress and the production of free radicals resulting in vascular injury and organ damage; (5) increase intracellular Ca2+ essential for viral entry, replication, and release, in addition to promoting pro-inflammatory pathways; and (6) worsen heart arrhythmias and cardiac disorders. Relevance for patients: In short, WCR has become a ubiquitous environmental stressor that we propose may have contributed to adverse health outcomes of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 and increased the severity of the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, we recommend that all people, particularly those suffering from SARS-CoV-2 infection, reduce their exposure to WCR as much as reasonably achievable until further research better clarifies the systemic health effects associated with chronic WCR exposure.
... However, a recent replication study was able to support the positive findings of immune response to MW exposure. 150 In conclusion, studies on NT MW effects suggest that EMF at specific conditions of exposure can interact with immune cellular functions and their molecular pathways. ...
Chapter
Both potentially detrimental and beneficial responses of living cells to weak, nonthermal (NT) electromagnetic fields (EMF) have been observed. So far, focus has been on biological effects of extremely low frequency (ELF, 1–300 Hz) EMF and EMF of microwave frequency range (MW, 300 MHz to 300 GHz). There is strong evidence that biological effects of EMF are dependent on many physical, physiological, and genetic parameters, which must be controlled in replication studies. 1,2 Source of funding may also affect the data. 3 While a significant body of published data shows biological effects of NT MW, studies supported by the mobile industry are less likely to report these effects. 3,4 Failure to control important parameters in replicated studies along with reduced funding for EMF research in economically developed countries may be the main cause of the lack of accepted mechanism for biological effects of NT EMF. While funding for mechanistic EMF studies has been significantly reduced, the number of sources for ELF and MW exposure in everyday life is constantly growing. Moreover, some modern devices emit EMF in wide frequency ranges covering both ELF and MW. In particular, mobile phones not only expose the user to MW but also to ELF. 5–10 ITIS Foundation has performed detailed measurement of five mobile phones. 11 All five phones have shown the maximum B-field on the back side with extrapolated pulse heights between 35 and 75 μT. At this location, four out of the five tested phones exceeded the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) reference levels by several harmonics of 217 Hz. The maximum violation by a factor of two was detected at 650 Hz. The B-field on the front side of the phones tested is by a factor two to six times smaller and varies between eight and 20 μT. The maximum DC fields were detected near the phone loudspeaker and reached levels up to 20 mT (half of the corresponding ICNIRP reference level of 40 mT). Perentos et al. have recently measured and characterized the ELF magnetic field from several GSM handsets using different probes which covered frequency range from static magnetic fields (0 Hz) to 2 GHz. Peak ELF fields at the front sides of five commercial GSM phones were assessed and a maximum of 22.4 μT was reported. 12 The main ELF component at 217 Hz was about 1 μT at a distance of 3 cm from the front side of the handset. The overall pulse peak was 4.2 times greater than the 217 Hz component. The 217 Hz magnetic field decreased with distance and reached 0.3 μT at approximately 5 cm from the front handset site. The overall ELF pulse peak produced by all ELF components was 4.2 times greater than the 217 Hz component.
... Domestic and foreign results allow us to conclude about the possible adverse effects of RF EMF on health by СPh. EMF RF exposure of low level can cause infringements of function of a brain [1,2] (including convulsive syndrome [3,4]. We agree with the decision of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), WHO allocation EMI CPh in group 2B as a promoter of brain cancer and Hardell's results [5]. ...
... For the immune system [page 174 (2)], a Russian study was included (96), which mostly replicated earlier Russian studies and a French one which did not (97). The conclusion was "it is clear that the results of the original Soviet studies have not been confirmed". ...
Article
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The Advisory Group on Non-ionising Radiation (AGNIR) 2012 report forms the basis of official advice on the safety of radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields in the United Kingdom and has been relied upon by health protection agencies around the world. This review describes incorrect and misleading statements from within the report, omissions and conflict of interest, which make it unsuitable for health risk assessment. The executive summary and overall conclusions did not accurately reflect the scientific evidence available. Independence is needed from the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), the group that set the exposure guidelines being assessed. This conflict of interest critically needs to be addressed for the forthcoming World Health Organisation (WHO) Environmental Health Criteria Monograph on Radiofrequency Fields. Decision makers, organisations and individuals require accurate information about the safety of RF electromagnetic signals if they are to be able to fulfil their safeguarding responsibilities and protect those for whom they have legal responsibility.
... The result showed more microwave exposure in the MS group. Short-term exposure to weak MWs may temporarily stimulate certain cellular or humoral immune functions, while prolonged irradiation inhibits the same functions [40]. ...
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Studies have shown an increase in the incidence of MS in Iran. The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationship between environmental exposure and MS in Iran. This case-control study was conducted on 660 MS patients and 421 controls. Many environmental factors are compared between the two groups. Our findings demonstrated that prematurity ([OR = 4.99 (95% CI 1.34–18.68), P = 0.017]), history of measles and mumps ([OR = 1.60 (95% CI 1.05–2.45), P = 0.029; OR = 1.85 (95% CI 1.22–2.78), P = 0.003, respectively]), breast feeding [OR = 2.90 (95% CI 1.49–5.65), P = 0.002], head trauma in childhood ([OR = 8.21 (95% CI 1.56–43.06), P = 0.013]), vaccination in adulthood ([OR = 4.57 (95% CI 1.14–18.41), P = 0.032, respectively]), migraine ([OR = 3.50 (95% CI 1.61–7.59), P = 0.002]), family history of MS, IBD, migraine, and collagen vascular diseases ([OR = 2.73 (95% CI 1.56–4.78), P < 0.001], [OR = 3.14 (95% CI 1.460–6.78), P = 0.004; OR = 3.18 (95% CI 1.83–5.53), P < 0.001; OR = 1.81 (95% CI 1.03–3.20), P = 0.040, respectively]), stressful events ([OR = 32.57 (95% CI 17.21–61.64), P < 0.001]), and microwave exposure ([OR = 3.55 (95% CI 2.24–5.63), P ≤0.001]) were more in the MS group. Sun exposure ([OR = 0.09 (95% CI 0.02–0.38), P = 0.001]), dairy and calcium consumption ([OR = 0.44 (95% CI 0.27–0.71), P = 0.001]), diabetes mellitus ([OR = 0.11 (95% CI 0.01–00.99), P = 0.049], and complete vaccination during childhood appeared to decreased MS risk. Our results investigated many risk factors and protective factors in Iran.
... Data for these scientific findings were collected primarily through observing the effects of mice being exposed to the presence of a mobile phone. Outcomes of these studies included increased occurrence of cancer, decreased testicular function, worsened pregnancy outcome and development, lowered sperm count, apoptosis (programmed cell death), detrimental changes in cellular processes and physiology, decreased hormone levels, worsened enzyme activity, delays in ossification of cranial bones, increase in antibodies to brain tissue, and decreased neurotransmitters such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (1,4,5,9,11,12,15,18,20,22,29). ...
Article
Aim: The Pasche research group has reported that tumor-specific electromagnetic field frequencies have physiological and potential anti-tumor effects in cells, animals, and humans. Our aim was to investigate whether these fields have similar effects on physiological parameters in murine tumor models. Methods: Human HuH7 or HEPG2 cells were implanted in the right flank of 8-week-old female RAG gamma 2C immunodeficient mice. An oximeter was used to record systolic blood pressure (pulse) in free-roaming conscious mice. Mice pulses were recorded and analyzed using a in-house software that also controlled the low-frequency generator for modulating the 27.12 MHz carrier wave at selected frequencies. Results: We performed exposures using both systematic scans at low-frequencies and at the pre-determined frequencies reported by the Pasche group as altering both pulse and tumor growth in humans. Those exposures produced no detectable change in physiological parameters of tumor-bearing mice. Conclusion: No tumor-related frequencies were found, neither using systematic scans of frequencies nor published specific frequencies. There might obviously be differences between animal and human models, but our approach did not confirm the physiological data of the human Pasche group data.
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This study evaluated the non-thermal effects of microwave on bovine lens by measuring the S-parameters induced by the dielectric coefficient variation in bovine lens. A closed, integrated biological experiment system was designed to expose bovine lens to microwave radiation quantitatively, and S-parameters were measured. Morphological evaluations were also performed during microwave radiation to evaluate the reaction mechanism of the non-thermal effects of microwave on the bovine lens. The results showed that the bovine lens became gradually cloudy and its refractive index changed significantly with increasing doses of microwave radiation. A comparison of experimental and control bovine lenses stained with hematoxylin and eosin revealed that the change in bovine lens might be a result of the nuclear fragmentation of lens epithelial cells and disorderly arrangement of lens fiber cells, which were induced by the vibration and friction of fiber tissues upset by microwave radiation. Further, the fluctuating decrements of 3.8 dB in S21 showed that the non-thermal effects of microwave could lead to the variations in the bovine lens dielectric coefficient. These findings suggest that the dielectric coefficient may quantitatively describe the physiological state of bovine lens. This study might be the valuable reference for the establishment of new electromagnetic radiation safety standard.
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To determine whether maternal exposure to high levels of magnetic fields (MFs) during pregnancy is associated with the risk of asthma in offspring. A prospective cohort study. Kaiser Permanente Northern California. Pregnant Kaiser Permanente Northern California members in the San Francisco area. Asthma was clinically diagnosed among 626 children who were followed up for as long as 13 years. All participants carried a meter to measure their MF levels during pregnancy. After adjustment for potential confounders, a statistically significant linear dose-response relationship was observed between increasing maternal median daily MF exposure level in pregnancy and an increased risk of asthma in offspring: every 1-mG increase of maternal MF level during pregnancy was associated with a 15% increased rate of asthma in offspring (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.27). Using the categorical MF level, the results showed a similar dose-response relationship: compared with the children whose mothers had a low MF level (median 24-hour MF level, ≤0.3 mG) during pregnancy, children whose mothers had a high MF level (>2.0 mG) had more than a 3.5-fold increased rate of asthma (aHR, 3.52; 95% CI, 1.68-7.35), while children whose mothers had a medium MF level (>0.3-2.0 mG) had a 74% increased rate of asthma (aHR, 1.74; 95% CI, 0.93-3.25). A statistically significant synergistic interaction was observed between the MF effect and a maternal history of asthma and birth order (firstborn). Our findings provide new epidemiological evidence that high maternal MF levels in pregnancy may increase the risk of asthma in offspring.
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Introduction: Today, the growing human exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields is of serious concern to the population and the international scientific community. Sources of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields in residential areas include mobile radio base stations, signal repeaters, wireless broadband access points, TV and radio transmitters, satellite earth stations, radar and radio relay stations. Launching of 5G mobile networks will further complicate the electromagnetic situation in inhabited areas, especially in megacities where the size of exposed population is the largest. In the system of measures contributing to protection of the population from adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields, standards (regulations and other documents establishing electromagnetic fields permissible levels) play a significant role and lay the foundation for organizational and technical measures of protection. High importance of standards in ensuring electromagnetic safety served as the basis for our study. The objective of the study was to perform a comparative analysis of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields standards for inhabited areas and approaches to setting electromagnetic fields exposure levels adopted by different countries and international organizations. Methods: We reviewed of some aspects of biological effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields, regulations setting electromagnetic fields exposure limits in different countries and recommended by ICNIRP, and approaches to establishing those limits. Conclusions: We found a significant discrepancy in radiofrequency electromagnetic fields limits adopted in different countries, the legal status and scope of regulatory documents. Differences in the methodology for the development, adoption and approval of electromagnetic fields standard accompanied by differences in their legal status prevent uniform EMF standard setting.
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This paper provides a systematic review and classification of in vivo microwave exposure systems used from 1999 for bioelectromagnetic investigations. The main features of each system's typology are presented and discussed for different types of experiments. From our critical analysis, some key issues have been identified and addressed concerning the importance of reliable dosimetric characterization of exposure systems for different types of in vivo study. Our review of the strengths and weaknesses of each electromagnetic exposure system will be useful for identifying those features necessary for new bioelectromagnetics studies involving exposures to high-frequency fields, typical of those used in new telecommunication technologies, and multiple sources.
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In experiments on albino Wistar rats the autoimmune reactions were shown to be stimulated by the effect of microwaves of 50 and 500 microW/cm2. The authors showed the possibility of the autoimmunity simulation by immunization of intact animals by the brain tissue of exposed albino rats. This process was dependent on the microwave radiation intensity.
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CBA male mice and albino mongrel rats were exposed to microwave radiation (2375 MHz) of various intensity during 1 to 3 months. The T-system immunity status was studied in vivo and in vitro. Substantial changes have been revealed in the cell immunity system, resulting from the long-term action of microwaves of a non-thermal intensity, and latent lesions manifested with functional loads.
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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have a few possible effects, such as metabolic (participation in regulation of protein functions), damaging (oxidative damage to proteins, lipids and nucleic acids) and signal; the latter is reviewed in the article. Superoxide anion-radical (O2-.), hydroperoxide (HO2) and nitroxide (NO) are capable to act as signal substances in the cell regulatory network, which determines a mode of cell response to disturbance: proliferation pace, a course of differentiation or a start of the apoptosis program. A role of ROS in the reaction network is reviewed: importance of their content in a cell; ROS-bound signal pathways, which trigger the programs of cell reactions to stimuli; initiations of the regulatory network, which determine a content of ROS in a cell; ROS reactions with network components, which influence its functioning. A significance of the ROS-bound segment of the network, which realizes regulatory signals of the damage, in formation of radiobiological effect is estimated. The data obtained by the authors are submitted; the prospects of studing substances (such as phenozan etc.), which can actively influence redox processes, as means of modification of radiation-induced genome instability and prevention of oncogenic transformation are considered.
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Antibodies directed against nitrosylated epitopes have been found in sera from patients suffering from human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) but not in sera from control subjects living in the same endemic area or African control subjects living in France. We conjugated amino acids to albumin by glutaraldehyde (conjugates) and then nitrosylated the conjugates. Both conjugates and nitrosylated conjugates were analysed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We detected antibodies directed against nitrosylated L-cysteine and L-tyrosine conjugates; antibody levels were higher in stage II patients than in stage I. Patients with severe clinical signs had higher antibody levels, and antibody levels were highest in patients with major neurological signs. Antibody response was only associated with the IgM isotype. We evaluated antibody specificity and avidity by competition experiments using conjugates and nitrosylated conjugates. Avidity was around 2 x10(-6) m for the S-nitroso-cysteine epitope and 2 x 10(-8) m for the S-nitroso-tyrosine epitope. Detection of circulating antibodies to S-nitroso-cysteine and S-nitroso-tyrosine epitopes provides indirect evidence for nitric oxide (NO) involvement in HAT and their levels are correlated with disease severity.
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We examined the effects of in vivo exposure to a GSM-modulated 900 MHz RF field on B-cell peripheral differentiation and antibody production in mice. Our results show that exposure to a whole-body average specific absorption rate (SAR) of 2 W/kg, 2 h/day for 4 consecutive weeks does not affect the frequencies of differentiating transitional 1 (T1) and T2 B cells or those of mature follicular B and marginal zone B cells in the spleen. IgM and IgG serum levels are also not significantly different among exposed, sham-exposed and control mice. B cells from these mice, challenged in vitro with LPS, produce comparable amounts of IgM and IgG. Moreover, exposure of immunized mice to RF fields does not change the antigen-specific antibody serum level. Interestingly, not only the production of antigen-specific IgM but also that of IgG (which requires T-B-cell interaction) is not affected by RF-field exposure. This indicates that the exposure does not alter an ongoing in vivo antigen-specific immune response. In conclusion, our results do not indicate any effects of GSM-modulated RF radiation on the B-cell peripheral compartment and antibody production and thus provide no support for health-threatening effects.
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