Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in unipolar vs. bipolar depressive disorder

Centro Clinico per la Neurostimolazione, le Neurotecnologie ed i Disordini del Movimento, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy.
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 3.69). 01/2011; 35(1):96-101. DOI: 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2010.09.010
Source: PubMed


Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive method for brain stimulation. Although pilot trials have shown that tDCS yields promising results for major depressive disorder (MDD), its efficacy for bipolar depressive disorder (BDD), a condition with high prevalence and poor treatment outcomes, is unknown. In a previous study we explored the effectiveness of tDCS for MDD. Here, we expanded our research, recruiting patients with MDD and BDD. We enrolled 31 hospitalized patients (24 women) aged 30-70 years 17 with MDD and 14 with BDD (n = 14). All patients received stable drug regimens for at least two weeks before enrollment and drug dosages remained unchanged throughout the study. We applied tDCS over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (anodal electrode on the left and cathodal on the right) using a 2 mA-current for 20 min, twice-daily, for 5 consecutive days. Depression was measured at baseline, after 5 tDCS sessions, one week later, and one month after treatment onset. We used the scales of Beck (BDI) and Hamilton-21 items (HDRS). All patients tolerated treatment well without adverse effects. After the fifth tDCS session, depressive symptoms in both study groups diminished, and the beneficial effect persisted at one week and one month. In conclusion, our preliminary study suggests that tDCS is a promising treatment for patients with MDD and BDD.2.

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Available from: Sergio Barbieri, Jun 23, 2015
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    • "Sham tDCS montage was exactly the same as during tDCS stimulation, however the current was ramped down after 30 s. This procedure is often used by tDCS researchers and has been found to be a near-optimal and reliable sham condition (Brunoni et al. 2011). In the current study all participants considered tDCS tolerable and did not express the need to stop tDCS. "
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    ABSTRACT: Rumination has been associated with reduced working memory and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity. This study explored whether single session anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and/or working memory training can transiently ameliorate working memory and down regulate state rumination. Sixty-six participants were randomly allocated to three conditions: (1) control training + tDCS, (2) working memory training + sham tDCS and (3) working memory training + tDCS. Before and after manipulation participants performed working memory tasks and state rumination was measured with self-report and heart rate variability. Participants who received real tDCS were significantly faster in switching between information in working memory than participants who received sham tDCS. No effects on self-reported state rumination were found. However, both groups receiving working memory training showed a higher increase in heart rate variability than the control training group, indicating more adaptive self-regulation.
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    • "Studies suggest that anodal-tDCS, or flow from anode to cathode, generally enhances cortical activity and excitability, whereas cathodal-tDCS, or flow from the cathode to anode, has the opposite effect (Nitsche and Paulus, 2000), although other factors , such as outcome measures and assessment procedures, influence the net effect of tDCS on neural networks (Brunoni et al., 2014). Various studies demonstrated the beneficial therapeutic effects of tDCS in reducing epileptiform discharges in refractory epilepsy (Fregni et al., 2006), improving aphasic symptoms in post-stroke patients (Baker et al., 2010), diminishing depressive symptoms in mood disorder (Brunoni et al., 2011), reducing auditory hallucinations (Brunelin et al., 2012), and improving working memory (Hoy et al., 2014) and association learning (Vercammen et al., 2011) performance in schizophrenia. "
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    ABSTRACT: In this preliminary study, we examined the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on social cognition in 36 individuals with schizophrenia. Participants received a baseline assessment and one week later received either anodal, cathodal, or sham tDCS, with 12 participants randomized to each condition. A single 20-minute session tDCS was administered bilaterally over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (centered at positions Fp1 and Fp2) at 2mA. Among the 4 social cognitive tasks, participants showed a significant improvement on one of them, emotion identification, following anodal stimulation. Findings demonstrate the safety of this procedure and suggest potential therapeutic effects on one aspect of social cognition in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Schizophrenia Research
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    • "For tDCS to serve a translational role, interventions must be longer lasting. As discussed in the introduction, tDCS treatments show efficacy in treating aphasia (reviewed in: Hamilton et al. 2011), depression (Brunoni et al. 2011; Fregni et al. 2006), and motor function after stroke (Hummel et al. 2008; Kim et al. 2009, 2010; Suzuki et al. 2012). Indeed, in several cases, a single session of tDCS has been associated with performance benefits lasting 1 month in cases of fibromyalgia (Valle et al. 2009) and Alzheimer's disease (Boggio et al. 2012) as well as 1 year in healthy adults (Dockery et al. 2009) and patients with aphasia (Chrysikou and Hamilton 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: Neurostimulation, e.g., transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), shows promise as an effective cognitive intervention. In spite of low spatial resolution, limited penetration, and temporary influence, evidence highlights tDCS-linked cognitive benefits in a range of cognitive domains. The left posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is an accessible node in frontoparietal networks engaged during long-term memory (LTM). Here, we tested the hypothesis that tDCS can facilitate LTM by pairing LTM encoding and retrieval with PPC stimulation. Healthy young adults performed a verbal LTM task (California Verbal Learning Task) with four different stimulation parameters. In Experiment 1, we applied tDCS to left PPC during LTM encoding. In Experiment 2, we applied tDCS just prior to retrieval to test the temporal specificity of tDCS during a LTM task. In later experiments, we tested hemispheric specificity by replicating Experiment 1 while stimulating the right PPC. Experiment 1 showed that tDCS applied during LTM encoding improved the pace of list learning and enhanced retrieval after a short delay. Experiment 2 indicated anodal left PPC tDCS only improved LTM when applied during encoding, and not during maintenance. Experiments 3 and 4 confirmed that tDCS effects were hemisphere specific and that no effects were found after right PPC stimulation during encoding. These findings indicate that anodal tDCS to the PPC helps verbal LTM in healthy young adults under certain conditions. First, when it is applied to the left, not the right, PPC and second, when it is applied during encoding.
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