Overexpression of High-Mobility Group Box 2 Is Associated with Tumor Aggressiveness and Prognosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Department of Life Science, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Hyoja-Dong, Pohang, South Korea. Clinical Cancer Research
(Impact Factor: 8.72).
11/2010; 16(22):5511-21. DOI: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-10-0825
We investigated the expression of high-mobility group box 2 (HMGB2) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its clinical effects with underlying mechanisms.
HMGB2 mRNA levels were measured in 334 HCC patients by real-time reverse transcription-PCR and HMGB2 protein levels in 173 HCC patients by immunohistochemical studies. The HMGB2 expression level was measured by Western blotting for three HCC cell lines. To clarify the precise role of HMGB2 on cell proliferation, we did in vitro analysis with expression vectors and small interfering RNAs.
HMGB2 mRNA and protein expression were significantly higher in HCC than in noncancerous surrounding tissues (P < 0.0001) and showed a positive correlation (ρ = 0.35, P < 0.001). HMGB2 overexpression was significantly correlated with shorter overall survival time, both at mRNA (P = 0.0054) and protein level (P = 0.023). Moreover, HMGB2 mRNA level was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival in a multivariate analysis (P = 0.0037). HMGB2 knockdown by small interfering RNAs decreased cell proliferation, and overexpression of HMGB2 by expression vectors diminished cisplatin- and etoposide-induced cell death.
Our clinical and in vitro data suggest that HMGB2 plays a significant role in tumor development and prognosis of HCC. These results can partly be explained by altered cell proliferations by HMGB2 associated with the antiapoptotic pathway.
Available from: Athanasios Tsoukalas
- "HMGB2 is known to stabilize p53 in HeLa cells . Overexpression of HMGB2 in hepatocellular carcinoma is associated with poor prognosis and tumor development . "
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Neurovascular inflammation is associated with a number of neurological diseases including vascular dementia and Alzheimer’s disease, which are increasingly important causes of morbidity and mortality around the world. Lipotoxicity is a metabolic disorder that results from accumulation of lipids, particularly fatty acids, in non-adipose tissue leading to cellular dysfunction, lipid droplet formation, and cell death.
Our studies indicate for the first time that the neurovascular circulation also can manifest lipotoxicity, which could have major effects on cognitive function. The penetration of integrative systems biology approaches is limited in this area of research, which reduces our capacity to gain an objective insight into the signal transduction and regulation dynamics at a systems level. To address this question, we treated human microvascular endothelial cells with triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TGRL) lipolysis products and then we used genome-wide transcriptional profiling to obtain transcript abundances over four conditions. We then identified regulatory genes and their targets that have been differentially expressed through analysis of the datasets with various statistical methods. We created a functional gene network by exploiting co-expression observations through a guilt-by-association assumption. Concomitantly, we used various network inference algorithms to identify putative regulatory interactions and we integrated all predictions to construct a consensus gene regulatory network that is TGRL lipolysis product specific.
System biology analysis has led to the validation of putative lipid-related targets and the discovery of several genes that may be implicated in lipotoxic-related brain microvascular endothelial cell responses. Here, we report that activating transcription factors 3 (ATF3) is a principal regulator of TGRL lipolysis products-induced gene expression in human brain microvascular endothelial cell.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of renal tumor antigen (RAGE) in the progression and clinical outcome of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
RAGE mRNA levels in 350 cases of HCC were investigated by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. We analyzed the relationship of RAGE mRNA level with clinicopathologic parameters and clinical outcome. To identify the possible role of RAGE on cellular invasion, we performed in vitro analyses using small interfering RNAs (siRNAs).
RAGE mRNA level was significantly higher in HCC than in noncancerous hepatic tissues (P < 0.001). Overexpression of RAGE was significantly correlated with the presence of multiple tumors (P = 0.021), high alfa-fetoprotein level (P = 0.042), and advanced tumor stage (P = 0.016). Higher levels of RAGE expression were associated with significantly shorter overall survival time (P = 0.029). Knockdown of RAGE expression by siRNAs suppressed the invasive ability of HCC cells and the expression and secretion of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). We found that RAGE and MMP-9 expressions were correlated in HCCs, and furthermore, the combination of RAGE and MMP-9 expression was associated with the survival of patients (P = 0.0066).
Our results suggest that RAGE may be important in tumor invasion and could be a potential predictor for the prognosis of HCC patients.
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ABSTRACT: DOC-2/DAB2 interactive protein gene (DAB2IP) is a novel member of the Ras GTPase-activating protein family and plays a tumor suppressive role in cancer progression, but its function in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. This aims of this study were to analyze the clinicopathological features of DAB2IP expression in HCC, and to determine the effect of DAB2IP on HCC cell behaviors in vitro.
The expression of DAB2IP was detected in hepatocyte cell line and HCC cell lines by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot. DAB2IP expression was then examined in 120 cases of clinical paraffin-embedded HCC tissue by immunohistochemistry (IHC). 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiahiazo (-z-y1)-3,5-di- phenytetrazoliumromide (MTT) method and in vitro invasive assay were finally performed to evaluate the effect of DAB2IP depletion on cell proliferation or invasion of HCC cells.
DAB2IP expression was lower in HCC cell lines or tissues than in hepatocyte cell lines, adjacent cirrhotic livers or normal livers (P < 0.05). Its expression was positively correlated with tumor size (P = 0.01). Patients with lower DAB2IP expression had shorter overall survival time (P = 0.013). DAB2IP suppresses proliferation and invasion of HCC cells in vitro.
DAB2IP is a valuable marker for progression of HCC patients. Downregulation of DAB2IP is associated with poor prognosis in HCC patients. DAB2IP silence alone is sufficient to promote HCC cell proliferation and invasion in vitro.
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