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Comparing the Composition and Bioactivity of Crataegus Monogyna Flowers and Fruits used in Folk Medicine

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Abstract

Studying local plant foods is of particular interest as they often contain high amounts of bioactive compounds. Furthermore, their nutritional and medicinal impact must be documented and supported with scientific studies. Crataegus monogyna is an example of 'functional food' traditionally used all over South European countries. A complete chemical and bioactive characterization of flower buds, flowers, unripe, ripened and over ripened fruits was performed. Chemical characterization included determination of proteins, fats, ash, and carbohydrates, particularly sugars by HPLC-RI, fatty acids by GC-FID, tocopherols by HPLC-fluorescence, phenolics, flavonoids, β-carotene and ascorbic acid, by spectrophotometric techniques. Bioactivity was evaluated through screening of antioxidant properties: radical scavenging effects, reducing power, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Flowers revealed the highest tocopherols and ascorbic acid contents, as also the best n-6/n-3 fatty acids ratio. Over ripened fruits showed the highest levels of carbohydrates, sugars and SFA. Unripe fruits presented the highest PUFA contents with the best PUFA/SFA ratio, as also the highest levels of phenolics and the most promising antioxidant properties (EC₅₀ < 20.83 µg/ml; even better than trolox). This study shows the potential of different parts of Crataegus monogyna as sources of several compounds, including nutrients and nutraceuticals. Moreover, it supports the documented nutritional and medicinal impact of this species.

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... Hawthorn extract has been used for ameliorating cardiac disorders and pulmonary hypertension. The main chemical constituents of hawthorn flavonoid extract (HFE) include flavonoids (1-2%), oligomeric proanthocyanidins (1-3%), and other bioactive components (e.g., triterpene acids, organic acids, sterols, and cardioactive amines) (Chang et al., 2002;Kao et al., 2005;Long et al., 2006;Kao et al., 2007;Barros et al., 2011;Liu et al., 2011). These compounds are reported to have many pharmacological effects, including neuroprotective, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, and nephroprotective effects (Chang et al., 2002;Kirakosyan et al., 2003). ...
... Flavonoids and oligomeric proanthocyanidins of Crataegus oxyacantha are biologically active polyphenols such as anthocyanidins and proanthocyanidins (Chang et al., 2002;Kirakosyan et al., 2003;Kao et al., 2005Kao et al., , 2007Barros et al., 2011). Extracts of hawthorn fruits, leaves, or flowers are considered potent antioxidant and free Superscripts in the same row with different letters are significantly different (P , 0.05). ...
... Each mean represents values from 15 observations. Abbreviations: aVF, augmented vector foot; aVR, augmented vector right; HFE, hawthorn flavonoid extract; MEA, mean electrical axis; mV, milli-Volt; R, heart wave type R; S, heart wave type S; T, heart wave type T. radical scavengers, owing to the impact of epicatechin, hyperoside, and chlorogenic acid compounds (Chang et al., 2002;Barros et al., 2011). These compounds are reported to have many pharmacological effects, including neuroprotective, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, and nephroprotective effects (Chang et al., 2002;Kirakosyan et al., 2003). ...
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The effect of orally administered hawthorn flavonoid extract (HFE) on growth, electrocardiographic waves, and cardiac parameters of pulmonary hypertensive chickens reared at high altitude (2,100 m above sea level) was examined. A total of 225 one-day-old, mixed broiler chicks (3 treatments with 5 replicates and 15 chicks per each, totally 75 birds/treatment) were assigned to 3 experimental groups: 0, 0.1, and 0.2 ml of HFE per 1 L of drinking water. Birds were administered the drinking water HFE treatments for 42 D. At an age of 28 and 42 D, electrocardiograms were undertaken and cardiac parameters such as the RV:TV, RV:BW, and TV:BW, and indicators of PHS on selected birds were measured. The final BW of chickens receiving the HFE at 0.2 ml/L was greater (2,579 ± 64 g) than that of birds receiving 0.1 ml/L (2,497 ± 62 g) and 0 ml/L (2,323 ± 57 g). Therefore, no supplemented group had a lower final BW than others (P < 0.05). Amplitudes of S and T waves in 0.1- and 0.2-ml/L HFE consumed groups at 28 and 42 D of age decreased compared with that in the control group (P < 0.05). The HFE reduced the heart weight and RV:TV, RV:BW, and TV:BW ratios when supplemented in drinking water at 0.1 and 0.2 mL/L compared with 0 mL/L (P < 0.05). In conclusion, supplementation of HFE in drinking water can reduce the PHS and incidence of cardiac disorders. Owing to the positive effect of HFE on cardiac parameters that mediated through flavonoids bioactive compounds, this product can be used to prevent complications of pulmonary hypertension and disarray of electrocardiographic waves in broiler chickens reared at high altitude.
... A study conducted on C. monogyna collected from Portugal (Barros et al., 2011) showed that immature fruits are the richest in polyphenols, followed by flowers and finally ripened fruits, a trend similar to our findings. The levels of polyphenols content reported were much higher, especially in the case of immature fruit (701.65 μg GAE/mg extract). ...
... However, Bouzid et al. (2011), working on C. monogyna ripened fruits from Algeria, reported lower polyphenol contents (21.72 μg GAE/mg extract) as compared with the finding of the present study. The high content of polyphenols reported specifically for immature fruits by all studies may be the strategy of the plant to discourage herbivores, thus avoiding early dispersal of immature seeds as reported by Barros et al. (2011). ...
... Other studies also confirm that polyphenols and flavonoids contents of immature fruits are much higher than those of mature fruits. This could be explained by their use as antioxidants along fruit maturity, thus resulting in a phenolic content decrease in advanced maturity stages (Simirgiotis, 2013;Barros et al., 2011). ...
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Antioxidants are tremendously important substances that possess the ability to protect the body from damage caused by free radicals induced oxidative stress. This study aims to investigate the antioxidant effect of hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) from the Mid-Atlas Mountains of Morocco as a potential source of new bioactive natural compounds. Hawthorn is a medicinal plant widely used in phytotherapy for the treatment of many cardiovascular diseases. In this study, flowers, leaves, ripe and unripe fruits were analyzed. The antioxidant activity was measured by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH) free radical scavenging method. Then, Folin-Denis and aluminum chloride colorimetric assays were used to determine total polyphenol and total flavonoid contents of the plant extracts, respectively. The results obtained showed that all the plant parts studied expressed important antioxidant properties. Unripe fruits and flowers revealed the highest antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 7.3 and 8.3 μg/ml, respectively. Total polyphenol content in different plant parts ranged from 105.1 to 280.4 µg Gallic Acid Equivalent /100 mg Extract and total flavonoid from 4.7 to 70.8 µg Quercetin Equivalent/100 mg Extract. Antioxidant activity presented a significant correlation with total polyphenol content. These results indicate that C. monogyna extracts exhibit an important antioxidant activity and thus can present a great potential as a source of natural antioxidants.
... Bioactive compounds are divided into three main categories: (a) terpenes and terpenoids (approximately 25,000 types), (b) alkaloids (approximately 12,000 types) and (c) phenolic compounds (approximately 8,000 types) [6]. In Vitexin-4′′-o-rhamnoside, apigenin, cyanidin [8] Flowers Hyperoside, vitexin and vitexin-2′′-o-rhamnoside [9] Tocopherol (α, β, γ and δ), ascorbic acid, β-carotene [35] Flower buds Tocopherol (α, β, γ and δ), ascorbic acid, β-carotene [35] Unripe fruits Tocopherol (α, β, γ and δ), ascorbic acid, β-carotene [35] Ripened fruits Tocopherol (α, β, γ and δ), ascorbic acid, β-carotene [35] Overripe fruits Tocopherol (α, β, γ and δ), ascorbic acid, β-carotene [35] Chlorogenic acid, hyperoside, rutin, quercetin, vitexin-2′′-o-rhamnoside, epicatechin, catechin, procyanidin b2 [36] Vitexin-4′′-o-rhamnoside, apigenin, cyanidins, chlorogenic acid [37] Proanthocyanidine, cyanidins, quercetin, rutin, apigenin [38] Fruit peel Proanthocyanidine, cyanidins, quercetin, rutin, apigenin [38] Fruit seed Proanthocyanidine, cyanidins, quercetin, rutin, apigenin [38] Top branches Hyperoside, vitexin and vitexin-2′′-o-rhamnoside [39] Stem Vitexin-4′′-o-rhamnoside apigenin, cyanidins, chlorogenic acid [38] Ravikumar. Reviews in Agricultural Science, 10: 304-327, 2022 https://doi.org/10.7831/ras. ...
... Bioactive compounds are divided into three main categories: (a) terpenes and terpenoids (approximately 25,000 types), (b) alkaloids (approximately 12,000 types) and (c) phenolic compounds (approximately 8,000 types) [6]. In Vitexin-4′′-o-rhamnoside, apigenin, cyanidin [8] Flowers Hyperoside, vitexin and vitexin-2′′-o-rhamnoside [9] Tocopherol (α, β, γ and δ), ascorbic acid, β-carotene [35] Flower buds Tocopherol (α, β, γ and δ), ascorbic acid, β-carotene [35] Unripe fruits Tocopherol (α, β, γ and δ), ascorbic acid, β-carotene [35] Ripened fruits Tocopherol (α, β, γ and δ), ascorbic acid, β-carotene [35] Overripe fruits Tocopherol (α, β, γ and δ), ascorbic acid, β-carotene [35] Chlorogenic acid, hyperoside, rutin, quercetin, vitexin-2′′-o-rhamnoside, epicatechin, catechin, procyanidin b2 [36] Vitexin-4′′-o-rhamnoside, apigenin, cyanidins, chlorogenic acid [37] Proanthocyanidine, cyanidins, quercetin, rutin, apigenin [38] Fruit peel Proanthocyanidine, cyanidins, quercetin, rutin, apigenin [38] Fruit seed Proanthocyanidine, cyanidins, quercetin, rutin, apigenin [38] Top branches Hyperoside, vitexin and vitexin-2′′-o-rhamnoside [39] Stem Vitexin-4′′-o-rhamnoside apigenin, cyanidins, chlorogenic acid [38] Ravikumar. Reviews in Agricultural Science, 10: 304-327, 2022 https://doi.org/10.7831/ras. ...
... Bioactive compounds are divided into three main categories: (a) terpenes and terpenoids (approximately 25,000 types), (b) alkaloids (approximately 12,000 types) and (c) phenolic compounds (approximately 8,000 types) [6]. In Vitexin-4′′-o-rhamnoside, apigenin, cyanidin [8] Flowers Hyperoside, vitexin and vitexin-2′′-o-rhamnoside [9] Tocopherol (α, β, γ and δ), ascorbic acid, β-carotene [35] Flower buds Tocopherol (α, β, γ and δ), ascorbic acid, β-carotene [35] Unripe fruits Tocopherol (α, β, γ and δ), ascorbic acid, β-carotene [35] Ripened fruits Tocopherol (α, β, γ and δ), ascorbic acid, β-carotene [35] Overripe fruits Tocopherol (α, β, γ and δ), ascorbic acid, β-carotene [35] Chlorogenic acid, hyperoside, rutin, quercetin, vitexin-2′′-o-rhamnoside, epicatechin, catechin, procyanidin b2 [36] Vitexin-4′′-o-rhamnoside, apigenin, cyanidins, chlorogenic acid [37] Proanthocyanidine, cyanidins, quercetin, rutin, apigenin [38] Fruit peel Proanthocyanidine, cyanidins, quercetin, rutin, apigenin [38] Fruit seed Proanthocyanidine, cyanidins, quercetin, rutin, apigenin [38] Top branches Hyperoside, vitexin and vitexin-2′′-o-rhamnoside [39] Stem Vitexin-4′′-o-rhamnoside apigenin, cyanidins, chlorogenic acid [38] Ravikumar. Reviews in Agricultural Science, 10: 304-327, 2022 https://doi.org/10.7831/ras. ...
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Natural products from medicinal plants provide a huge opportunity for the emergence of new drugs. Crataegus monogyna, also known as common hawthorn, is a medicinal shrub whose bioactive compounds gain importance worldwide because of its efficiency in treating chronic disease conditions. Due to increase in the need of these bioactive compounds, use of appropriate and standard analytical techniques holds a great demand. Analytical techniques include extraction, isolation, identification and quantification of bioactive compounds from C. monogyna. Numerous new methods have been established under each category of analytical techniques. However, standard methods for recovering, processing and utilising bioactive compounds remains a major gap both in pilot as well as industry levels. Therefore, the main aspect of this review is to exploit all analytical techniques employed on C. monogyna, highlighting critical parameters such as time, temperature, yield of extract, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in order to enrich the production of antioxidant-rich bioactive compounds from C. monogyna plant extract.
... Crataegus oxyacantha (Hawthorn) is a member of the Rosaceae family (5 to 10m tall shrub) that grows in Asia and most parts of the world (Chang et al., 2002).The fruits, leaves and stems of this medicinal plant are traditionally used for treatment of cardiac diseases and cardiovascular problems, such as heart failure, hypertension with myocardial injuries, angina pectoris, arrhythmia, and as anti-atherosclerotic agent (Salehi et al., 2009), improving blood circulation system, and eliminating blood stasis, hypertension (Chen, 1998;Brixius et al., 2006), and inflammation (Kao et al., 2005;Kao et al., 2007).Flavonoids (1 to 2% in the fruits, leaves and flowers) and oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPCs, 1 to 3% in the fruits or leaves with flowers) are the main chemical components of eRBCA-2018-0860 hawthorn (Chang et al., 2002;Kao et al., 2005;Barros et al., 2011;Kirakosyan et al., 2003). However, other bioactive components, such as triterpene acids (Kao et al., 2007), organic acids (Liu 1995;Liu et al., 2011), sterols, and cardio-active amines (Long et al., 2006) are present at different levels in hawthorn extract. ...
... Many hawthorn preparations are standardized based on their flavonoid and OPC contents (Hassanpour et al., 2005). The extract of hawthorn fruits, leaves, or flowers have potential antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities due to the presence of epicatechin, hyperoside, and chlorogenic acid (Chang et al., 2002;Barros et al., 2011). These compounds are reported to have many pharmacological actions, including neuroprotective, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, and nephroprotective effects (Chang et al., 2002;Kirakosyan et al., 2003). ...
... The observed improvements in carcass traits, as well as lower abdominal fat and liver and heart weights may be due to the effects of naturally-occurring polyphenols (flavonoids) and oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPCs) in hawthorn (Crateagusoxyacantha) (Mladěnka et al., 2010). Polyphenols, including flavonoids and non-flavonoids compounds, exhibit a wide range of beneficial pharmaceutical effects, such as growth-promoting, anti-oxidative, sedative, antibacterial and anti-viral actions (Barros et al., 2011;Surai, 2014). ...
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Hawthorn has been traditionally used to improve blood circulation and medicating cardiac disorders as well as blood stasis and elimination of pulmonary hypertension. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of different levels of hawthorn extract in the drinking water on cardiac indicators, serum antioxidant activity, growth and immunity of pulmonary hypertensive broilers reared at high altitude and prone to ascites. A total of 225 one-day-old unsexed broiler chicks (Ross308) were randomly assigned to 15 floor pens. A basal corn-soy based diet was formulated for all treatments. The treatments consisted of the addition of 0, 0.1, or 0.2 mL of hawthorn extract per liter of drinking water. Both levels of hawthorn flavonoid extract significantly (p<0.05) improved feed intake, body weight gain and FCR, and significantly (p<0.05) reduced abdominal fat, liver, and heart relative weights, as well as the number of birds affected with PHS compared with the controls. RV and TV were significantly (p<0.05) lower in hawthorn flavonoid extract fed birds than the controls in addition of significantly (p<0.05) lower TBARS but higher NO serum levels. In conclusion, hawthorn flavonoid extract may effectively be used as an herbal medicine to prevent pulmonary hypertension and cardiac disorders in chickens.
... It is a native ornamental herb of Europe, North-West Africa and West Asia and is an invasive species (11). Common hawthorn has dark red small fruits called haw, which ripen in the mid-autumn and are used for medical purposes and also as a condiment in some foods like jellies, jams, and syrups (12). Scientific evidence has shown that the common hawthorn fruit has anti-oxidant and strong inhibiting activity on free radicals due to the presence of various bioactive compounds such as epicatechin, hyperoside, quercetin, vitexin, coumarin, and chlorogenic acid (12,13). ...
... Common hawthorn has dark red small fruits called haw, which ripen in the mid-autumn and are used for medical purposes and also as a condiment in some foods like jellies, jams, and syrups (12). Scientific evidence has shown that the common hawthorn fruit has anti-oxidant and strong inhibiting activity on free radicals due to the presence of various bioactive compounds such as epicatechin, hyperoside, quercetin, vitexin, coumarin, and chlorogenic acid (12,13). These compounds have numerous pharmacological neuroprotective, hepatoprotective, and cardioprotective effects (10,12). ...
... Scientific evidence has shown that the common hawthorn fruit has anti-oxidant and strong inhibiting activity on free radicals due to the presence of various bioactive compounds such as epicatechin, hyperoside, quercetin, vitexin, coumarin, and chlorogenic acid (12,13). These compounds have numerous pharmacological neuroprotective, hepatoprotective, and cardioprotective effects (10,12). In addition, the common hawthorn fruit has tonic effects on the heart (12). ...
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Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common metabolic diseases that causes damage to different tissues through oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Crataegus monogyna on oxidative stress, hyperglycemia and pancreatic tissue damage in diabetic rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 40 male Wistar rats were equally divided into 5 groups including control (normal saline), diabetic control (streptozotocin), intervention (streptozotocin plus C. monogyna extract at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg). After treatment, serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), Ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and glucose were determined. Histological sections of the pancreas were also prepared for histological examination. Results: Treatment of diabetic rats with C. monogyna extract significantly reduced blood glucose level (P < 0.05). Compared with control group MDA was increased and TCA was decreased in diabetic rats (P < 0.05). Treatment of diabetic rats with C. monogyna extract significantly increased TCA and reduced MDA (P < 0.05). In the pancreas of diabetic rats, degeneration of pancreatic acinar cells and formation of dermato space, damage of lobules and Acinii and edema were observed and treatment with C. monogyna extract ameliorated them. Conclusion: The results confirm the role of C. monogyna extract in the treatment of hyperglycemia, stress oxidative indices and pancreatic tissue damage in diabetic rats. Therefore, it might be beneficial in diabetic patients.
... Besides hawthorn's cardioprotective properties, it also finds a role in the treatment of arthritis, insomnia, gall bladder disease, and diarrhea (Barros et al. 2011;Pawlaczyk-Graja 2018). The hawthorn was traditionally used in the treatment of respiratory tract disorders as well as for relieving the symptoms of menopause (Barros et al. 2011). ...
... Besides hawthorn's cardioprotective properties, it also finds a role in the treatment of arthritis, insomnia, gall bladder disease, and diarrhea (Barros et al. 2011;Pawlaczyk-Graja 2018). The hawthorn was traditionally used in the treatment of respiratory tract disorders as well as for relieving the symptoms of menopause (Barros et al. 2011). ...
... The nutritious benefits of hawthorn fruits (berries) made its use as a source of vitamins and minerals even more worthwhile for improving general health. In that sense, the berries were and still are the constituents of numerous food products, such as jams, jellies, different drinks, and wine, or in the form of canned fruit (Barros et al. 2011;Nabavi et al. 2015). ...
Chapter
Wild fruits are underutilized plants that are well adapted to the local climatic conditions. Extreme environmental conditions due to climate change or variability are a threat to wild-growing species, crop production, productivity, and livelihood. Wild fruit fields could be affected by not meeting winter chilling requirements, which is specific for every fruit species. On the other hand, the plants’ secondary metabolites and other bioactive compounds can be attributed to the changing conditions as a response to various types of environmental stresses which affect their production. Secondary metabolites refer to small molecules that are non-essential for the growth and reproduction of plants, but have a wide range of effects on the plant itself and other living organisms. Blackthorn (Prunus spinosa L.), Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.), dog rose (Rosa canina L.), and hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.) are important wild plants with powerful health-promoting properties. Due to their chemical composition and nutritive value, they have a strong effect on regional food security and poverty alleviation. Positive health effects, forceful impact on the quality of life, and market potential are additional attributes of these plants, which may have significant economic impact.
... It is a native ornamental herb of Europe, North-West Africa and West Asia and is an invasive species (11). Common hawthorn has dark red small fruits called haw, which ripen in the mid-autumn and are used for medical purposes and also as a condiment in some foods like jellies, jams, and syrups (12). Scientific evidence has shown that the common hawthorn fruit has anti-oxidant and strong inhibiting activity on free radicals due to the presence of various bioactive compounds such as epicatechin, hyperoside, quercetin, vitexin, coumarin, and chlorogenic acid (12,13). ...
... Common hawthorn has dark red small fruits called haw, which ripen in the mid-autumn and are used for medical purposes and also as a condiment in some foods like jellies, jams, and syrups (12). Scientific evidence has shown that the common hawthorn fruit has anti-oxidant and strong inhibiting activity on free radicals due to the presence of various bioactive compounds such as epicatechin, hyperoside, quercetin, vitexin, coumarin, and chlorogenic acid (12,13). These compounds have numerous pharmacological neuroprotective, hepatoprotective, and cardioprotective effects (10,12). ...
... Scientific evidence has shown that the common hawthorn fruit has anti-oxidant and strong inhibiting activity on free radicals due to the presence of various bioactive compounds such as epicatechin, hyperoside, quercetin, vitexin, coumarin, and chlorogenic acid (12,13). These compounds have numerous pharmacological neuroprotective, hepatoprotective, and cardioprotective effects (10,12). In addition, the common hawthorn fruit has tonic effects on the heart (12). ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common metabolic diseases that causes damage to different tissues through oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Crataegus monogyna on oxidative stress, hyperglycemia and pancreatic tissue damage in diabetic rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 40 male Wistar rats were equally divided into 5 groups including control (normal saline), diabetic control (streptozotocin), intervention (streptozotocin plus C. monogyna extract at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg). After treatment, serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), Ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and glucose were determined. Histological sections of the pancreas were also prepared for histological examination. Results: Treatment of diabetic rats with C. monogyna extract significantly reduced blood glucose level (P<0.05). Compared with control group MDA was increased and TCA was decreased in diabetic rats (P<0.05). Treatment of diabetic rats with C. monogyna extract significantly increased TCA and reduced MDA (P<0.05). In the pancreas of diabetic rats, degeneration of pancreatic acinar cells and formation of dermato space, damage of lobules and Acinii and edema were observed and treatment with C. monogyna extract ameliorated them. Conclusion: The results confirm the role of C. monogyna extract in the treatment of hyperglycemia, stress oxidative indices and pancreatic tissue damage in diabetic rats. Therefore, it might be beneficial in diabetic patients.
... Hawthorn is an endemic member of the Rosaceae family widely distributed in Europe, Africa, and Asia as a shrub or small tree 5-10 m tall [9]. Its small dark-red fruit (commonly called haw), which ripens in midautumn, is used for different culinary purposes, such as the preparation of jellies, jams, marmalade, canned fruit, wine and liquors syrups [13] or even consumed raw [8,9]. Scientific evidence has demonstrated that hawthorn fruit possesses potent antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities, due to the presence of different bioactive compounds, such as epicatechin, hyperoside and chlorogenic acid [8,13,14]. ...
... Its small dark-red fruit (commonly called haw), which ripens in midautumn, is used for different culinary purposes, such as the preparation of jellies, jams, marmalade, canned fruit, wine and liquors syrups [13] or even consumed raw [8,9]. Scientific evidence has demonstrated that hawthorn fruit possesses potent antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities, due to the presence of different bioactive compounds, such as epicatechin, hyperoside and chlorogenic acid [8,13,14]. These compounds are reported to have many pharmacological effects, including neuroprotective, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, nephroprotective, etc. [9]. ...
... These compounds are reported to have many pharmacological effects, including neuroprotective, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, nephroprotective, etc. [9]. Moreover, young leaves of common hawthorn are eaten in salads, seasoned with olive oil, lemon or vinegar [8,9]. ...
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The aim of the current study was to determine the biologically active substance in different extracts from five medicinal plants collected from the Rhodopes mountain: thyme (Thymus vulgaris L), St John's wort (Hypericum perforatym L), cotton thistle (Onopordum acanthium), common hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) and common juniper (Juniperus communis) and to evaluate their antioxidant potential. Three types of extracts were prepared with water, 50% ethanol and 70 % ethanol. The content of total phenols, total flavonoids, total chlorophylls, total carotenoids and total fructans were analyzed. The antioxidant activity of extracts were evaluated by two assays DPPH and FRAP. From the obtained results fructans were found only in flowering heads extracts of cotton thistle (Onopordum acanthium)-0.8 g/100 g dw plant material. The highest values of total chlorophylls and total carotenoids were detected in 70 % ethanol extracts from common hawthorn flowers (1897.2 and 266.3 μg/g dry extract, respectively). The 50 % ethanol extracts of St John's wort and thyme were characterized as rich sources of total phenols-above 200 mg GAE/g dry extract, while 50 % ethanol extract from flowering heads extracts of cotton thistle demonstrated the highest total flavonoids content-100 mg QE/g dry extract. All extracts obtained by St John's wort and thyme showed the highest antioxidant potential (from 2000 to 2800 mM TE/g dry extracts). Extracts form thyme, St John's wort, cotton thistle and flowers of common hawthorn dominated significantly above all investigated plants. These four medicinal plants showed their application in food and cosmetic formulas with potential beneficial healthy effect.
... An increase in protein and fat contents was observed in white and yellow pansies on the last stage of flowering (completely open flower) while dietary fiber decreased, while in red pansies an increase in carbohydrates content was detected. Barros, Carvalho, and Ferreira (2011) also failed to detect a pattern of macronutrient turnover during the development of Crataegus monogyna flower. In fact, they stated that moisture and protein contents decreased, while ash, carbohydrates, and fat increased when comparing buds with flowers. ...
... Contrary, in red pansies palmitic acid (C16:0) increased from 14.8% to 17.4% and linoleic acid decreased from 51.0% to 18.7%. Similar patterns were observed by other authors in other flower species, particularly, between bud and flower stages of Crataegus monogyna, an increase in linolenic acid (26.8% to 29.5%), and a decrease in linoleic acid (15.6 to 14.2%) were observed (Barros et al., 2011). Moreover, in two species of Opuntia flowers, from vegetative to full flowering stages, an increase in palmitic (from 38.2% to 43.0% for Opuntia ficus-indica; 48.9% to 59.5% for Opuntia stricta) and linolenic acids (from 3.7% to 6.2% for Opuntia ficus-indica) were reported (Ammar, Ennouri, Bali, & Attia, 2014). ...
Article
Edible flowers consumption and use are an increasing food trend worldwide, although information concerning their nutritional composition and nutraceutical value is still scarce. Thus, the aim of this study was to contribute to the popularization of pansies (Viola × wittrockiana), through the analysis of the nutritional and nutraceutical features of pansies with different colors (white, yellow, and red) and flowering stages. Both flower type and flowering stage influenced the flower composition. When completely open, white and yellow pansies had the highest contents of protein (>2.00 g/100 g fresh weight), while red pansies had the highest content of carbohydrates (8.0 g/100 g fresh weight). Regarding the fatty acid profiles, linoleic acid was always predominant (ranging between 18.7 and 51.0 g/100 g fatty acids), followed by the palmitic and linolenic acids. During flowering, there was an increase in protein, fat, and linolenic acid contents in white and yellow pansies, whereas in red pansies the values did not change. Red pansies were characterized by the highest contents of total carotenoids (873 to 1300 µg β‐carotene/g dry weight) and monomeric anthocyanins (303 to 402 µg Cy‐3 glu/g dry weight); however, white and yellow pansies showed an increase in the values of total reducing capacity (total phenols), hydrolysable tannins, flavonoids, monomeric anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity from the bud to completely open flower stage. Our results underline the nutritional differences between pansies with different colors at distinct stages of development and their potential health benefits, suggesting that they can be used as ingredient to improve the nutritional properties of foods. Practical application The market of edible flowers is increasing, although little information in nutritional view is available. So, the present study was conducted to contribute to the popularization of edible flowers as a new and prospective source for the food industry, as well as a promising product for human nutrition. The results of the present study underline the nutritional differences between pansies with different colors at distinct stages of development and their potential health benefits, suggesting that they can be used as ingredient to improve the nutritional properties of foods.
... Several underutilized and/or scarcely studied plant species of the Rosaceae monogyna fruit and presented data about the existence of potassium, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, sodium, iron, and boron [20] as important biogenic elements. In addition to the chemical composition, all articles reported the antioxidant activity of hawthorn fruits [10,16,18]. ...
... Another study also confirmed almost two-fold higher levels of vitamin C in hawthorn fruits, compared to blackthorn (15.19 and 7.73 mg of total vitamin C per 100 g fresh weight, respectively) [45]. The biological effects also depend on the state of fruit ripeness in the case of hawthorn fruits [18]. They came to the interesting conclusion that unripe hawthorn fruits had the most prominent antioxidant properties in comparison to ripe and overripe fruits. ...
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Plant-based food represents an excellent source of different nutrients and bioactive compounds, such as phenolics, carotenoids, vitamins, etc., with proven health benefits for humans. The content of selected phytochemicals, polyphenolic profile, and biological activity (antioxidant potential and �-glucosidase inhibitory activity) of fruit extracts of medlar (Mespilus germanica L.), blackthorn (Prunus spinosa L.), and common hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.), the neglected Rosaceae species originated from Serbia were studied. Targeted UHPLC/(􀀀)HESI–MS/MS quantitative analysis of phenolic compounds revealed pinocembrin only in medlar fruit extract, and it is the first report of this flavanone in medlar fruits. Total phenolic content did not differ between extracts, whereas significant differences were observed for the contents of total flavonoids, total phenolic acids, and total gallotannins. Monomeric anthocyanins and total anthocyanins were significantly higher in blackthorn compared to medlar and hawthorn fruit extracts (p < 0.05). DPPH� and ABTS�+ scavenging activities for examined fruits were modest compared to other natural antioxidants and BHT. The most potent inhibitory activity toward �-glucosidase expressed medlar and blackthorn extracts with IC50 values of 129.46 and 199.84 �g/mL, respectively, which was higher compared to the standard drug acarbose.
... [4][5][6] Flavonoids and oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPCs) are the main chemical constituents in hawthorn. [7][8][9] Other bioactive components in different scales are exist in hawthorn flavonoid extract. 10,11 Generally, flavonoid extract of hawthorn indicates potent antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities, due to the impact of epicatechin, hyperoside, and chlorogenic acid compounds. ...
... 10,11 Generally, flavonoid extract of hawthorn indicates potent antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities, due to the impact of epicatechin, hyperoside, and chlorogenic acid compounds. [4][5][6][7][8] These compounds are reported to have many pharmacological effects, including neuroprotective, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, and nephroprotective. [4][5][6][7] Furthermore, hawthorn fruit possesses tonic effects on the heart and could reduce cardiovascular risk factors. ...
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An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of hawthorn flavonoid extract (HFE) to prevent pulmonary hypertension in broiler chickens. A total of 225 day-old unsexed broiler chicks (Ross308) were assigned to 3 treatments with five replicates in 15 floor pens randomly. Experimental groups were provided by adding 0, 0.1 and 0.2 mL of hawthorn flavonoid extract per liter of chicken’s drinking water. The results showed that HFE significantly (P<0.05) decreased the heart weight, RV: TV ratio, and percentage of birds with PHS compared to the control group. In conclusion, HFE could effectively use as an herbal drug to prevent pulmonary hypertension in chickens.
... Numerous studies have demonstrated that the various species of Crataegus possess pharmaceutical properties and, therefore, have been used in medicine to prevent or treat cardiovascular diseases [5][6][7], to improve circulation and to treat hypertension, arrhythmia, angina pectoris, and high blood cholesterol levels [8]. Antiradical activities of hawthorn extracts have been proven by numerous researches [9][10][11]. Fruits, leaves, and flowers of Crataegus species contain major bioactive phenolic compounds, such as phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanidins [12][13][14]. ...
... Fruits, leaves, and flowers of Crataegus species contain major bioactive phenolic compounds, such as phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanidins [12][13][14]. Furthermore, various parts of plants belonging to Crataegus species, in particular dried berries, represent an important raw material in the food industry, as they are being used in production of different herbal teas, juices, and wine, as well as jams, jellies, and canned fruits [8,10,[15][16][17][18]. ...
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The aim of this work was the qualitative and quantitative determination of selected phenolic compounds in three Crataegus species grown in Bosnia. Crataegus plants are consumed for medicinal purposes and as foodstuff in the form of canned fruit, jam, jelly, tea, and wine. Two samples of plant material, dry leaves with flowers, and berries of three Crataegus species—Crataegus rhipidophylla Gand., Crataegus x subsphaericea Gand., and Crataegus x macrocarpa Hegetschw.—were analyzed. Twelve ethanolic extracts were isolated from the selected plant material using Soxhlet and ultrasound extraction, respectively. Soxhlet extraction proved to be more effective than ultrasound extraction. A simple and sensitive method, high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection, HPLC-ED, was used for the simultaneous determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids in Crataegus species. The content of gallic acid in the extracts ranged from 0.001 to 0.082 mg/g dry weight (DW), chlorogenic acid from 0.19 to 8.70 mg/g DW, and rutin from 0.03 to 13.49 mg/g DW. Two flavonoids, vitexin and hyperoside, commonly found in chemotaxonomic investigations of Crataegus species, were not detected in the examined extracts. In general, leaves with flowers samples are richer in gallic acid and rutin, whereas the berries samples are richer in chlorogenic acid. Distinct similarities were found in the relative distribution of gallic acid among the three species. Extracts of C. x macrocarpa had the highest content of all detected compounds, while significant differences were found in rutin content, depending on the plant organ. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting content of phenolic compounds in Crataegus rhipidophylla Gand., Crataegus x subsphaericea, and Crataegus x macrocarpa from Bosnia.
... The most widespread species belong to Crataegus, Prunus, Cornus, and Sambucus genera. Due to their abundance in proanthocyanidins, catechins, phenolic acids, essential oils, and terpenoids, Crataegus monogyna (hawthorn, HW) fruits possess strong antioxidant potential [3]. Furthermore, several studies have showed the positive influence of HW fruit extracts on the cardiovascular system, acting as antiarrhythmic, hypolipidemic, and Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (https ://doi.org/10.1007/s0021 ...
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Wild fruits grown in Serbia, i.e., elderberry (Sambucus nigra), hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna), cornelian cherry (Cornus mas), and blackthorn (Prunus spinosa), are rich in secondary metabolites. In this study, the polyphenolic composition of wild fruit extracts and their antioxidant capacity were investigated by in vitro assays. Elderberry was characterized by the presence of arbutin (a skin protector), and cornelian cherry by syringic and gallic acids. In blackthorn, at least 11 different phenolic compounds were reported for the first time, including vanillic acid and naringin, the metabolite present in the highest amount. Blackthorn extracts were the richest in polyphenols (11.24–18.70 g GAE/kg FW) and had the highest activity in the DPPH radical test (180.93–267.11 mMTE/mL), while cornelian cherry extracts showed the most effective ferric ion chelating (81.37–90.66%) and antityrosinase inhibition capacities (21.75–74.23%). No sample was able to scavenge NO. Using the principal component analysis, wild fruit samples were classified into four separate clusters due to distinctive phenolic profiles and antioxidant capacity. Our investigation showed how every fruit could be considered unique in terms of its phytonutrient content. Thus, Serbian wild fruits may be a great source of bioactive natural compounds and could be therefore considered particularly useful in food supplement production. Particularly, as a source of natural antioxidants, these species could be used to extend the shelf life of food products and replace synthetic antioxidants, avoiding potential health risks and toxicity.
... Hawthorn [Crataegus spp. (Rosaceae)] is one of the oldest medicinal plants that is widely used throughout the world, especially in South European countries and Turkey (Bahorun et al., 2003, Barros, Carvalho, Ferreira, 2011. Crataegus spp. is mainly used for treatment of cardiovascular diseases (Rigelsky and Sweet, 2002).Two Crataegus species grow in northern provinces of Iran, C. pentaegyna (CP) and C. microphylla (CM) (Ebrahimzadeh, Bahramian, 2009). ...
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The aim of this study was to evaluate anti-hypoxia activity of polyphenolic extracts of Crataegus microphylla and Crataegus pentaegyn on mice. Three experimental models of hypoxia were considered, including asphyctic hypoxia, haemic hypoxia, and circulatory hypoxia. Polyphenolic extract of both plants exhibited significant anti-hypoxic activity and prolonged animal survival time. Anti-hypoia activity of C. pentaegyn was found to be superior to that of C. microphylla in circulatory and asphyctic hypoxia. Antihypoxic activity of these extracts may be attributed to their phenolic compounds.
... C. monogyna. and C. laevigata are described in the European and United states Pharmacopoeia, while as C. pinnatifida, C. pinnatifida are official species in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia [1][2][3][4][5]. It is always of particular interest to study the composition of endemic plants, as they may contain higher amount of chemicals. ...
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The aim of this study was to investigate polyphenolic composition of different parts (leaves, flowers and fruits) of Crataegus almaatensis Pojark, an endemic plant of Kazakhstan, and compare it to a well known European Crataegus oxyacantha L. flowers. A Qual-Quant analysis was performed based on HR-MS measurements on 22 secondary metabolites: flavonoids and phenolic acids. Another goal was to evaluate the antioxidant potency of hawthorn extracts which was expressed in the total phenolic content and DPPH scavenging potency tests. Leaf extracts from C. almaatensis were found to be the most rich in metabolites and the most active in antiradical tests (IC50 value of 48 μg/ml and TPC of 218 mg/g). The weakest potential was determined for the fruit extract of this species. According to the performed principal component analysis (PCA), the fruit extracts were not correlated with other organs of the plant, and the metabolites responsible for the extracts’ differentiation were cyanidin 3-glucoside and quercetin 3-galactoside. Based on a high correlation factor, the flowers of the Kazakh species was found to be as rich in polyphenols as the European hawthorn. The results of this study indicate that C. almaatensis is a promising source of natural antioxidants.
... The targeted compound families are polar, thus polar solvents (water and ethanol, as well as well mixtures) are good candidates especially because they are GRAS (generally regarded as safe) solvents as well. Hawthorn berries on the other hand contain significant amount of non-polar components as well, including fatty acids, di-and triacylglycerols and -(lyso) phosphatidylcholines, which easily lead to formation of emulsion and foaming during a polar extraction [13,14]. ...
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For years, it is an actuality in the poultry processing industry, that the body and the cardiovascular system of the chickens are not strong enough due to the shortened rearing time. This induces, that the quality of the chicken breast is not appropriate for selling, since during the processing procedure, frequently blood spots appear inside the meat. These damaged parts need to be removed, causing huge economic loss. In this paper a solution for this problem is searched using hawthorn, a traditional herb, with well-known beneficial effects to the cardiovascular system. Improvement of the product quality and the reducing amount of the removed meat are supposed by applying a treatment with a polyphenol-rich drinking tincture made from the plant. Beside the preparation of the drinking liquid, including pretreatment, extraction and dilution steps, chemical analysis of the phenolic compounds is also conducted. The result of the drinking test shows that the extent of the blood spots, and thus the quantity of the "cut off" meat decreased significantly, however the reduction of the meat weight and a slight change in the death rate are also needed to take into consideration. It has been found, that the total phenolic contents of the berry are similar to literature data, while they show moderate antioxidant efficiency. Several phenolic acids, procyanidins and flavonoids were identified as the main phenol compounds of the applied extract.
... Flavonoids belong to the largest group of phenolic compounds and can be found in all plant parts, particularly in the cells of the photosynthetic apparatus and accordingly, in leaves [9]. The fact that the leaf extracts contained the highest concentration of flavonoids is in accordance with numerous studies [30,31]. The research demonstrated that the species that grew in a mesophilous habitat produced a greater quantity of flavonoids in comparison with the species in a hygrophilous habitat. ...
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Variations in abiotic environmental factors have significant effects on quantity and quality of secondary metabolites, which is particularly important for plant species that possess biologically active compounds. The purpose of this study is determination of the total phenolic content, flavonoid concentration, and antioxidant activity of the different parts of Inula helenium L. (Asteraceae) sampled from different populations and in different time periods. The amounts obtained for the total phenolics varied from 16.73 to 89.85 mg of gallic acid (GA)/g. The concentration of flavonoids ranged from 9.32 to 376.22 mg of rutin (Ru)/g. The IC50 values of antioxidant activity determined using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical method varied from 161.60 to 1563.02 μg/ml. The inflorescence and roots possessed high concentration of phenolic compounds and significant antioxidant activity, while leaves contained the highest concentration of flavonoids. Additionally, the quantity of the phenolics, as well as antioxidant activity, significantly varied among the different populations due to different impacts of environmental factors. This research showed that I. helenium represents an abundant source of bioactive substances, and that the quantity of these compounds greatly differs among the different populations as well as in the same populations regarding the different time periods as well as plant parts.
... Ultrasonic and microwave have been found to be the most efficient extraction modes [60,63,77]. The influence of Crataegus species [26,27,35,41,43,46,65,70,73,79,83,89,90], the harvest area [20,27,32,36,41,[54][55][56]65,70,79,90], and the plant organ (flowering tops, flowers, leaves, fruits at various states of ripening) [8,25,27,32,[35][36][37]40,41,43,47,48,51,56,61,65,66,70,[72][73][74]77,82,84,[89][90][91][92][93][94] have also been largely studied in the literature. Before extraction, the plant is generally dried, crushed, and powdered using a grinder (typically a mortar or a coffee grinder, when mentioned) [24,25,28,29,35,36,[38][39][40][41][42][43][45][46][47][48][49][50][51]56,57,[59][60][61][63][64][65][66]68,[70][71][72]75,76,[78][79][80][81][82]85,86,90,93,95,96], but, to our knowledge, no article has dealt with the influence of plant granulometry on the extraction yield. ...
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Hawthorn (Crataegus) is used for its cardiotonic, hypotensive, vasodilative, sedative, antiatherosclerotic, and antihyperlipidemic properties. One of the main goals of this work was to find a well-defined optimized extraction protocol usable by each of us that would lead to repeatable, controlled, and quantified daily uptake of active components from hawthorn at a drinkable temperature (below 60 °C). A thorough investigation of the extraction mode in water (infusion, maceration, percolation, ultrasounds, microwaves) on the yield of extraction and the amount of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidin oligomers as well as on the Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC) profiles of the extracted compounds was carried out. High-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry was also implemented to discriminate the different samples and conditions of extraction. The quantitative and qualitative aspects of the extraction as well as the kinetics of extraction were studied, not only according to the part (flowers or leaves), the state (fresh or dried), and the granulometry of the dry plant, but also the stirring speed, the temperature, the extraction time, the volume of the container (cup, mug or bowl) and the use of infusion bags.
... It has been studied for decades, with a particular focus on developing treatments for cardiovascular disease (Alp, Soner, Baysal, & Sahin, 2015). Several reports have suggested that hawthorn fruit possesses potent antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities (Barros, Carvalho, & Ferreira, 2011). However, the anti-cancer effective constituents of hawthorn and their mechanisms of action are still unclear. ...
Article
This study demonstrated that a homogeneous polysaccharide (HPS) extracted from Hawthorn exerted anti-cancer effects on colon cancer cells. Human colon cancer cell line HCT116 were treated with 125–1000 µg/mL HPS for 12 h and subsequent analysis was performed on proliferation and signaling pathways. HPS significantly inhibited proliferation of HCT116 cells when analyzed using WST-1 assay and immunofluorescence staining of Ki-67. Flow cytometric studies revealed that HPS could arrest the cell cycle in the S and G2/M phases and increase the rate of apoptosis. HPS downregulated the expression of Cyclin A1/D1/E1 and CDK-1/2. HPS induced apoptosis on HCT116 cells through upregulation of caspase3, 7, 8, 9 and Fas, FADD, TNF-R1, TRADD, upregulation of caspase3 protein was also observed. HPS has an anti-cancer potential in the treatment of human colon cancer which makes it a potential candidate in functional foods for cancer patients.
... Crataegus is called Zalzalak in Iran which grows in the west and northwest of the country (Khatamsaz 1992). The phenolic compounds in the Crataegus extracts are rather high which could serve as a good source of bioactive compounds for medicinal purposes (Barros et al. 2011;Ahmadipour et al. 2017;Gonzalez-Jimenez et al. 2018). The leaves, flowers and fruit of hawthorn are rich in antioxidants and polyphenolics (Edwards et al. 2012;Nabavi et al. 2015). ...
Article
In this study, the effects of culture media and plant growth regulators on Crataegus sp. micropropagation were investigated. The treatments for shoot multiplication were benzylaminopurine (BAP) at five concentrations (0, 4.44, 6.66, 8.88 and 11.10 µM) in combination with indol-3-butyric acid (IBA) at four concentrations (0, 1.23, 2.46 and 4.92 µM) with constant 1.44 µM gibberellic acid (GA3) in MS medium. For root induction, IBA was used 0, 1.23, 2.46, 4.92 and 7.38 µM combined with 0, 2.68 and 5.36 µM naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) in 1/2-strength MS medium. Based on results the highest number of shoots/explant (13.5) was obtained in medium fortified with 11.10 µM BAP plus 4.92 µM IBA and the highest shoot length (5.84 cm) was obtained at 6.66 µM BAP plus 4.92 IBA. The highest rooting (55%) was observed in 1/2-strength MS medium containing 1.23 µM IBA with 5.36 µM NAA after four weeks of treatment. This study with highest shoot proliferation rate provided a reliable protocol for in vitro mass propagation of Crataegus sp. The ISSR amplification results demonstrate the genetic uniformity of in vitro propagation system.
... They are also believed to prevent the peroxy free radical-induced oxidation of α-tocopherol in human LDL. Structures of the main phenolic compounds that have already been identified from hawthorn species are shown in Fig. 1. [16][17][18] Preharvest environmental conditions, postharvest conditions, and processing techniques are key factors that may impact the antioxidant activity and chemical compositions of phenolic compounds in leaves and flowers. [19] In addition, level of flavonoids and the quantity of phenolic compounds in plant organs are also affected by genetic variations among different species, even within the same species and also by the maturity of plant organs at harvest time. ...
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This study was undertaken to determine the total quantity of phenolic and flavonoids, as well as to find out about HPLC quantification of some individual phenolic compounds (i.e. chlorogenic acid, vitexin 2”-O-rhamnoside, vitexin, rutin, hyperoside, quercetin, and isoquercetin) in flower and leaves of 56 samples of different hawthorn species (Crataegus spp.) collected from different geographical regions of Iran. The amount of total phenolics ranges from 7.21 to 87.73 mg GAE/g in dry weight of the plant and total amount of flavonoids varied amongst species and in different plant organs ranging from 2.27 to 17.40 mg/g dry weight. Chlorogenic acid, vitexin and vitexin 2”-O-rhamnoside were found to be the most abundant phenolic compounds in the extracts of hawthorn leaves. Meanwhile, chlorogenic acid, hyperoside and rutin were the most abundant phenolic compounds in the extracts of hawthorn flowers in the most genotypes. The antioxidant activity was widely varied in species and in different organs of each individual plant, ranging from 0.9 to 4.65 mmol Fe⁺⁺/g DW plant, calculated through FRAP method. Thus, this could provide valuable data for developing breeding strategies and plans, by the way it can help us in selecting genotypes with high phenolic contents for producing natural antioxidants and other bioactive compounds beneficial for food or the pharmaceutical industries.
... The reagents used for the research were: Ammonia solution 25% (Applichem-Panreac, Darmstadt, Germany); disodium hydrogen phosphate dodecahydrate (Na 2 Rubus ulmifolius Schott flowers, Tamus communis L. shoots and Crateagus monogyna Jacq. flowers were collected in the Natural Park of Montesinho territory, Trás-os-Montes, North-eastern Portugal, as previously described [22][23][24]. ...
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In this study, hydrophilic magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized by green routes using a methanolic extract of Rubus ulmifolius Schott flowers. The prepared magnetic nanoparticles were coated with carbon-based shell for drug delivery application. The nanocomposites were further chemically functionalized with nitric acid and, sequentially, with Pluronic® F68 (CMNPs-plur) to enhance their colloidal stability. The resulting material was dispersed in phosphate buffer solution at pH 7.4 to study the Doxorubicin loading. After shaking for 48 h, 99.13% of the drug was loaded by the nanocomposites. Subsequently, the drug release was studied in different working phosphate buffer solutions (i.e., PB pH 4.5, pH 6.0 and pH 7.4) to determine the efficiency of the synthesized material for drug delivery as pH-dependent drug nanocarrier. The results have shown a drug release quantity 18% higher in mimicking tumor environment than in the physiological one. Therefore, this study demonstrates the ability of CMNPs-plur to release a drug with pH dependence, which could be used in the future for the treatment of cancer "in situ" by means of controlled drug release.
... pentagyna sample collected from Taşköprü locality. Barros et al., (2010) analyzed fatty acid composition of flower and fruits of C. monogyna Jacq. and determined the highest content of linoleic acid in unripe fruits (58.5%); ripe fruits (17.53%), flower buds (15.64%), flowers (14.17%) over ripened fruits (13.12%). ...
Article
Cilj ovoga rada je određivanje kemijskih svojstava svojti Crataegus pentagyna podvrste pentagyna , C. orientalis podvrste orientalis , C. orientalis podvrste szovitsii , C. tanacetifolia , C. azarolus var. aronia , C. monogyna var. lasiocarpa , C. monogyna var. monogyna prirodno rasprostranjenih u Zapadnoj Anatoliji. Uzorci lista i cvijeta prikupljenih 2010. – 2014. u provincijama Zapadne Anatolije Izmit, Sakarya, Balıkesir, Izmir, Kütahya, Muğla i Isparta, kako bi se odredile hlapljive komponente, osušeni su na sobnoj temperaturi. Hlapljive komponente, dobivene metodom mikroekstrakcije u krutoj fazi (SPME) u središnjem laboratoriju Sveučilišta Süleyman Demirel, određeni su uređajem puni naziv. Ukupno je utvrđena 81 hlapljiva komponenta iz 7 taksona gloga. Od hlapljivih komponenta ulja, koje su otkrivene u najvećim omjerima, pronađene su komponente benzaldehida (82,54%), butiraldehida (38,27%) i (E)2-heksenala (21,67%). Određena je i vlažnost sjemenki uzoraka gloga, sakupljenih u uzorkovanim područjima tijekom perioda sazrijevanja. Određen je i sastav masnih kiselina pomoću uređaja GC-FID, koristeći se standardnom mješavinom masnih kiselina. Vlažnost sjemenki gloga varirala je između 14,49% – 36,33%. Identificirano je 10 sastava masnih kiselina iz 7 taksona gloga, od čega je najviše linoleinske kiseline (64,23%), oleinske kiseline (39,36%) i palmitinske kiseline (8,16%).
... Thus, hawthorn fruits are used in culinary, mostly for making jams and drinks . Fruits and leaves of hawthorn have a mild diuretic, antispasmodic and cardiotonic effect (Barros et al., 2011;Edwards et al., 2012;Nabavi et al., 2015;Fakir et al., 2009). Hawthorn extracts have proved to be beneficial to the nervous system and are used against migraines, memory loss and calming, thus on that way improving overall condition of the organism (Elango & Devaraj, 2010;Zhang et al., 2004;Novais et al., 2004). ...
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Considering the facts that phenolic compounds have many pharmacological effects, as well that antioxidant effect of phenolic compounds has been proven in various experimental systems, aim of this research was to determine the content of total phenols and flavonoids and evaluation of antioxidant activity in ethanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts of fruits and leaves of the plant species Crataegus monogya Jacq., which is known as common hawthorn. The content of total phenolic compounds was determined by the spectrophotometric method using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and the content of flavonoids was determined using aluminum chloride. In vitro evaluation of the antioxidant activity of tested extracts was performed using the DPPH method. The amount of total phenolics was varied in fruits and leaves extracts and ranged from 38.05 ± 0.18 to 365.11 ± 0.32 mg GAE/g dw. Ethyl acetate extract of hawthorn leaves showed the highest content of phenolic compounds (365.11 ± 0.32 mg GAE/g dw). The flavonoid content was different in the fruits and leaves of hawthorn and ranged from 21.11 ± 0.11 to 122.98 ± 0.21 mg RU/g dw, whereby the highest content of flavonoids was found in ethyl acetate extract of leaves (122.98 ± 0.21 mg RU/g dw). Antioxidant activity of the tested extracts was expressed as IC50 values and ranged from 5.53 ± 0.08 to 293.51 ± 0.28 μg/ml. Ethyl acetate extract of hawthorn leaves showed considerable antioxidant potential (IC50 = 5.53 ± 0.08 μg/ml). Based on the obtained results, a significant correlation was found between the antioxidant activity and the content of total phenolics and flavonoids compounds in hawthorn fruits and leaves extracts.
... Scientific evidence has demonstrated that Crataegus species are a source of nutrients, nutraceuticals, and bioactive compounds [166]. A complete chemical and bioactive characterization of different parts of the C. monogyna showed that flowers have the highest tocopherols (159.84 mg/100g of dry weight) and ascorbic acid (408.37 mg/100 g dry weight) contents, and the best n-6/n-3 fatty acids ratio; over-ripened fruits showed the highest levels of carbohydrates (glucose, fructose, sucrose, and trehalose) and SFA (saturated fatty acids); and unripe fruits presented the highest polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) contents with the best PUFA/SFA ratio, and the highest levels of flavonoids (436.34 ± 43.36 mg CE/g extract) and phenols (701.65 ± 16.57 mg GAE/g extract), and the most promising antioxidant properties [167]. The main bioactive compounds detected in hawthorn included epicatechin, hyperoside, rutin, vitexin, vitexin 2-O-rhamnoside, chlorogenic acid, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, proanthocyanidins, anthocyanins and triterpenes including betulinic, and oleanolic and ursolic acids [168,169]. ...
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Anxiety and insomnia are among the most common mental health disorders and are a major cause of disability around the world. Traditional herbal medicines are receiving significant attention in global health debates. Several Italian regions maintain rural traditions and are among the most extensively studied areas of Europe regarding medicinal plant uses. The present overview aims to highlight the use of wild and cultivated plants, specifically as sedatives and for insomnia treatment in Italy, and to collect, analyze, and summarize the available literature about their pharmacological activity as well as clinical and pre-clinical studies concerning the most cited plants. In total, 106 wild taxa are used in Italy for sedative purposes. The plant species belong to 76 genera and 32 families, of which the most cited are Asteraceae (24.2%) and Lamiaceae (21.1%). Leaves (29%) and flowers (27%) are the plant parts mostly used as infusion (70%) and decoction (25%). Out of 106 taxa documented, only the most cited are analyzed in this overview (A. arvensis L., C. nepeta L., C. monogyna Jacq., H. lupulus L., L. nobilis L., L. angustifolia Mill., M. sylvestris L., M. chamomilla L., M. officinalis L., O. basilicum L., P. rhoeas L., P. somniferum L., R. officinalis L., T. platyphyllus Scop., and V. officinalis L.). Among the fifteen species selected, only seven have been studied for their pharmacological activity as hypnotic-sedatives. Future pre-clinical and clinical studies are needed to better clarify the mechanism of action of bioactive compounds and confirm the potential of these alternative therapies.
... The fruits contain high levels of numerous valuable secondary metabolites, including flavonoid, vitamin C, glycoside, anthocyanin, saponin, tannin and antioxidant levels [27,28] and phenolic compounds [29][30][31] (Figure 1). This plant represents a great source of bioactive molecules, including various polyphenols, such as procyanidins, epicatechin, hyperoside, isoquercitrin, chlorogenic acid, various triterpenic acids, such as ursolic acid and oleanolic acid, and other important or- This plant represents a great source of bioactive molecules, including various polyphenols, such as procyanidins, epicatechin, hyperoside, isoquercitrin, chlorogenic acid, various triterpenic acids, such as ursolic acid and oleanolic acid, and other important organic molecules [32,33] (Figure 2). ...
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Hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.) is a wild edible fruit tree of the genus Crataegus, one of the most interesting genera of the Rosaceae family. This review is the first to consider, all together, the pharmaceutical, phytochemical, functional and therapeutic properties of C. monogyna based on numerous valuable secondary metabolites, including flavonoids, vitamin C, glycoside, anthocyanin, saponin, tannin and antioxidants. Previous reviews dealt with the properties of all species of the entire genera. We highlight the multi-therapeutic role that C. monogyna extracts could have in the treatment of different chronic and degenerative diseases, mainly focusing on flavonoids. In the first part of this comprehensive review, we describe the main botanical characteristics and summarize the studies which have been performed on the morphological and genetic characterization of the C. monogyna germplasm. In the second part, the key metabolites and their nutritional and pharmaceutical properties are described. This work could be an essential resource for promoting future therapeutic formulations based on this natural and potent bioactive plant extract.
... They obtained a higher value in terms of total flavonoids (8.77 mgQE/g dw), which can be ascribed to the fact that the pulp of the fruits is richer in flavonoids than the whole pseudofruit. In a recent study, [51] evaluated the total flavonoid content of berries collected from Bragança, Northeastern Portugal. The value obtained varied from 21.70 to 436.34 mg CE/g per extract. ...
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Hot air drying has proven to be an efficient method to preserve specific edible plant materials with medicinal properties. This is a process involving chemical, physical, and biological changes in plant matrices. Understanding these processes will lead to an improvement in the yields of bioactive compounds. This study aims to optimize the drying process of two species’ fruits used in folk medicine, Berberis vulgaris and Crataegus monogyna. The optimized extracts’ antioxidant capacity was assessed using various assays, with the barberry extract showing very good activity (50.85, 30.98, and 302.45 mg TE/g dw for DPPH, TEAC, and FRAP assays, respectively). Both species exerted good fungal α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50 = 0.34 and 0.56 mg/mL, respectively) but no activity on mammalian α-glucosidase. Additionally, this study identified and quantified the main bioactive compounds. The results presented herein are a breakthrough in industrializing this drying process. Additional studies are necessary to mechanistically understand the drying process involved in these plant materials.
... Acorns were mainly used for bread making and coffee substitute (Papoti et al., 2018). The fruits of blackthorn (Prunus spinosa L.) and hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.) are highly consumed in Portugal are also reported as foodstuff whereas upon roasting it is used as a coffee substitute (Barros et al., 2010(Barros et al., , 2011Veličković et al., 2014;Zawirska-Wojtasiak et al., 2014). ...
Article
Coffee is one of the most popular beverages used worldwide owing to its rich flavor and several health effects. Nevertheless, its caffeine content renders its use rather limited for certain individuals warranting for the development of coffee substitutes with similar flavor though with other health effects. Several coffee substitutes are present in the market belonging to different plant organs to encompass a myriad of phytoconstituents. The production of these coffee substitutes expose them to roasting to mimic that of coffee aroma and flavor, concurrent with chemical changes. This review provides state of the art on reported plants used as coffee substitutes with regards to its quality characteristics, sensory characters, chemical composition, health benefits and to rationalize for its choice as coffee substitute. Further, impact of roasting, as well as health hazards associated with such chemical changes in these substitutes is presented for the first time.
... Acorns were mainly used for bread making and coffee substitute (Papoti et al., 2018). The fruits of blackthorn (Prunus spinosa L.) and hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.) are highly consumed in Portugal are also reported as foodstuff whereas upon roasting it is used as a coffee substitute (Barros et al., 2010(Barros et al., , 2011Veličković et al., 2014;Zawirska-Wojtasiak et al., 2014). ...
Article
Coffee is one of the most popular beverages used worldwide owing to its rich flavor and several health effects. Nevertheless, its caffeine content renders its use rather limited for certain individuals warranting for the development of coffee substitutes with similar flavor though with other health effects. Several coffee substitutes are present in the market belonging to different plant organs to encompass a myriad of phytoconstituents. The production of these coffee substitutes expose them to roasting to mimic that of coffee aroma and flavor, concurrent with chemical changes. This review provides state of the art on reported plants used as coffee substitutes with regards to its quality characteristics, sensory characters, chemical composition, health benefits and to rationalize for its choice as coffee substitute. Further, impact of roasting, as well as health hazards associated with such chemical changes in these substitutes is presented for the first time.
... Zawartość polifenoli w metanolowym ekstrakcie z kwiatów głogu C. monogyna, którą oznaczyli Barros i wsp. [2], wyniosła średnio 330,32 mg GAE/g s.m. Wartość ta jest znacząco wyższa w stosunku do wyników uzyskanych w niniejszej pracy. ...
Article
Głóg należy do roślin o dużej zawartości związków biologicznie czynnych, których stężenie w gotowym wyciągu zależy między innymi od zastosowanych parametrów ekstrakcji. Celem pracy była optymalizacja warunków ekstrakcji (temperatury, czasu i stężenia rozpuszczalników) zapewniających osiągnięcie jak największego potencjału przeciwutleniającego preparatów otrzymanych z liofilizowanych części anatomicznych głogu (Crataegus × macrocarpa L.) – z kwiatów, liści i owoców. Ekstrakcję prowadzono w temp. 20 ± 2 ºC przy użyciu trzech rozpuszczalników, w dwóch stężeniach każdy, w ciągu 2 i 24 h. Porównano również efektywność ekstrakcji wspomaganej działaniem ultradźwięków. Potencjał przeciwutleniający określono metodami: ABTS˙+, DPPH•, FRAP i CUPRAC oraz za pomocą testu mocy redukującej. Dodatkowo oznaczono zawartość polifenoli i flawonoidów. W uzyskaniu wyciągów z kwiatów głogu najbardziej skuteczna okazała się 24-godzinna ekstrakcja 70-procentowym acetonem z dodatkiem 1-procentowego kwasu mrówkowego. Ekstrakty te charakteryzowały się najwyższymi wartościami potencjału przeciwutleniającego ABTS˙+, CUPRAC i FRAP. Z kolei w wyciągach z owoców, jak i liści głogu najwyższy potencjał przeciwutleniający stwierdzono po 24-godzinnej ekstrakcji wspomaganej dwukrotnym działaniem ultradźwięków. Najwyższe wartości określanego potencjału wyciągów z owoców głogu ekstrahowanych 50-procentowym acetonem uzyskano po zastosowaniu metody ABTS˙+ i CUPRAC, natomiast w ekstraktach z liści głogu – po zastosowaniu metody DPPH•, CUPRAC oraz testu mocy redukującej. Pod względem potencjału przeciwutleniającego najbardziej efektywnym rozpuszczalnikiem do ekstrakcji liofilizatów z głogu jest 70-procentowy roztwór acetonowo-wodny, wspomagany ultradźwiękami bądź 1-procentowym kwasem mrówkowym.
... It is a short tree that can grow up to 7 m high (11). Crataegus species are broadly used in folk medicine in the form of infusion or decoction for management of respiratory manifestations, nervous system disorders such as insomnia, migraines, and memory loss, and for improving the circulatory system (12). Moreover, Cratageaus species, which is commonly known as hawthorn or hawberry, are rich in flavonoids, procyanidins, tannins, organic acids, and triterpene derivatives that have been reported to have antioxidant, analgesic/anti-nociceptive, anxiolytic, and sedative effect (13). ...
Article
Background and purpose: Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease without definite treatment. It is characterized by intra-articular inflammation, cartilage degeneration, subchondral bone remodeling, and joint pain. The objective of the current study was to assess the anti-osteoarthritic effect and the possible underlying mechanism of action of Crataegus sinaica extract (CSE). Experimental approach: Intra-articular injection of monosodium iodoacetate in the right knee joint of all rats was done except for the sham group. One week later, the anti-inflammatory efficacy of CSE (100, 200, 300 mg/kg, daily p.o) for 4 successive weeks versus ibuprofen (40 mg/kg, p.o) was assessed. Serum inflammatory cytokines; as well as weekly assessment of knee joint swelling, joint mobility, and motor coordination were done. At the end of the experiment, a histopathological investigation of the affected knee joints and an x-ray investigation were also executed. Findings / Results: CSE significantly decreased joint swelling, pain behaviors, and serum levels of TNF-α, IL6, hyaluronic acid, and CTX-II. The radiographic findings revealed almost normal joint space with normal radiodensity and diameter in CSE-treated rats. As well, the histopathological and immunohistochemical investigations of the knee joints in CSE-treated groups retained the cartilage structure of knee joints. A significant reduction in the percentage of caspase-3-stained chondrocytes and a decrease in TGF-β1 immuno-positive areas in the synovial lining and sub lining were recorded in CSE-treated rats, compared to the osteoarthritis control group. Conclusion and implications: This study approved the chondroprotective effects of CSE, and its ability to inhibit the pain associated with osteoarthritis.
... The fruit, leaves, and flowers of hawthorn have been used as herbal medicines. Furthermore, numerous researches have been reported the health benefits of hawthorns for the treatment of diseases (Barros et al., 2011;Chai et al., 2014;Nazhand et al., 2020;Wu et al., 2020). ...
Article
Marketability of agricultural products depends heavily on appearance attributes such as color, size, and ripeness. Sorting plays an important role in increasing marketability by separating crop classes according to appearance attributes, thus reducing waste. As an expert technique, image processing and artificial intelligence (AI) techniques have been applied to classify hawthorns based on maturity levels (unripe, ripe, and overripe). A total of 600 hawthorns were categorized by an expert and the images were taken by an imaging box. The geometric properties, color and, texture features were extracted from segmented hawthorns using the Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) and evaluation of various color spaces. The efficient feature vector was created by QDA feature reduction method and then classified using two classical machine learning algorithms: Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM). The obtained results indicated that the efficient feature-based ANN model with the configuration of 14–10-3 resulted in the accuracy of 99.57, 99.16, and 98.16% and the least means square error (MSE) of 1 × 10⁻³, 8 × 10⁻³, and 3 × 10⁻³ for training, validation and test phases, respectively. The machine vision system combined with the machine learning algorithms can successfully classify hawthorns according to their maturity levels.
... Some fruits of this genus are edible. Research have shown that hawthorn fruit contains significantly high amounts of bioactive compounds such as epicatechin, hyperoside, and chlorogenic acid (Özcan et al. 2005; Barros et al. 2011;Nabavi et al. 2015), with a wide range of antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. Hyperoside, isoquercetin and epicatechin are the prominent flavonoid compounds present in hawthorn phenolic extract from hawthorn fruits (Zuo et al. 2006). ...
Article
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The study demonstrated that SD‑4 (3193.894 mg GAE/100 g) followed by SD‑8 (2262.763 mg GAE/100 g) and SD‑7 (1473.956 mg GAE/100 g) had the maximum total phenolic contents. SD‑1 possessed the highest antioxidant activity, which later decreased from 83.067% in fresh fruit to 52.130% following drying. Across all fruits, drying resulted in significant reductions in both total phenolic content and phenolic compounds. Generally, gallic acid and (+)-catechin were the major phenolics in all fruits. Rutin trihydrate content of SD‑4 decreased from 764.980 mg/100 g (fresh) to 0.620 mg/100 g when the fruit was dried. P, K, Ca, Mg and S were the macro elements of all fruits. Across all fruits, drying resulted in significant reductions in both total phenolic content and phenolic compounds. It was observed that dried fruits had the highest mineral contents compared to fresh fruits.
... All the analyzed extracts showed antioxidant capacity, being especially apparent when using the extracts of unripe FR (EC 50 between 5.42 and 20.83 µg/mL), which coincides with the high amount of PC and F that contain these extracts. (Barros et al., 2011). Interestingly, in an essay on the effect of the inclusion of extracts in W-soluble gels with the intention of incorporating them into cosmetic and/or pharmaceutical preparations, the antioxidant capacity was verified, using the same methodologies mentioned above. ...
Article
Plants have been traditionally used for the treatment of different types of illness, due to biomolecules with recognised benefits. Rosaceae family is used in traditional Galician medicine. The following plants Agrimonia eupatoria, Crataegus monogyna, Filipendula ulmaria, Geum urbanum, Potentilla erecta and Rosa canina are usually found in treatments. The aim of this study is to perform an ethnobotanical review about the bioactive compounds of these plants and their different bioactivities, both studied in vitro and in vivo. The nature of the bioactive compounds is varied, highlighting the presence of different phenolic compounds, such as phenolic acids, flavonoids or tannins. Understanding the beneficial effects of the administration of the whole plant or target tissues from A. eupatoria, C. monogyna, F. ulmaria, G. urbanum, P. erecta and R. canina as well as those from their individual compounds could lead to the development of new drugs based on the use of natural ingredients.
... Black mulberry showed a greater concentration of anthocyanins than the other polyphenolics, because it was necessary to proceed with a 10-fold dilution for black mulberry in order to be able to monitor the polyphenolics with the analytical method described above in a proper way (to avoid detector saturation). The polyphenolic and anthocyanin profile observed in the studied wild fruits can also explain the antioxidant activity and phytochemical properties found in lingonberry, hawthorn fruit and rose hip wild fruits [18,20,30,31], which resulted to be lower than those of cornelian cherry, elderberry or black mulberry [5,9,32]. ...
Article
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The popularity of edible wild fruits has increased in industrialized countries due to their composition and positive effects. The aim of this study has been to characterize the polyphenolics and anthocyanins of black mulberry (Morus nigra L.), cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.), elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.), hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna L.), lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) and rose hip (Rosa canina L.) harvested in the north-west of Italy by means of HPLC-DAD-ESI HRMS in positive ion mode. Although there is an abundant amount of literature related to the polyphenolics of cultivated fruit, a new type of comparison has here been conducted between wild and cultivated fruits on their polyphenolic content. The HPLC-DAD-ESI HRMS method has detected 64 different polyphenolic molecules and it can be used to perform qualitative and quantitative analyses. Furthermore, the cornelian cherry and elderberry samples showed the highest polyphenolic compound levels. The quercetin glycosylated compounds showed the highest percentage of flavonols in most of the analyzed wild fruits.
... Regarding hawthorn (Crataegus spp.), these species have been employed in many parts of the world for the treatment of several heart diseases and hypertension, particularly in Europe, China, and North America (Dahmer & Scott, 2010;Edwards et al., 2012;Orhan, 2016;Yang & Liu, 2012). Some Crataegus species have been thoroughly investigated, such as C. pinnatifida (Chang et al., 2002;Jurikova et al., 2012;Shao et al., 2017;Wu et al., 2014); C. monogyna (Bardakci et al., 2019;Barros et al., 2011;Nabavi et al., 2015), C. laevigata (Dahmer & Scott, 2010;Edwards et al., 2012) and C. oxyacantha (Orhan, 2016;Ranjbar et al., 2018;Rastogi et al., 2016;Sadek et al., 2018;Wang et al., 2013). However, since Crataegus is a highly variable genus, the chemical composition of its many species may significantly vary (Edwards et al., 2012;Venskutonis, 2018). ...
Article
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Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) has been used for the treatment of several heart diseases and hypertension. The studies carried out on several hawthorn species have led to the development of standardized extracts useful in the cure of mild chronic cardiac diseases. In Mexico, the most common Crataegus species are C. mexicana and C. gracilior. Decoctions prepared from the fruits and leaves of these species have been employed to the treat respiratory diseases, tachycardia and to improve coronary blood flow. Considering that to date there are no reports of the use of Mexican Crataegus species to treat cardiovascular diseases, we propose an analytical method to obtain a quantified extract of Crataegus mexicana leaves for the development of a standardized extract with therapeutic value in cardiovascular diseases as an alternative source to the extracts obtained from Crataegus species of European and Asian origin. Therefore, the aim of this study was to obtain an extract prepared from C. mexicana leaves with the highest vasodilator activity to select the optimal chemical marker to stablish and validate a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RPHPLC-DAD) analytical method for obtaining a quantified extract with vasodilator effect. The results obtained from the analytical method validation, which was carried out according to the guidelines stablished in the Eurachem Guide and the ICH guidelines proved that the RPHPLC-DAD method we developed was specific, precise, accurate, and showed good linearity over the concentration range of 3 – 21 µg/ml for (-)-epicatechin and rutin, which were selected as chemical markers.
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Neanderthal diets included variable amounts of animal-foods, and to avoid food poisoning from meat-based diets, Neanderthals should have included alternative nutrients in their diets to fulfil daily energy requirements. While there are no doubts that animal fats played an important role in Neanderthal diets, it has been argued that available carbohydrates (ACH) were also necessary and that a low ACH intake may have resulted in low reproductive abilities, making Neanderthals more susceptible to their disappearance. Nonetheless, today there is wide consensus on that ACH requirement of the human body can be met by endogenous synthesis without signs of deficiency in the absence of dietary sources. Even if ACH were necessary for Neanderthals, the ones of animal origin could have supported a balanced diet, while viscera from large mammals could have been an inexhaustible source of ACH. Furthermore, chewing of guts, which is typical behaviour of Arctic cultures, could have increased ACH intake, especially for female Neanderthals. It is expected that this focus article will stimulate the debate about Neanderthal diets and encourage the exchange of ideas among researchers from different fields on this subject, and thus the global knowledge of Neanderthals will benefit from such cooperation.
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In the present study, the renal-protective effect of hawthorn fruit extract (HW) in high-salt hypertension and its effect on metabolic patterns are determined. High salt causes hypertension in Dahl salt sensitive (SS) rats, while HW can effectively attenuate high-salt induced hypertension. And, various antihypertensive ingredients of HW are also successfully identified using GC/MS. Of note, biochemical assay indicates HW significantly increases the concentration of nitric oxide (NO), decreases concentration of H2O2 and malonaldehyde. Especially HW increases the activities of NO synthase and catalase in renal medulla. Simultaneously, the renal cortex and medulla, harvested from SS rats, are used to perform the metabolomics analysis, and then, 11 and 8 differential metabolites are identified in the renal medulla and cortex with the HW gavage, respectively. All differential metabolites are then performed pathway enrichment analysis. The results show that many metabolic pathways enriched in both renal medulla and cortex, especially these in medulla including 23 enriched pathways. Therefore, it provides evidence that HW confers antioxidant effect on high-salt induced hypertension and dramatically alters the metabolic patterns of SS rats. And antihypertensive ingredients of HW also further indicate it may be used as a nutritional supplemental therapeutic drug to protect against high-salt induced hypertension in renal medulla.
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Abstract: Hawthorn belongs to Crataegus genus of the Rosaceae and is an important medicinal plant. Due to its beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity hawthorn has recently become quite a popular herbal medicine in phytotherapy and food applications. In this study, physicochemical characterization (color parameters, pH, titratable acidity, total soluble solids, soluble carbohydrate, total carotenoid, total phenols and flavonoid contents), antioxidant activity (by FRAP assay) and quantification of some individual phenolic compounds of fruits of 15 samples of different hawthorn species (Crataegus spp.) collected from different regions of Iran were investigated. According to findings, the total phenols, total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity were in the range of 21.19 to 69.12 mg GAE/g dw, 2.44 to 6.08 mg QUE/g dw and 0.32 to 1.84 mmol Fe++/g dw, respectively. Hyperoside (0.87-2.94 mg/g dw), chlorogenic acid (0.06-1.16 mg/g dw) and isoquercetin (0.24-1.59 mg/g dw) were found to be the most abundant phenolic compounds in the extracts of hawthorn fruits. The considerable variation in the antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of hawthorn species were demonstrated by our results. Hence, the evaluation of hawthorn genetic resources could supply precious data for screening genotypes with high bioactive contents for producing natural antioxidants and other phytochemical compounds valuable for food and pharma industries.
Conference Paper
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Phytochemicals
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Chemical fingerprinting has been widely used for the quality control of complex natural products including traditional Chinese medicines and botanical drugs. However, there is still lack of appropriate method to monitor the batch-to-batch consistency of hydrophilic constituents, such as saccharides and oligosaccharides. In the present study, we developed a novel approach based on high performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light scattering detector(HPLC-ELSD) for establishing saccharide fingerprinting of Danhong Injection(DHI), which is a widely used botanical drug for treating cardiovascular diseases. Major saccharides in DHI were isolated and four compounds including fructose, glucose and two oligosaccharides were identified. The structures of two novel saccharides named glycerol-1-O-galactfpyranosyl-(1→4)-O-arabinofuranoside, and glycerol-1-O-galactpyranosyl-(1→4) [O-arabinfuranosyl-(1→3)]-O-arabinofuranoside were confirmed by NMR, HR-ESI-MS and GC-MS for the first time. The establishment approach was successfully applied to distinguishing 12 batches of DHI from other botanical drugs with the aid of principle component analysis as well as to evaluating batch-to-batch consistency with the help of calculating similarity of fingerprints. Our findings indicate that the chemical fingerprint of saccharides can be a useful tool for the quality control of complex natural products.
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Diverse molecules with cytotoxic activity against cancer cells have been isolated from the polar extracts of different parts of various hawthorn species that grow around the world. In Mexico, hawthorn (Crataegus gracilior) is popularly consumed, but its content of anticancer substances has never been evaluated. Because antitumor substances have been identified in polar and nonpolar extracts of many plants, we evaluated the cytotoxic activity against breast cancer cells of petroleum ether, ethanol, and water extracts of the leaves and stems of C. gracilior. In contrast to other hawthorn species that contain anti-tumor substances in polar extracts, the petroleum ether extract (but not the ethanol or water extracts) of C. gracilior had cytotoxic properties (IC50 < 50 µg/mL) inducing cell death by apoptosis. Two compounds reportedly having cytotoxic activity were identified by mass spectrometry in the petroleum extract of C. gracilior: β-sitosterol and tocopherol. Results suggest that he cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic effects of the petroleum ether extract of C. gracilior could be exerted by the joint activity of β-sitosterol and tocopherol, possibly in combination with of other minor compounds. Because hawthorn is widely consumed in Mexico and Latin America its potential use as a functional food warrants further investigation.
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Background The consumption of edible flowers has increased in recent years because of their wide use in gastronomy as a decorative element or as an ingredient in dishes. In addition to influencing texture, taste or appearance, flowers are rich in bioactive compounds. Scope and approach This review focuses on the composition and nutritional features of edible flowers and their extracts, and their health benefits related to cardiovascular diseases, cancer, neurological diseases, diabetes, obesity, in addition to their hepatoprotective and microbicidal effects. The mechanisms though which some of them exert their effects and the specific compounds associated with these effects have also been addressed. Key findings and conclusions Edible flowers have a high content in phenolic compounds and a high antioxidant capacity, property that confers positive effects on oxidative stress-related diseases. Some extracts based on edible flowers exert hepato-, neuro- or cardioprotective actions. Anticancer properties, improvements in metabolic disorders and microbiocidal effects even in multidrug-resistant bacteria have also been attributed to some edible flowers or their extracts. Most of the studies have been performed in vitro, so further assays in in vivo models are needed. Additionally, it would be important to elucidate the mechanisms by which these observed effects are performed. In conclusion, edible flowers could be used as a new approach for the development of nutraceutical products or functional foods.
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The phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Sorbus aucuparia L., Sorbus aria (L.) Crantz and Sorbus austriaca (Beck) Hedlund leaves and fruit were investigated. The quantification of total phenolics, flavonoids and phenolic acids was performed using the Folin– Ciocalteu, Dowd and Arnow methods, respectively. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was evaluated using DPPH, TEAC and FRAP methods with Trolox as a standard. Leaves had a higher content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity than the fruits for all species. The highest content of phenolics (76.11 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g plant), flavonoids (15.86 mg rutin equivalents (RE)/g plant) and phenolic acids (44.54 mg caffeic acid equivalents (CAE)/g plant) was determined for S. austriaca leaves. Sorbus austriaca fruit had the highest content of phenolics (13.21 mg GAE/g plant), flavonoids (1.82 mg RE/g plant) and S. aucuparia fruit had the highest content of phenolic acids (9.05 mg CAE/g plant). The antioxidant activity was in the range: DPPH=38.42–274.52 μmol Trolox equivalents (TE)/g plant; TEAC=43.23–403.02 μmol TE/g plant; FRAP=47.13–706.96 μmol TE/g plant. The highest values of antioxidant activity were found for S. austriaca leaf and fruit extracts while the lowest values were determined for S. aucuparia leaves and S. aria fruit. The antioxidant activity was highly correlated with total phenolics and phenolic acids.
Article
Background Crataegus aronia (C. aronia) extracts have been used medicinally since ancient times and are often utilized in traditional Arab medicine. An extensive study has revealed that Crataegus species have antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and hypotensive properties. Objectives This work was performed to explore the phytochemical contents of C. aronia extract, as well as its antioxidant and antibacterial properties, and to assess the lipid peroxidation level as an oxidative stress biomarker in erythrocytes. Methods Chemical constituents in the methanolic extract of C. aronia were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and their relative concentrations were determined. The antioxidant activity of C. aronia extract was determined using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The effect of C. aronia on the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the erythrocyte hemolysates was studied. Also, the crude extract was assessed for its antimicrobial activity through agar diffusion and microbroth dilution assays. Key findings The DPPH IC50 value of the extract showed that the antioxidants activity was equal to (14.3 μg/ml) and according to FRAP assay, the antioxidant activity was in the range of 33.9 μmol–82.86μmol Fe⁺²/g dw. The extract exerts a protective effect against oxidative stress in RBCs and shows a 50% inhibition of Malonyldialdehyde (MDA) at 39.48 μg/ml extract. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were found in the range of 800–1000 μg/ml of leave extracts. The phytochemical analysis showed that the total phenols, flavonoids, and flavonols content were 494.071mg GAE/g extract, 155.251mg RE/g extract, and 103.2049 mg RE/g extract). C. aronia extract contains alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, and steroids. Crude extract of C. aronia was more potent in inhibiting the growth of B. subtilis, S. aureus and M. luteus with MIC and MBC values of 800,800 and 1000 μg/mL, respectively. According to GC-MS, 20 compounds were identified: dihydro-3-methylene-5-methyl-2-furanone (14.71%), hexanoic acid (6.57%), ethyl 3,5-ditert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzoate (6.4%), N, N-dimethylheptadecan-1-amine (4.91%), methyl 2-oxobutanoate (4.14%), glyceraldehyde (3.98%), and 2-methoxy-1-(2-nitroethenyl)-3-phenylmethoxybenzene (3.16%), were the major constituents. Conclusion This study may open a window of hope for children with Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase disorder by possible utilization of the active ingredients of C. aronia to minimize both oxidative stress and infection which negatively impact the disease sequelae. According to these in vitro experiments, this plant extract has a significant amount of natural antioxidants, which may aid in the protection of various oxidative stresses. As a result, employing the active components of C. aronia to minimize oxidative stress and infection, both of which have a detrimental impact on disease sequelae, may bring hope to children with Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase disorder.
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An ethnobotanical survey was carried out in Arrabida Natural Park, a Portuguese Protected Area in the Southwest of the Iberian Peninsula, with an area of 10 820 ha. Working with 72 local people, data on medicinal uses of 156 taxa, belonging to 56 botanical families, were obtained and presented, of which 214 uses corresponding to 81 taxa were previously unreported.
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In the present work the authors report the result of their food ethnobotanical researches, which have been carried out in Sicily during the last thirty years. Data concerning 188 wild species used in the traditional Sicilian cuisine are reported. The authors underline those species that are partially or completely unknown for their culinary use and they illustrate other species that local inhabitants suggested in the prevention or treatment of symptomatologies caused by a refined diet, poor in vegetables. These data want to contribute to avoid the loss of traditional knowledge on uses and recipes concerning wild food botanicals, and to encourage further studies for those species that have not yet been sufficiently researched in their food chemical and nutritional profile. These studies may also suggest new applications for a few botanicals in medico-nutritional fields. The work includes also a short review of the seaweeds and mushrooms traditionally gathered and consumed in Sicily.
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In order to preserve the ancestral knowledge, an ethnopharmacological study has been carried out in two councils belonging to Trás-os-Montes region a small area located in the northern of Portugal. In that area, medicinal plants, most of the species wild, are still in use among farmers, shepherds and other people who live far from villages and built-up areas. Among the 46 people that were interviewed (mean age of 66 years old), 88 species belonging to 42 families of vascular plants were identified for treatment of various human ailments. An ethnopharmacological report is made consisting of species names, vernacular names, popular uses of the plants and their pharmacological properties. The most dominant family is Lamiaceae (18%) and the most frequently part of the plant used for the treatment of diseases are leaves (37.9%). The largest number of taxa is used to treat gastrointestinal disorders (73.9%).
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Most of the traditional knowledge about plants and their uses is fast disappearing as a consequence of socio-economic and land use changes. This trend is also occurring in areas that are historically exposed to very few external influences, such as Sardinia (Italy). From 2004 to 2005, an ethnobotanical investigation was carried out in the area of Monte Ortobene, a mountain located near Nuoro, in central Sardinia. Data were collected by means of semi-structured interviews. All the records - defined as 'citations', i.e. a single use reported for a single botanical species by a single informant - were filed in a data base ('analytical table'), together with additional information: i.e. local names of plants, parts used, local frequencies, and habitats of plants, etc. In processing the data, plants and uses were grouped into general ('categories') and detailed ('secondary categories') typologies of use. Some synthetic indexes have also been used, such as Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC), Cultural Importance Index (CI), the Shannon-Wiener Index (H'), and Evenness Index (J). Seventy-two plants were cited by the informants as being traditionally used in the area. These 72 'ethnospecies' correspond to 99 botanical taxa (species or subspecies) belonging to 34 families. Three-hundred and one citations, 50 secondary categories of use, and 191 different uses were recorded, most of them concerning alimentary and medicinal plants. For the alimentary plants, 126 citations, 44 species, and 13 different uses were recorded, while for the medicinal plants, there were 106 citations, 40 species, and 12 uses. Few plants and uses were recorded for the remaining categories. Plants and uses for each category of use are discussed. Analyses of results include the relative abundance of botanical families, wild vs. cultivated species, habitats, frequency, parts of plant used, types of use, knowledge distribution, and the different cultural importance of the species in question. The study provides examples of several interesting uses of plants in the community, which would seem to show that the custom of using wild plants is still alive in the Monte Ortobene area. However, many practices are no longer in use, and survive only as memories from the past in the minds of elderly people, and often only in one or just a few informants. This rapidly vanishing cultural diversity needs to be studied and documented before it disappears definitively.
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