Risk Factors for Venous Thromboembolism in Patients Undergoing Total Hip Replacement and Receiving Routine Thromboprophylaxis

Odense University Hospital, Odense, South Denmark, Denmark
The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (Impact Factor: 5.28). 09/2010; 92(12):2156-64. DOI: 10.2106/JBJS.I.00882
Source: PubMed


Data on the risk factors for venous thromboembolism among patients undergoing total hip replacement and receiving pharmacological thromboprophylaxis are limited. The purpose of this study was to examine potential patient-related risk factors for venous thromboembolism following total hip replacement in a nationwide follow-up study.
Using medical databases, we identified all patients who underwent primary total hip replacement and received pharmacological thromboprophylaxis in Denmark from 1995 to 2006. The outcome measure was hospitalization with venous thromboembolism within ninety days of surgery. We considered age, sex, indication for primary total hip replacement, calendar year of surgery, and comorbidity history as potential risk factors.
The overall rate of hospitalization for venous thromboembolism within ninety days following a primary total hip replacement was 1.02% (686 hospitalizations after 67,469 procedures) at a median of twenty-two days. The incidence of symptomatic deep venous thrombosis and of nonfatal pulmonary embolism was 0.7% (499 of 67,469) and 0.3% (205 of 67,469), respectively. The incidence of death due to venous thromboembolism or from all causes was 0.05% (thirty-eight patients) and 1.0% (678 patients), respectively. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis had a reduced relative risk for venous thromboembolism compared with patients with primary osteoarthritis (adjusted relative risk = 0.47; 95% confidence interval, 0.25 to 0.90). Patients with a high score on the Charlson comorbidity index had an increased relative risk for venous thromboembolism compared with patients with a low score (adjusted relative risk = 1.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 2.05). Patients with a history of cardiovascular disease (relative risk = 1.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.15 to 1.70) or prior venous thromboembolism (relative risk = 8.09; 95% confidence interval, 6.07 to 10.77) had an increased risk for venous thromboembolism compared with patients without that history.
The cumulative incidence of a venous thromboembolism within ninety days of surgery among patients with total hip replacement receiving pharmacological thromboprophylaxis was 1%. This information on the associated risk factors could be used to better anticipate the risk of venous thromboembolism for an individual patient.

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    • "Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a well-recognized complication after total hip replacement (THR) surgery. Among patients receiving thromboprophylaxis, rates of symptomatic VTE within 90 days of THR ranged from 1% to 4% [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]. There has been less interest in arterial thromboembolic events after THR, although 0.3%-1.8% of patients have a myocardial infarction (MI) [6] [7] and 0.2% [8] [9] have an ischemic stroke in-hospital or within 90 days after THR surgery. "
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    ABSTRACT: Clinical trials have provided evidence about efficacy and safety of extended thromboprophylaxis among total hip replacement (THR) patients. There is a lack of evidence on effectiveness and safety of extended treatment in unselected patients from routine clinical practice. We examined the effectiveness and safety of short (1-6 days) and standard (7-27 days) compared with extended (≥28days) thromboprophylaxis using population-based design. Among all primary THR procedures performed in Denmark from 2010 through 2012 (n=16,865), we calculated adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for risk of symptomatic venous thromboembolism (VTE) and major bleeding, in addition to net clinical benefit, defined as the number of VTE avoided minus the number of excess bleeding events occurring among patients prescribed short-term and standard versus extended treatment. The 90-day risks of VTE were 1.1% (short), 1.4% (standard), and 1.0% (extended), yielding aHRs of 0.83 (95% CI: 0.52-1.31) and 0.82 (95% CI: 0.50-1.33) for short and standard versus extended treatment. The risk of major bleeding was 1.1% (short), 1.0% (standard), and 0.7% (extended), resulting in aHRs of 1.64 (95% CI: 0.83-3.21) and 1.24 (95%CI: 0.61-2.51) for short and standard versus extended thromboprophylaxis. Direct comparison between benefits and harms using net clinical benefit analyses did not favor any of the three treatment durations. The same results were found for VTE or death. In a real-word observational cohort of unselected THR patients, we observed no difference in the risks of symptomatic VTE, VTE/ death or bleeding with respect to thromboprophylaxis duration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Thrombosis Research
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    • "Many authors have attempted to correlate specific risk factors to the development of PE. Strong correlation was identified for the number and magnitude of surgical interventions, previous history of VTE and the length of the hospitalization period [25,33,34]. The next highly reported risk factors for VTE are cardiovascular disease [1,23,33,34] and obesity [10,12,23,35]. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study aims to determine the incidence of pulmonary embolism (PE) in trauma and orthopedic patients within a regional tertiary referral center and its association with the pattern of injury, type of treatment, co-morbidities, thromboprophylaxis and mortality. All patients admitted to our institution between January 2010 and December 2011, for acute trauma or elective orthopedic procedures, were eligible to participate in this study. Our cohort was formed by identifying all patients with clinical features of PE who underwent Computed Tomography-Pulmonary Angiogram (CT-PA) to confirm or exclude the clinical suspicion of PE, within six months after the injury or the surgical procedure.Case notes and electronic databases were reviewed retrospectively to identify each patient's venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk factors, type of treatment, thromboprophylaxis and mortality. Out of 18,151 patients admitted during the study period only 85 (0.47%) patients developed PE (positive CT-PA) (24 underwent elective surgery and 61 sustained acute trauma). Of these, only 76% of the patients received thromboprophylaxis. Hypertension, obesity and cardiovascular disease were the most commonly identifiable risk factors. In 39% of the cases, PE was diagnosed during the in-hospital stay. The median time of PE diagnosis, from the date of injury or the surgical intervention was 23 days (range 1 to 312). The overall mortality rate was 0.07% (13/18,151), but for those who developed PE it was 15.29% (13/85). Concomitant deep venous thrombosis (DVT) was identified in 33.3% of patients. The presence of two or more co-morbidities was significantly associated with the incidence of mortality (unadjusted odds ratio (OR) = 3.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.34, 18.99), P = 0.034). Although there was also a similar clinical effect size for polytrauma injury on mortality (unadjusted OR = 1.90 (0.38, 9.54), P = 0.218), evidence was not statistically significant for this factor. The incidence of VTE was comparable to previously reported rates, whereas the mortality rate was lower. Our local protocols that comply with the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines in the UK appear to be effective in preventing VTE and reducing mortality in trauma and orthopedic patients.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · BMC Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Pharmacological prophylaxis for preventing venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a worldwide established procedure in hip and knee replacement surgery, as well as in the treatment of femoral neck fractures, but few data exist in other fields of orthopaedics and traumatology. Thus, no guidelines or recommendations are available in the literature except for a limited number of weak statements about knee arthroscopy and lower limb fractures. In any case, none of them are a multidisciplinary effort as the one here presented. The Italian Society for Studies on Haemostasis and Thrombosis (SISET), the Italian Society of Orthopaedics and Traumatology (SIOT), the Association of Orthopaedic Traumatology of Italian Hospitals (OTODI), together with the Italian Society of Anesthesia, Analgesia, Resuscitation and Intensive Care (SIAARTI) and the Italian Society of General Medicine (SIMG) have set down easy and quick suggestions for VTE prophylaxis in a number of surgical conditions for which only scarce evidence is available. This inter-society consensus statement aims at simplifying the approach to VTE prophylaxis in the single patient with the goal to improve its clinical application.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
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