Article

Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention

Johns Hopkins Ciccarone Center for the Prevention of Heart Disease, 600 North Wolfe Street, Carnegie 568, Baltimore, MD, 21224, USA, .
Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine 08/2010; 12(4):365-80. DOI: 10.1007/s11936-010-0079-4
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

OPINION STATEMENT: Major dietary sources of omega-3 fatty acids are fish containing eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), as well as nuts, seeds, and vegetable oils containing α-linolenic acid (ALA). Omega-3 fatty acids, especially those derived from marine sources, may be a useful tool for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Omega-3s exert their cardioprotective effects through multiple mechanisms, including reducing arrhythmias and altering production of prostaglandins, which reduces inflammation and improves platelet and endothelial function. To date, no serious adverse effects of omega-3s have been identified, despite extensive study. In adults, any potential harm from mercury exposure from consuming fish rich in omega-3s is outweighed by the proven cardiovascular benefits of eating fish. Concerns over increased bleeding complications have not materialized despite the increased concomitant use of aspirin and clopidogrel. We recommend one serving (200-400 g) of fatty fish two times per week and a diet that includes foods rich in ALA for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. We recommend one serving (200-400 g) of fatty fish or a fish oil supplement containing 900 mg of EPA + DHA every day and a diet rich in ALA for patients with known cardiovascular disease or congestive heart failure.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Andrew Paul Defilippis
    • "It has been reported that gac oil extracted from gac fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis) arils contains high levels of carotene (186 mg/100 mL), lycopene (518 mg/100 mL) and fatty acids (102 mg/g of fresh weight) (Kha et al., 2013a,c, 2014a; Vuong, 2000). These bioactive components play important roles in human health (DeFilippis et al., 2010; Rao and Rao, 2007). The health benefits of the carotenoids, the unsaturated fatty acids and other bioactive compounds in the gac fruit have been reviewed recently (Kha et al., 2013b; Hoang et al., 2014). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effects of different storage conditions, temperatures of −20, 10, room temperature (RT), 40 and 63 °C for up to 12 months in the presence or absence of air and light, on the stability of an encapsulated gac (Momordica cochinchinensis) oil powder. A stability trial of the encapsulated oil powder incorporated into yoghurt, pasteurised milk and cake mix stored at 4 ± 0.5 °C and RT for different storage times was also carried out. The results showed that a progressive degradation of colour, β-carotene and lycopene, and a progressive increase in surface oil content and peroxide value (PV) occurred in the encapsulated powders with increasing storage temperatures and storage times. However, the degradation was much less when the encapsulated powder was stored at low temperature in the absence of air and light. The degradation of β-carotene and lycopene in all samples during storage fitted a first-order reaction. The sorption curves of the encapsulated powders at 10, 30 and 40 °C were fitted with BET and GAB models. The results also showed that the encapsulated gac oil powder could be successfully incorporated into food products in terms of retention of colour, β-carotene and lycopene, and low PV.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Food and Bioproducts Processing
    • "It has been reported that gac oil extracted from gac fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis) arils contains high levels of carotene (186 mg/100 mL), lycopene (518 mg/100 mL) and fatty acids (102 mg/g of fresh weight) (Kha et al., 2013a,c, 2014a; Vuong, 2000). These bioactive components play important roles in human health (DeFilippis et al., 2010; Rao and Rao, 2007). The health benefits of the carotenoids, the unsaturated fatty acids and other bioactive compounds in the gac fruit have been reviewed recently (Kha et al., 2013b; Hoang et al., 2014). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The study aimed to investigate the effects of different storage conditions, at temperatures of -20, 10, room temperature (RT), 40 and 63oC for up to 12 months in the presence or absence of air (±vacuum) and light, on the stability of a encapsulated Gac (Momordica cochinchinensis) oil powder. The powder was prepared by spray-drying a Gac oil-in-water emulsion containing whey protein and gum Arabic as encapsulating agents. The β-carotene, lycopene, surface oil content, peroxide value, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), kinetic parameters and moisture sorption isotherms of the encapsulated Gac oil powder were evaluated. The results showed storage at 40oC for 4 months and at 63oC for 28 days under exposure to air caused a significant loss of β-carotene (-56 and -93%) and lycopene (-60 and -97%), and an increase in the surface oil content (81 and 85%) and the peroxide value (98 and 99%), respectively. The SEM, kinetic parameters and moisture sorption isotherms were also useful for predicting the shelf life. Otherwise, the encapsulated Gac oil was highly stable at RT or refrigerated at 10oC or frozen at -20oC, especially when stored free of air in the dark for 12 months.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Jun 2014
  • Source
    • "On the whole, data from UK dietary surveys indicates that fish intakes for adults are consistently low and compliance with supplementation programmes is poor (especially for individuals who would benefit from this most). UK adults are consequently not ingesting levels of LC3PUFA that have been associated with health benefits in supplement trials (Bates et al., 2010; DeFilippis et al., 2010; Musa-Veloso et al., 2011). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to review evidence from high-quality randomised controlled trials reporting links between omega-3 enriched functional foods and health. Design/methodology/approach - Using MEDLINE, a search was made for all randomised controlled trials published between 2002 and 2012 that met defined inclusion criteria. Studies had minimum durations of 28 days, clearly stated the food vehicle, dose and type of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC3PUFA) used, and did not include studies where participants only took LC3PUFA supplements. Findings - A total of 11 studies were located, ten of which reported potential health benefits linked to omega-3 functional food consumption. Five studies reported significant improvements in markers of cardiovascular (CV) health, while ten bioavailability studies reported increases in omega-3 blood levels when doses of 460 mg or more were integrated into food vehicles. Research limitations/implications - In the future a meta-analysis would be useful in terms of determining the dose of LC3PUFA associated with overall health benefits. Practical implications - The present review concludes that omega-3 enriched functional foods are a useful way to improve LC3PUFA status and have been linked to improved health outcomes, namely markers of CV health. More work is now needed to determine whether particular population groups could benefit from consumption of these foods, for example vegetarians and children, in relation to a range of health outcomes, such as cognitive function. Originality/value - This review provides evidence that integrating omega-3 enriched functional foods within the daily diet could be an effective strategy for helping to improve LC3PUFA status and attenuating CV disease risk.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · British Food Journal
Show more