Regional cortical gray matter thickness differences associated with type 2 diabetes and major depression

Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois-Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.
Psychiatry Research (Impact Factor: 2.47). 11/2010; 184(2):63-70. DOI: 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2010.07.003
Source: PubMed


The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of type 2 diabetes with major depression on cortical gray matter using magnetic resonance imaging and cortical pattern matching techniques. We hypothesized that diabetic subjects and depressed diabetic subjects would demonstrate decreased cortical gray matter thickness in prefrontal areas as compared to healthy control subjects. Patients with type 2 diabetes (n=26) and patients with diabetes and major depression (n=26) were compared with healthy controls (n=20). Gray matter thickness across the entire cortex was measured using cortical pattern matching methods. All subjects with diabetes demonstrated decreased cortical gray matter thickness in the left anterior cingulate region. Additionally, depressed diabetic subjects showed significant cortical gray matter decreases in bilateral prefrontal areas compared with healthy controls. Correlations between clinical variables and cortical gray matter thickness revealed a significant negative relationship with cerebrovascular risk factors across all three groups, most consistently in the left dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. A significant positive relationship between performance on attention and executive function tasks and cortical gray matter thickness predominantly in left hemisphere regions was also seen across all subjects. Depression and diabetes are associated with significant cortical gray matter thinning in medial prefrontal areas.

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Available from: Olusola Ajilore
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    • "Please cite this article as: Yang, X.-h., et al., Increased prefrontal and parietal cortical thickness does not correlate with anhedonia in patients with untreated first-episode.... Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging (2015), major depression (Ajilore et al., 2010), non-remitters (Jarnum et al., 2011) and elderly depressed patients (Lim et al., 2012). In contrast, other studies found significantly increased cortical thickness in the temporal pole (van Eijndhoven et al., 2013), the caudal anterior and posterior cingulate cortex (van Eijndhoven et al., 2013), prefrontal and parietal cortex (Qiu et al., 2014) in first episode medication-free MDD patients and in depressed youths (Fallucca et al., 2011; Reynolds et al., 2014). "
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    ABSTRACT: Cerebral morphological abnormalities in major depressive disorder (MDD) may be modulated by antidepressant treatment and course of illness in chronic medicated patients. The present study examined cortical thickness in patients with untreated first-episode MDD to elucidate the early pathophysiology of this illness. Here, we examined cortical thickness in patients with first-episode MDD (N=27) and healthy controls (N=27) using an automated surface-based method (in FreeSurfer). By assessing the correlation between caudate volume and cortical thickness at each vertex on the cortical surface, a caudate-cortical network was obtained for each group. Subsequent analysis was performed to assess the effect of anhedonia by the Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale. We observed increased cortical thickness at the right orbital frontal cortex and the left inferior parietal gyrus in MDD patients compared with healthy controls. Furthermore, morphometric correlational analysis using cortical thickness measurement revealed increased caudate-cortical connectivity in the bilateral superior parietal gyrus in MDD patients. All changes were not related to anhedonia. These preliminary findings may reflect disorder manifestation close to illness onset and may provide insight into the early neurobiology of MDD.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging
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    • "We have demonstrated that subjects with diabetes and depression have elevated frontal white matter myo-inositol and decreased subcortical glutamate/glutamine compared with healthy control subjects (Ajilore et al., 2007). Subjects with diabetes and depression also showed regional cortical thinning in the medial prefrontal cortex (Ajilore et al., 2010). In addition, we have shown that specific cognitive functions correlated with findings from structural imaging Copyright # 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between verbal learning and memory performance and hippocampal volume in subjects with co-morbid type 2 diabetes and major depression compared with healthy control subjects and subjects with type 2 diabetes alone. Methods Twenty four subjects with type 2 diabetes and 20 subjects with type 2 diabetes and major depression were recruited from endocrinology clinics and were compared with 32 healthy control subjects recruited from the community. Subjects were scanned on a 1.5 T GE scanner, and hippocampal volumes were measured using Freesurfer. The California Verbal Learning Test assessed learning and memory. Significant predictors of verbal learning performance (e.g., age, gender, education, blood pressure, stroke risk, hemoglobin A1c, and hippocampal volume) were determined using a stepwise linear regression. ResultsSubjects with diabetes and depression had significantly worse performance on verbal list learning compared with healthy control subjects. Hippocampal volume was a strong predictor of performance in healthy control subjects, and age and hippocampal volume were strong predictors in subjects with type 2 diabetes alone. Age alone was a significant predictor of verbal learning performance in subjects with diabetes and depression. Conclusions The relationship between hippocampal volume and performance on the California Verbal Learning Test is decoupled in subjects with type 2 diabetes and major depression and this decoupling may contribute to poor verbal learning and memory performance in this study population. Copyright (c) 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
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    • "A regional decrease in CThk was detected in the right occipital region in the HTN + T2DM group compared to the HTN group. The region of reduced CThk was smaller in spatial extent but overlapping with the CVR results, which is a novel finding relative to the literature that has primarily focused on CThk in T2DM (Ajilore et al., 2010; Brundel et al., 2010; Chen et al., 2013; Leritz et al., 2011; Seo et al., 2012) and HTN separately (Seo et al., 2012; Vuorinen et al., 2013). A previous study involving older adults demonstrated that blood glucose levels and blood pressure were both associated with CThk thinning in occipital regions, among others (Leritz et al., 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by metabolic dysregulation in the form of hyperglycemia and insulin resistance and can have a profound impact on brain structure and vasculature. The primary aim of this study was to identify brain regions where the combined effects of type 2 diabetes and hypertension on brain health exceed those of hypertension alone. A secondary objective was to test whether vascular impairment and structural brain measures in this population are associated with cognitive function. Research design and methods We enrolled 18 diabetic participants with hypertension (HTN + T2DM, 7 women, 71.8 ± 5.6 years) and 22 participants with hypertension only (HTN, 12 women, 73.4 ± 6.2 years). Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) was assessed using blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) MRI during successive breath holds. Grey matter structure was evaluated using cortical thickness (CThk) measures estimated from T1-weighted images. Analyses of cognitive and blood data were also performed. Results Compared to HTN, HTN + T2DM had decreased CVR and CThk in a spatially overlapping region of the right occipital lobe (P < 0.025); CVR group differences were more expansive and included bilateral occipito-parietal areas (P < 0.025). Whereas CVR showed no significant associations with measures of cognitive function (P > 0.05), CThk in the right lingual gyrus ROI and regions resulting from a vertex-wise analysis (including posterior cingulate, precuneus, superior and middle frontal, middle and inferior temporal regions (P < 0.025) were associated with executive function. Conclusions Individuals with T2DM and HTN showed decreased CVR and CThk compared to age-matched HTN controls. This study identifies brain regions that are impacted by the combined effects of comorbid T2DM and HTN conditions, with new evidence that the corresponding cortical thinning may contribute to cognitive decline.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Clinical neuroimaging
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