Article

Is Dietary Fat “Fattening”? A Comprehensive Research Synthesis

Division of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, MT610 Birmingham, AL 35294, USA.
Critical reviews in food science and nutrition (Impact Factor: 5.18). 09/2010; 50(8):699-715. DOI: 10.1080/10408398.2010.491057
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

The goal of this research synthesis was to separate and articulate questions that had clear meaning, were empirically addressable, and were germane to the broad question "Is fat fattening?" Four such questions addressing the effect of varying the proportion of dietary fat on body weight and body fat were formulated. A comprehensive review of electronic citation databases was conducted to identify studies that addressed each question. The results of the studies addressing each question were tabulated and summarized, and an answer for each question was formulated. The results indicated that whether "fat is fattening" depends on exactly what one means by the question. It is apparent that under conditions of energy deficit, high-fat diets lead to greater weight loss than low-fat diets, but under ad libitum feeding conditions, instructing persons to follow a low-fat diet promotes loss of body weight and body fat. For one question, studies were few but convincing that altering the proportion of energy from fat in daily snacks has no effect on weight, while for another there were not enough studies available to answer the question with confidence. General recommendations to reduce dietary fat to promote weight loss or maintenance in all circumstances may merit reconsideration.

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    • "Obesity is associated with a risk of obesity-related health complications, such as cancer, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular disease (Hubert et al. 1983;Tokudome et al. 2000;Park and Kim 2012). In addition, dietary fat plays a role in weight maintenance and loss, while excessive dietary fat consumption is a potential contributor to weight gain (Bray et al. 2004;Astrup 2005;Shikany et al. 2010). Indeed, obese subjects prefer lipid when compared with lean subjects (Drewnowski 1985;Mela and Sacchetti 1991), suggesting that inappropriate fat perception may influence the risk of obesity by affecting eating behavior (Laugerette et al. 2005). "

    Full-text · Dataset · Jan 2016
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    • "Obesity is associated with a risk of obesity-related health complications, such as cancer, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular disease (Hubert et al. 1983;Tokudome et al. 2000;Park and Kim 2012). In addition, dietary fat plays a role in weight maintenance and loss, while excessive dietary fat consumption is a potential contributor to weight gain (Bray et al. 2004;Astrup 2005;Shikany et al. 2010). Indeed, obese subjects prefer lipid when compared with lean subjects (Drewnowski 1985;Mela and Sacchetti 1991), suggesting that inappropriate fat perception may influence the risk of obesity by affecting eating behavior (Laugerette et al. 2005). "
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    ABSTRACT: Oral fat sensitivity (OFS, the ability to detect fat) may be related to overeating-induced obesity. However, it is largely unknown whether OFS affects taste preference and eating habits. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate (1) the association between body mass index (BMI) and OFS and (2) the relationship of OFS with four types of taste preference (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter) and eating habits using serial concentrations of oleic acid (OA) homogenized in non-fat milk and a self-reported questionnaire. Participants were 25 healthy Japanese individuals (mean age: 27.0 ± 5.6 years), among whom the OA detection threshold was significantly associated with BMI. Participants were divided into two subgroups based on oral sensitivity to 2.8 mM OA: hypersensitive (able to detect 2.8 mM OA, n = 16) and hyposensitive (unable to detect 2.8 mM OA, n = 9). The degree of sweet taste preference of the hypersensitive group was significantly higher than that of the hyposensitive group. Furthermore, there was significantly higher degree of preference for high-fat sweet foods than low-fat sweet foods in the hypersensitive group. There was also a significant inverse correlation between the OA detection threshold and the degree of both spare eating and postprandial satiety. Thus, OFS is associated not only with BMI, but also with the preference for high-fat sweet foods and eating habits. The present study provides novel insights that measuring OFS may be useful for assessing the risk of obesity associated with overeating in countries, including Japan, where BMI is increasing in the population.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
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    • "High-fat diet and leptin resistance lead to high serum triglycerides and cholesterol (Volcker et al., 1978; Zoth et al., 2010; Ludgero-Correia et al., 2012). These conditions also lead to high body mass (Hariri and Thibault, 2010; Shikany et al., 2010), but not necessarily to high bone mass. High body weight results in increased BMD and stronger bones in lean and normal weight adults (Reid, 2010) but in adults, obesity and metabolic syndrome increased fracture risk and inverse relationship between percent body fat and BMD have been found (Ronis et al., 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: We carried out an in vivo study to assess the relationship between increase in adiposity in the marrow and osteocyte apoptosis in the case of alcohol-induced bone loss. After alcohol treatment, the number of apoptotic osteocytes was increased and lipid droplets were accumulated within the osteocytes, the bone marrow and the cortical bone micro-vessels. At last, we found an inverse correlation between bone mineral density and osteocyte apoptosis and strong significant correlations between the osteocyte apoptotic number and lipid droplet accumulation in osteocyte and bone micro-vessels. These data show that alcohol-induced bone loss is associated with osteocyte apoptosis and lipid accumulation in the bone tissue. This lipid intoxication, or 'bone steatosis', is correlated with lipid accumulation in bone marrow and blood micro-vessels.
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