Article

Maternal Control of Child Feeding During the Weaning Period: Differences Between Mothers Following a Baby-led or Standard Weaning Approach

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Abstract

A controlling maternal feeding style has been shown to have a negative impact on child eating style and weight in children over the age of 12 months. The current study explores maternal feeding style during the period of 6-12 months when infants are introduced to complementary foods. Specifically it examines differences between mothers who choose to follow a traditional weaning approach using spoon feeding and pureés to mothers following a baby-led approach where infants are allowed to self feed foods in their solid form. Seven hundred and two mothers with an infant aged 6-12 months provided information regarding weaning approach alongside completing the Child Feeding Questionnaire. Information regarding infant weight and perceived size was also collected. Mothers following a baby-led feeding style reported significantly lower levels of restriction, pressure to eat, monitoring and concern over child weight compared to mothers following a standard weaning response. No association was seen between weaning style and infant weight or perceived size. A baby-led weaning style was associated with a maternal feeding style which is low in control. This could potentially have a positive impact upon later child weight and eating style. However due to the cross sectional nature of the study it cannot be ascertained whether baby-led weaning encourages a feeding style which is low in control to develop or whether mothers who are low in control choose to follow a baby-led weaning style.

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... Benefits include more developed oral skills and skill development (Brown et al., 2017) (Brown & Lee, 2013) (Daniels et al., 2015), babies becoming less picky in eating habits and gaining the ability to determine the amount of food they eat (Rapley, 2011). Additionally, baby-led weaning has been found to reduce the risk of obesity later in life (Brown & Michelle, 2011) (Daniels et al., 2015). Nonetheless, disadvantages of baby-led weaning have also been observed. ...
... Nonetheless, disadvantages of baby-led weaning have also been observed. These include irondeficient anaemia as a result of insufficient iron intake (D'Auria et al., 2018), underweight toddlers (Arden & Abbott, 2015) and a higher risk of choking (Brown & Michelle, 2011) (Daniels et al., 2015). Conversely, a recent study found that in modified baby-led weaning, zinc intake did not show any decrease (Daniels et al., 2018). ...
... However, the percentage of mothers who defined themselves as practicing baby-led weaning did not match Brown's definition. In her research, Brown and Michelle (2011) defines baby-led weaning as being 90% self-feeding with up to 10% traditional feeding in situations such as vacations or while traveling. In her later study, Brown (2016) took a wider view of baby-led weaning practices. ...
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p>Introduction: Baby-led weaning is a new method of complementary food introduction for babies which enables babies to feed themselves. Over the last decade, the number of mothers adopting this method has been growing in many countries including Indonesia, though the exact number is unknown. The practice of self-feeding in babies using baby-led weaning in Indonesia also has not been identified. Aim: To identify self-feeding practices among babies in both baby-led and traditional weaning. Method: The study design was that of a descriptive survey given to a population of the mothers of six to 12-month-old babies who practiced either baby-led or traditional weaning in Indonesia. A consecutive sampling technique with time limit was used, and 316 respondents were recruited through an online survey. Results: Almost half of the baby-led weaning group practiced self-feeding at least 90% of their meals, whereas 80% of the traditional weaning babies practiced spoon-feeding at least 90% of their meals. The self-feeding percentage in the rest of the baby-led weaning participants, however, ranged from 10 to 75%. The type of family, who is appointed to take care of the baby, mother’s occupation, and engagement in family dining may contribute to the variations in self-feeding percentages. Conclusion: There was a difference in feeding practices between baby-led and traditionally weaned babies as assumed. The unique percentage of self-feeding among baby-led weaning in this country is useful as a reference for further research in this area.</p
... 7,14 Previous studies have focussed on identifying BLW by asking parents to selfclassify their approach to weaning (TW or BLW) or by asking parents to estimate the percentage of foods spoon fed (rather than self fed) or in pureed food (rather than whole or finger foods), with BLW classed as those who use ≤10% spoon feeding and ≤10% pureed foods. [16][17][18][19][20] All definitions are subjective, and it may be challenging for parents to estimate in terms of percentages. ...
... A milk feeding history was recorded for the baby, along with a validated retrospective infant feeding behaviour questionnaire 23 and questions relating to the way in which babies were fed their normal milk and solid food. Additionally, measures of weaning style included asking the caregiver the percentage of time infants were spoon fed and percentage of times infants were fed puree, consistent with other studies [16][17][18][19][20]24 and a yes/no answer to the following statement: "Baby-led weaning is the process of placing foods in front of your baby and letting them feed themselvespicking the food up and putting it in their mouths unassisted, rather than being spoon-fed by an adult -Do you follow a baby-led weaning approach?", similar to Rowan et al. ...
... Infants following BLW were spoon-fed ≤10% of the time and were fed purees ≤10% of the time as self-reported by parents. [16][17][18][19][20]24 Mothers were aged 25-45 years with a mean (SD) age of 33.3 (4.0) years. There were no significant differences in the age or other demographic characteristics of mothers between weaning groups ( Table 1). ...
Article
Background: A baby-led approach to weaning (BLW) encompasses self-feeding and self-selecting graspable foods, offering an alternative to traditional weaning (TW). This cross-sectional study explored adherence to characteristics of BLW and differences in food group exposure and nutrient intake between babies following either TW or BLW. Methods: Nutritional data were collected via multiple-pass 24-h recall, following parental completion of an online survey. Results: Infants were grouped according to age (6-8 months; TW [n = 36] and BLW [n = 24]) and (9-12 months; TW [n = 24] and BLW [n = 12]). BLW babies were more likely to be breast fed (p = 0.002), consumed a higher percentage of foods also consumed by their mother (p = 0.008) and were fed less purees (p < 0.001) at 6-8 months. TW babies were spoon fed more (p ≤ 0.001) at all ages. Amongst babies aged 6-8 months, total intake (from complementary food plus milk) of iron (p = 0.021), zinc (p = 0.048), iodine (p = 0.031), vitamin B12 (p = 0.002) and vitamin D (p = 0.042) and both vitamin B12 (p = 0.027) and vitamin D (p = 0.035) from complementary food alone was higher in babies following TW. Compared to TW, BLW babies aged 6-8 months had a higher percentage energy intake from fat (p = 0.043) and saturated fat (p = 0.026) from their milk. No differences in nutrient intake were observed amongst infants aged 9-12 months. Few differences were observed between groups in their number of exposures to specific food groups. Conclusions: TW infants had higher intakes of key micronutrients at 6-8 months, although there were few differences in nutritional intake at 9-12 months or food group exposure between babies following TW or BLW. BLW appears to be socially desirable. Guidance for parents is required, along with larger, longer-term studies, which explore the potential impact of BLW in later childhood.
... 1,2 In a recent complementary feeding approach, baby-led weaning (BLW), foods in their whole form are presented to the baby, who self-selects, grasps, brings to the mouth and consumes of their own volition. [2][3][4] One of the most important characteristics of BLW is that maternal control overfeeding is minimized, such that the infant decides which food item is selected, how much of it is consumed, and the speed of consumption throughout an eating episode. 3 Obesity in Turkish people and children is an emerging issue. ...
... [2][3][4] One of the most important characteristics of BLW is that maternal control overfeeding is minimized, such that the infant decides which food item is selected, how much of it is consumed, and the speed of consumption throughout an eating episode. 3 Obesity in Turkish people and children is an emerging issue. BLW may be an important feeding method for lowering obesity rates in Turkey. ...
... 20 A randomized, controlled selection method is important because parents who follow BLW have been shown to differ from parents following the traditional methods of complementary feeding in demographic, psychological and parenting characteristics known to also be associated with bodyweight. 3,21 Two cross-sectional studies have investigated rates of obesity in infants following BLW. 17,19 Brown and Lee reported that toddlers who had followed BLW had significantly lower mean bodyweight (by 1.07 kg), than those who had followed a traditional parent-led spoon feeding approach. ...
Article
Background: Baby-led weaning (BLW) is an approach to introducing solid foods to infants which gives control of the feeding process to the infant. Anecdotal evidence suggests that BLW is becoming popular with parents, but scientific research is limited to a few publications. This study assessed growth, hematological parameters and iron intakes among 6-12 month-old infants who were fed by traditional or baby-led complementary feeding. Methods: We recruited 280 healthy 5-6 month old infants allocated to control (traditional spoon feeding) (TSF) group or intervention of Baby-Led Weaning (BLW) group in a randomized controlled trial. İnfants' growth, hematologic parameters and iron intakes were evaluated at age 12 months. Results: Infants in the TSF were significantly currently heavier than those in the BLW group. Mean weight in kilogram of infants in the BLW group was 10.4 ± 0.9 compared with 11.1 ± 0.5 in the TSF group. There was no statistically significant difference in the iron intakes from complementary foods by the BLW (7.97 ± 1.37 mg/day) and TSF group (7.90 ± 1.68 mg/day) participants who completed the diet records. Hematologic parameters were similar at 12 months. The incidence of choking reported in the weekly interviews was not different between the groups. Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first randomized-controlled study to have examined the impact of weaning method on iron intakes, hematological parameters and growth in breastfed infants. BLW can be an alternative complementary feeding type without increasing the risk of iron deficiency, choking and growth faltering. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... A síntese descritiva foi composta de 13 referências 10-22 -10 provenientes de pesquisas quantitativas [10][11][12][13][14]17,18,[20][21][22] e 3 com metodologias qualitativas 15,16,19 -, cujos períodos de publicação oscilaram de 2011 a 2016. No tocante aos delineamentos das quantitativas, sete eram de corte transversal, 10,12,14,17,[20][21][22] uma era do tipo caso controle 13 e duas eram coortes. ...
... A síntese descritiva foi composta de 13 referências 10-22 -10 provenientes de pesquisas quantitativas [10][11][12][13][14]17,18,[20][21][22] e 3 com metodologias qualitativas 15,16,19 -, cujos períodos de publicação oscilaram de 2011 a 2016. No tocante aos delineamentos das quantitativas, sete eram de corte transversal, 10,12,14,17,[20][21][22] uma era do tipo caso controle 13 e duas eram coortes. 11,18 As coletas de dados das qualitativas foram estabelecidas por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas. ...
... O Quadro 2 contém as 13 citações que discorreram sobre o BLW na perspectiva do comportamento alimentar infantil e/ou do crescimento/desenvolvimento. Oito delas foram originárias do Reino Unido, [10][11][12][13]16,18,19,22 As pesquisadoras abrangeram informações acerca do desmame e das experiências com refeições durante a introdução alimentar. Entre os seus resultados, destaca-se que a duração do aleitamento materno exclusivo foi substancialmente maior entre as mães que aderiram ao método, fato também relatado em outras investigações. ...
Article
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Objective: To review the scientific findings on the baby-led weaning method (BLW) in the context of complementary feeding. Data sources: Two independent examiners searched the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE)/PubMed database in August 2016. No time-period was defined for the publication dates. The following descriptors were used: "baby-led weaning" OR "baby-led" OR "BLW". Inclusion criteria were: original studies that were available in English, and which addressed the BLW method. Exclusion criteria were: references in other languages, opinion articles and literature reviews, editorials and publications that did not elaborate on the intended subject. Of the 97 references identified, 13 were included in the descriptive synthesis. Data synthesis: The BLW group of babies, when compared to the traditional eating group, were less prone to being overweight, less demanding of food, and ate the same foods as the family. The number of choking episodes did not differ between groups. Mothers who opted for the implementation of BLW had higher levels of schooling, held managerial positions at work, and were more likely to have breastfed until the sixth month of the child's life. Concerns were raised about messes made during meals, wasting food, and choking, but most of the mothers recommended adopting the method. Health professionals were hesitant to indicate this method. Conclusions: BLW was recommended by mothers who followed the method with their own children. However, concerns have been reported, which, coupled with professionals' fears about the inability of infants to self-feed, reflect a lack of knowledge about the method.
... Considering experiences with the BLW method, mothers who adopted it reported better participation of babies in meals, greater exposure to family foods 6 , greater sharing of family meals 10,20 , less agitation at meal times, greater use of food 21 , less concern with Vilas Boas AC, Neri MMS, Silva CFXCA, Teixeira LG ABCS Health Sci. 2020;45:e020028 nutrient intake 7,22 and a greater propensity to offer homemade foods instead of processed foods 9 . They also reported that they did it because they found the method simple, convenient and adaptable to the family's style and meals 7 . ...
... 2020;45:e020028 nutrient intake 7,22 and a greater propensity to offer homemade foods instead of processed foods 9 . They also reported that they did it because they found the method simple, convenient and adaptable to the family's style and meals 7 . Despite reporting confidence in the child to determine their food intake, mothers showed some control over their children's food choices, such as limiting or regulating the amount of foods considered to be less healthy 22 . ...
... The study by Arden and Abbott 22 pointed out as one of the main findings, the renegotiation of BLW, in which some mothers reported adopting the method, however they helped their babies to feed when they were not fit and to avoid the disorder, deviating from the initial concept of the BLW 22 . Many of the studies analyzed were performed using online questionnaires, in which the mother indicated the percentage of times the child ate alone and consumed food in the form of puree 6,7,19,23,26,36 . ...
Article
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Introdução: O Baby-led weaning (BLW) é uma abordagem alternativa para a introdução alimentar aos lactentes que tem se tornado popular. Objetivo: Investigar as evidências científicas a respeito do método BLW e sua versão modificada Baby-Led Introduction to Solids (BLISS). Métodos: A pesquisa de artigos foi realizada entre junho de 2018 e junho de 2019, por meio da base de dados US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health (PubMed) utilizando as seguintes palavras-chaves: ‘BLW’, ‘Baby-led weaning’, ‘BLISS’, e ‘Baby-Led Introduction to Solids’. Foram incluídos todos os artigos originais encontrados no idioma inglês, publicados entre 2011 e 2019. Resultado: Vinte e cinco estudos foram incluídos na análise. As pesquisas sobre BLW/BLISS focaram principalmente nos temas: características, comportamentos e atitudes de mães e crianças, conhecimento de mães e profissionais de saúde sobre os métodos de introdução alimentar, avaliação de peso e de índice de massa corporal, avaliação da ingestão energética e de nutrientes e avaliação de episódios de engasgo e reflexo de gag das crianças. Conclusão: A maioria das pesquisas aborda experiências relacionadas ao BLW/BLISS e ainda existem poucas evidências sobre o método em termos de adequação de ingestão de energia e nutrientes e de crescimento na infância. Pontos positivos para a criança podem ser observados como aleitamento materno prolongado, maior independência ao se alimentar e melhor resposta à saciedade. Os métodos de introdução alimentar não diferem entre si em relação à ocorrência de episódios de engasgos.
... To date, three studies aimed to evaluate the influence of chosen eating feeding on healthy-related outcome, such as body mass index (BMI) and obesity [11,24,34]. Townsend and Pitchford found a higher occurrence of underweight children in the baby-led group (3/63) and an increased incidence of obesity in the spoon-fed group (8/63); however, it should be pointed out that 32% of the data on BMI was missing in the baby-led group [24]. ...
... In another larger, cross-sectional study Brown and Lee found no association between the weaning approach (BLW vs spoon feeding) and parentally reported infant weight at six months of age [34]. ...
... As a limitation, most existing studies on the baby-led approach include participant families who self-identify as following a BLW. In some studies, participants were asked to estimate the use of spoon-feeding opposed to self-feeding and the amount of puréed foods given during the weaning period in percent [11,12,30,34]. In others, they were just asked to identify themselves as followers of BLW approach [14,24,31]. ...
Article
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The term weaning describes the time period in which a progressive reduction of breastfeeding or the feeding of infant-formula takes place while the infant is gradually introduced to solid foods. It is a crucial time in an infant’s life as not only does it involve with a great deal of rapid change for the child, but it is also associated with the development of food preferences, eating behaviours and body weight in childhood and also in adolescence and adulthood. Therefore, how a child is weaned may have an influence later, on the individual’s entire life. Babies are traditionally first introduced to solid foods using spoon-feeding, in most countries. Beside to traditional approach, an alternative method, promoting infant self-feeding from six months of age, called baby-led weaning or “auto-weaning”, has grown in popularity. This approach causes concern to healthy professionals and parents themselves as data from observational studies pointed out to a potential risk of iron and energy inadequacy as well as choking risk. Aim of this systematic review was to critically examine the current evidence about baby-led weaning approach and to explore the need for future research. A systematic search was conducted in Cochrane library databases and DARE (Database of Abstract of Reviews of Effects), EMBASE and MEDLINE in the period 2000–2018 (up to March 1st) to address some key questions on baby-led weaning. Prisma guidelines for systematic reviews has been followed. After the inclusion/exclusion process, we included for analysis of evidence 12 articles, 10 observational cross-sectional studies and 2 randomized controlled trials. Pooling of results from very different outcomes in the studies included was not possible. Both randomized trials have potential bias; therefore, the quality of the evidence is low. There are still major unresolved issues about baby-led weaning that require answers from research and that should be considered when advices are requested from health professionals by parents willing to approach this method.
... Throughout all this selection process, discrepancies were arbitrated by two other researchers (R.L. and R.P.-L.). Finally, 8 studies were included in this review [24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31]. ...
... Of these, 735 were excluded: 655 did not address BLW, infant's weight or children age group, 52 were not original studies, 15 used non-human sample, and 13 were not written in English or Spanish. Of the 12 full-text articles assessed for eligibility, four were excluded, giving a final of eight included articles in the review [24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31]. Table 2 shows the main characteristics of the eight studies included: two RCTs [26,28] and six observational studies (four cross sectional [24,27,30,31], one longitudinal [29], and one with both cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis [25]). ...
... Of the 12 full-text articles assessed for eligibility, four were excluded, giving a final of eight included articles in the review [24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31]. Table 2 shows the main characteristics of the eight studies included: two RCTs [26,28] and six observational studies (four cross sectional [24,27,30,31], one longitudinal [29], and one with both cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis [25]). They were ordered according to the year of publication, starting with the most recent. ...
Article
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Childhood is a window of opportunity for the prevention of the obesity pandemic. Since “the first 1000 days of life” is a period in which healthy eating habits must be acquired, it should be the target for preventive strategies. Baby-led weaning (BLW) is an emergent way of weaning that could influence children’s health. The nutrition committees of the main pediatric societies affirm there is not enough evidence to support which is the best method of weaning. The aim was to determinate the influence of BLW on the infant’s weight gain compared to the traditional spoon-feeding, and to assess if it could decrease the risk of obesity in children. A systematic review was conducted, following the PRISMA method. Pubmed, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane Library were searched. Out of 747 articles, eight studies (2875 total infants) were included (two randomized control trials, 6 observational studies). Results were indecisive, while some studies seem to demonstrate lower weight gain in infants that apply BLW, others show inconclusive results. The risk of bias in all included studies was moderate or high. In conclusion, more clinical trials and prospective studies should be done prior to providing a general recommendation about the best method of weaning to reduce the risk of obesity.
... The recommendations of both the Polish Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPHAN) [6] and the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPHAN) [10] take into account the fact that the child should decide whether to eat food and in what amount, while the parents decide what the child should eat [11]. ...
... The infant is also more focused on the proposed food itself, rather than on the person feeding it. Children who learn to consume new foods without the help of a parent or caregiver, in addition to self-improvement of competence in individualized nutrition from a nutritional perspective, also exercise dexterity in better grasping of objects and coordination due to movement [5,11,13,14]. Infants to whom the BLW method is applied actively participate in the overall process of meal consumption. They experience individual contact with food, touching it, etc. ...
... Their mothers did not intervene in the amount of meal consumed, promoting self-regulation of the hunger and satiety centre. According to the authors, this method is the standard for expanding the diet, because having knowledge about hunger and satiety can influence the creation of healthy behavioural and nutritional patterns in the following years of life [11,14,17,40]. According to Townsend and Pitchford, children fed with BLW consumed more complex carbohydrates, whereas spoon-fed infants preferred the consumption of sweets, which proves that the BLW method promotes healthy eating [42]. ...
Article
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Background: Infant nutrition is a topic of constant debate between parents and doctors. The recommendations themselves have been modified several times over the past 6 decades. Baby Led Weaning (BLW) method is gaining more and more popularity in infant nutrition during the period of expanding the infant menu. The main aim of the study was to evaluate selected aspects of dietary expansion in a group of their children, taking into account dietary expansion with the use of the traditional method and the BLW method. Material and method: An exploratory cross-sectional study was conducted in December 2021-January 2022 among a randomly selected sample of 523 mothers of children in infancy aged up to 12 months. Data for the study were collected anonymously using the CAWI method. The information collected from 500 women was considered for the final data analysis taking into account the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: 66.6% of the women surveyed (N=333) stated that their child is or was fed breast milk during the first six months. The child's diet was most often expanded with complementary meals after 6 months of age. This answer was indicated by 58.8% of respondents (N=294). 85.6% of the surveyed women (N=428) first introduced or intend to introduce vegetables to their diet. 13% of the respondents (N=65) introduced or planned to introduce vegetables and fruit at the same time. In the studied group of mothers the BLW method was not known or not used by 7 mothers (1.4%), 343 mothers used or intended to use the BLW method (68.6%), whereas 150 women knew the BLW method (30.0%), but did not use it or did not intend to use it during the expansion of their child's diet. Conclusions: The majority of mothers surveyed used the BLW method during the expansion of their children's diet, accepting the principle that it is the child who decides whether and how much to eat, and the parent who decides what and when the child eats.
... The CF period represents the transition from milk feeding to solid foods [2]. Over the past half-decade, researchers have started to conduct studies about specific approaches to CF [3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10]. In the last decade, an alternative approach named Baby-Led Weaning (BLW) which consists of allowing the infant to make their own food choices, deciding the quantity and sensory characteristics of food according to their own energy needs, has been widely disseminated through digital media [11]. ...
... BLW researchers suggest that a baby-guided approach leads to healthier food choices, since there is greater fruit and vegetable exposure and variety, as well as greater participation in family meals [4,32]. However, few studies have investigated whether baby-guided approaches influence food variety [3,8,33]. ...
Article
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Background The traditional spoon-feeding approach to introduction of solid foods during the complementary feeding period is supported by consensus in the scientific literature. However, a method called Baby-Led Introduction to SolidS (BLISS) has been proposed as an alternative, allowing infants to self-feed with no adult interference. To date, there have been no trials in the Brazilian population to evaluate the effectiveness of BLISS in comparison to the traditional approach. Methods/design To evaluate and compare three different complementary feeding methods. Data on 144 mother-child pairs will be randomized into intervention groups by methods: (A) strict Parent-Led Weaning; (B) strict Baby-Led Introduction to SolidS; and (C) a mixed method. Prospective participants from Porto Alegre, Brazil, and nearby cities will be recruited through the Internet. The interventions will be performed by nutritionists and speech therapists, at 5.5 months of age of the child, at a private nutrition office equipped with a test kitchen where meals will be prepared according to the randomized method. The pairs will be followed up at 7, 9, and 12 months of age. Data will be collected through questionnaires designed especially for this study, which will include a 24h child food recall, questionnaires on the child’s and parents’ eating behavior, oral habits, eating difficulties, and choking prevalence. At 12 months of age, children will undergo blood collection to measure hemoglobin, ferritin, and C-reactive protein, saliva collection for analysis of genetic polymorphisms, and oral examination. Anthropometric parameters (child and maternal) will be measured at the baseline intervention, at a 9 month home visit, and at the end-of-study visit at the hospital. The primary outcome will be child growth and nutritional status z-scores at 12 months; secondary outcomes will include iron status, feeding behavior, acceptability of the methods, dietary variety, choking, eating behaviors, food preferences, acceptance of bitter and sweet flavors, suction, oral habits, oral hygiene behavior, dental caries, gingival health status, and functional constipation. Discussion The trial intends to ascertain whether there are potential advantages to the BLISS complementary feeding method in this specific population, generating data to support families and healthcare providers. Trial registration Brazilian Clinical Trials Registry (ReBEC): RBR- 229scm number U1111-1226-9516. Registered on September 24, 2019.
... Within the BLW approach, instead of blending foods, infants are allowed to self-feed family foods from 6 months of age, with an emphasis on allowing the infant to choose what they eat, how much they eat and to be part of family meal times (Rapley & Murkett, 2008). A number of possible benefits of BLW have been proposed including lower maternal anxiety and control around feeding (Brown & Lee, 2011a,b), the development of healthier food preferences and reduced food fussiness in early childhood (Taylor et al., 2017;Townsend & Pitchford, 2012), enhanced motor skills (Rapley & Murkett, 2008) and a lower risk of obesity possibly due to more effective self-regulation of energy intake (Brown & Lee, 2011b, 2015Rapley & Murkett, 2008). However, risk of choking and concerns over failure to thrive (from both parents and health care professionals have also been noted within the literature (Cameron, Heath, & Taylor, 2012), and there is a lack of strong evidence to determine its true effectiveness (D'Auria et al., 2018;Taylor et al., 2017). ...
... Previous research among Polish groups is rare, and although findings from one study suggests that Polish parents perceive many benefits to adopting a BLW approach, this is limited to a sample of high SES parents residing in Poland(Poniedziałek, Paszkowiak, & Rzymski, 2018). Similarly, BLW has been consistently associated with higher SES and education level in U.K. mothers(Brown & Lee, 2011b;Cameron, Heath, & Taylor, 2012). This study suggests that BLW may also be a growing approach among British and Polish groups from more deprived communities within the United Kingdom and provides a strong rationale to continue to explore this approach and its potential benefits among lower SES families.Parents' approach to complementary feeding was closely aligned to cultural norms and parents' cultural beliefs. ...
Article
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Complementary feeding practices and adherence to health recommendations are influenced by a range of different and often interrelating factors such as socio‐economic and cultural factors. However, the factors underlying these associations are often complex with less awareness of how complementary feeding approaches vary across the UK’s diverse population. This paper describes a qualitative investigation undertaken in a deprived and culturally diverse community in the UK which aimed to explore parents’ knowledge, beliefs and practices of complementary feeding. One hundred and ten mothers and fathers, self‐identified as being White British, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Black African/Caribbean or Polish took part in twenty‐four focus group discussions, organised by age group, sex and ethnicity. The findings revealed that most parents initiated complementary feeding before the World Health Organisation (WHO) recommendation of 6 months. Early initiation was strongly influenced by breast feeding practices alongside the extent to which parents believed that their usual milk; that is, breastmilk or formula was fulfilling their infants' nutritional needs. The composition of diet and parents' approach to complementary feeding was closely aligned to traditional cultural practices; however, some contradictions were noted. The findings also acknowledge the pertinent role of the father in influencing the dietary practices of the wider household. Learning about both the common and unique cultural feeding attitudes and practices held by parents may help us to tailor healthy complementary feeding advice in the context of increasing diversity in the United Kingdom.
... One of the key areas where research needs to focus is the impact of weaning approach upon nutrient intake in infants. Healthcare professionals have raised concerns that infants who are self-feeding may not consume sufficient energy or nutrients, in particular iron (6,9) , although parents do not share this anxiety (10,11) . ...
... Therefore, this finding may be a result of those in the strict BLW group feeding more frequently, rather than having greater intake. This would fit with findings that those following a BLW approach tend to be more responsive in their overall feeding style (10) . However, it may also indicate that those in the BLW group are following recommendations to move more gradually to a family diet. ...
Article
Background Baby‐led weaning (BLW) is a method of introducing solid foods to infants, which centres around the infant self‐feeding family foods. BLW has grown in popularity over the last 10 years; however, although research is starting to build around the safety and impact of the method, research examining intake is sparse. This is important because concerns have been raised by healthcare providers regarding the nutrient and energy sufficiency of BLW. The present study aimed to invstigate exposure to different food types based on different weaning approaches. Methods One hundred and eighty parents completed a 24‐h recall of the foods given to their babies aged 6–12 months. Respondents were split into those following strict BLW, loose BLW and traditional spoon‐feeding. Recalls were examined to ascertain the number of times in 24 h infants were given different types of foods, including iron‐containing foods. The results were then compared between different weaning groups and age groups. Results Several significant differences were found between the frequency of foods eaten by different weaning and age groups: in the youngest age group, strict BLW infants were more likely to be exposed to vegetables (P = 0.000) and protein (P = 0.002) than traditionally weaned babies, whereas, at all age groups, the traditionally weaned group had the highest exposure to composite meals. However, no significant differences were found in reported exposure to iron‐containing foods between weaning groups at any age. Maternal age, education and milk feeding method were controlled for throughout the analyses. Conclusions The findings add to a growing body of evidence that suggest a BLW approach may be safe and sufficient.
... A responsive feeding style that enables the infant to self-feed, compared to spoon-feeding, promotes acceptance of new foods in the child's diet (D'Auria et al., 2018). The child can explore the food's aesthetic properties and increase their confidence in selffeeding and appetite self-regulation (Brown & Lee, 2011;Brown & Lee, 2013;D'Auria et al., 2018). ...
... Moreover, few had concerns about their children's weight, as long as they were content and gained weight over time. This finding is consistent with Brown and Lee's (2011) study of 702 mothers living in the United Kingdom. They found that mothers who adopted a responsive feeding style were less likely to restrict or pressure their children to eat. ...
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Infant feeding is closely related to children’s life-long health and well-being. It is common for parents to withstand infant feeding challenges and with a plethora of guidelines and advice caregivers can face a great deal of stress. Extra-familial child care and employment circumstances also impact infant feeding, yet little is known about how caregivers experience them. This qualitative study explores working mothers’ infant feeding experiences during their children’s transition to a child care setting. Six mothers with at least one child age 6 to 18 months old in child care participated in semistructured interviews. The themes identified using an Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis approach were infant feeding burden on mothers, weaning stress, responsive feeding style, seeking professional support, and child care setting partnership. Mothers experienced a significant infant feeding burden due to a gendered division of labor and lack of professional resources and support. The infant feeding burden decreased considerably once children transitioned to child care and some feeding responsibilities were reallocated. Recommendations are discussed for how child care settings can play a more substantial role in supporting families with infant feeding through knowledge translation strategies and modeling. Future research directives assessing how partners can better assist mothers with infant feeding are suggested.
... It has been proposed that mothers using baby led weaning (BLW), (the use of whole foods and infant self-feeding from the outset of CF) feed more responsively, and exert less feeding control than those using traditional weaning (TW) (Brown, Jones & Rowan, 2017;Brown & Lee, 2011a). However, we know little about BLW mothers' perceptions of their feeding interactions and their infants' cues. ...
... Price et al. (2012) analysed telephone discussions concerning obesity prevention between health professionals and 60 TW mothers of infants aged 0-6 months. Mothers reported two challenges to interpreting infant feeding state: contradictions between expected and observed behaviour (infants still appearing hungry after being fed) and the While no studies so far have examined perceptions of hunger, satiation and enough in the specific context of BLW, there is preliminary evidence from two self-report studies of different feeding responses (lower levels of maternal restriction and pressure to eat) in BLW compared with TW mothers (Brown, & Lee, 2011a;Brown & Lee 2015). Reasons for these findings are unclear: BLW mothers may be more attuned to their infants' signals or more disposed to following these than TW mothers. ...
Article
Mothers' responsiveness to hunger and fullness cues has been implicated in the development of infant overweight, and baby led weaning (BLW) is argued to be one way to protect against overfeeding. Whilst studies have examined maternal perceptions of hunger, fullness and adequate intake to some degree in traditional weaning (TW) contexts, less is known about this in BLW. This study therefore aimed to understand and compare maternal perceptions of cues and intake in BLW and TW. Eleven mothers of infants (7-24m) participated in semi-structured interviews based on discussions of short videos featuring participants feeding their infants. Interviews were read and transcribed in full. Data were selected for coding which addressed mothers' perceptions of infant hunger, fullness and sufficient consumption and subsequently subjected to template analysis. A sample of data was coded to produce an initial template which was applied to all interviews and revised in an iterative process to produce a final template for interpreting findings. Mothers in the study were adept at recognising fullness cues and gauging feeding state. Both groups perceived similar hunger cues although TW mothers reported a wider range of fullness cues. Both groups used numerous strategies for judging the adequacy of their babies' intake. These included the use of infant cues, however perceived adequacy of intake was also influenced by factors such as infant tiredness and maternal worries about over and under-eating. Findings have implications for the development of responsive feeding interventions while also highlighting the utility of video elicited interviews for understanding feeding interactions.
... Yet, there are different findings in literature (Brown & Lee, 2013;Taylor et al., 2017;Townsend & Pitchford, 2012). To illustrate, in the study of Brown and Lee (2011), it was determined that there was no significant difference between the feeding styles and weights of the infants. Townsend and Pitchford (2012) found that the BLW-fed infants had a lower incidence of obesity than the TW-fed ones. ...
... The feeding method, attitudes, and practices of the parents affect the eating habits of children. In one study, it was determined that the mothers of BLW-fed infants applied less pressure on their children to eat, concerned about child weight less, restricted the amount of food less, and monitored the infant's eating less than the mothers who preferred traditional weaning (Brown & Lee, 2011). Similarly, perceived responsibility, concern about child weight and pressure to eat were deeper in TW than in BLW in this study. ...
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This study aimed to examine the assessment of nutritional status in early childhood and the experiences of the mothers whose children started traditional and/or baby-led complementary weaning. The study included 485 mothers who used social media, all of whom had a 6–24 month-old child receiving complementary foods. In order to collect data, Socio-demographic and Anthropometric Data Collection Form, Complementary Feeding Transition Information Form, and Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) were used. The findings indicate that the children whose mothers adopted traditional weaning suffered less from iron deficiency, (p < .05). There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of aspiration/choking situation (p > .05). However, there was a significant difference between the groups in terms of the children's BMI (p < .07). It was determined that the mothers who preferred traditional weaning had more control over their infant’s feeding, and these children tended to be more overweight.
... Due to the development of appetite, it is beneficial to feed the child according to its needs [3]. The recommendations of the Polish Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (PTGHiŻD) [7] and the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) [5] take into account the fact that the child should decide whether to eat food and in what amount and the parents decide what the child should eat [8]. Parental attitudes such as forbidding, urging, coercing and other similar reactions cause defensive behavior in the child and are often the cause of feeding problems. ...
... Brown and Lee [6] pointed out that mothers who used BLW ensure that eating is a pleasure for both them and the child. These women showed less controlling behavior and approached the expansion of the infant's diet much more calmly than mothers who spoon-fed [6,[8][9][10][11]]. ...
Article
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Baby-led weaning (BLW) is an increasingly popular way of expanding a baby's diet. It is based on the baby becoming physically ready to feed himself, effectively supplementing his diet, which until now has been based on breast milk or modified milk. The aim of the study was to assess mothers' knowledge about the use of the BLW method to expand the diet of a young child. The essence of the study assumed the analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of using this method indicated by mothers. Materials and methods: A total of 320 mothers participated in the study. Data for the study were collected anonymously using the CAWI method. The research tool was the original questionnaire relating to the knowledge about the BLW method and the application of the BLW method in practice. Results: The BLW method was used by 240 (75%) women. The reasons for not using the BLW method were: the child did not cooperate n = 30 (37.5%) and was not ready to use the BLW method n = 20 (25%). In total, 182 (75.8%) mothers using BLW and 63 (78.8%) mothers not using BLW started extending the diet before the child was 6 months old. According to 270 (84.4%) mothers, including 205 (85.4%) using BLW, stable sitting in a highchair/on the lap is a decisive factor for starting the dietary expansion with the BLW method. Conclusions: Mothers' knowledge of the BLW method as a way of expanding a young child's diet was insufficient. It seems important to implement appropriate educational activities on the methods of expanding children's diets to broaden parents' knowledge of the influence of nutrition on infant development.
... Pertama, Biaya MPASI lebih murah dan waktu persiapan makan lebih singkat karena tidak memerlukan berbagai peralatan food processor; anak dapat makan dengan menu yang sama dengan anggota keluarga lain sehingga waktu makan terasa lebih menyenangkan (Brown & Lee, 2011); ...
... Persepsi positif pada makanan ini akan mengajarkan anak untuk menerima berbagai jenis rasa sehingga anak tidak memiliki kecenderungan untuk menjadi pemilih dalam menu kesehariannya. Brown and Lee (2011) menemukan bahwa BLW berkorelasi dengan pola makan yang lebih sehat, kenyamanan anak menghabiskan makanannya, dan bayi yang lebih menikmati waktu makannya dibanding bayi yang makan dengan cara konvensional. ...
... Brown i Lee (3) zwróciły uwagę, że matki, które stosowały BLW, uważają, że samodzielne jedzenie przez dzieci jest przyjemnością zarówno dla nich, jak i dla dziecka. Kobiety te wykazały mniej zachowań kontrolujących i podchodziły dużo spokojniej do rozszerzania diety niemowlęcia niż matki karmiące łyżeczką (9)(10)(11)(12)25) . Dla dzieci sposobność samodzielnego jedzenia ma także inne korzyści, nie tylko związane z żywieniem. ...
... Należy jednak uważać, by produkty te nie były bogate w sól, cukier czy nasycone kwasy tłuszczowe (14) . W metodzie BLW niemowlę samodzielnie narzuca swoje tempo jedzenia oraz decyduje, (1,(9)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20)(21)(22)(23)(24) co chce zjeść, a czego nie. Dziecko traktuje spożywanie posiłków jako pewnego rodzaju zabawę, dzięki której może naśladować zachowania osób obecnych przy stole. ...
Article
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Baby-led weaning (BLW) is an increasingly widely known method of introducing complementary foods to an infant’s diet. BLW is based on a child’s physical readiness for self-feeding, with a positive effect of expansion of a diet that was previously based exclusively on mother’s milk or formula milk. There are both advantages and disadvantages of BLW. The advantages of BLW include, among other aspects, the fact that the child finds eating pleasurable, it can eat meals together with the family, it can eat away from home and has an opportunity to learn new flavours. The disadvantages of BLW include, for example, disorder caused by the child during self-feeding and a risk of choking. In order to prevent choking, it is recommended that products which are small and round with a hard and smooth surface, and a cross-section resembling that of the child’s airways be avoided. According to the current guidelines of the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, for the first 6 months of life a child should be fed exclusively with their mother’s milk and complementary foods should be introduced starting between week 17 and 26 of the child’s life due to the development of readiness to consume solid food. Complementary feeding can be achieved through self-feeding based on BLW or by the child being fed by an adult using a spoon, among other means. The order in which different products are introduced is decided on by the parents. After the child has turned one year of age, breastfeeding should be continued as long as the mother and child wish.
... 15 18 19 There is also evidence for an association between parents' modifiable feeding behaviours and childhood obesity risk. [20][21][22][23][24] Such behaviours include the initiation and duration of breast feeding, [25][26][27] inappropriate bottle use including prolonged use, 15 28 early introduction of solids 15 29 30 and the types, variety and sensory properties of foods fed to children. 31 32 Parental feeding behaviours are particularly important in infancy because of rapid developmental changes and concurrent developmental and feeding needs. ...
... The long-term aim of the CHErIsH study is to contribute to the prevention of childhood obesity through appropriate infant feeding via an effective intervention delivered at primary care vaccination visits. Implementation and delivery of clear consistent infant feeding messages in routine primary care will address an important component of childhood obesity risk, [20][21][22][23][24] which can be further implemented in multicomponent, national and international approaches to childhood obesity prevention. This feasibility study is the first examination of an infant feeding intervention, and HCP implementation strategy, to prevent childhood obesity delivered by HCPs at infant vaccination visits in a primary care practice. ...
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Introduction Childhood obesity is a public health challenge. There is evidence for associations between parents’ feeding behaviours and childhood obesity risk. Primary care provides a unique opportunity for delivery of infant feeding interventions for childhood obesity prevention. Implementation strategies are needed to support infant feeding intervention delivery. The Choosing Healthy Eating for Infant Health (CHErIsH) intervention is a complex infant feeding intervention delivered at infant vaccination visits, alongside a healthcare professional (HCP)-level implementation strategy to support delivery. Methods and analysis This protocol provides a description of a non-randomised feasibility study of an infant feeding intervention and implementation strategy, with an embedded process evaluation and economic evaluation. Intervention participants will be parents of infants aged ≤6 weeks at recruitment, attending a participating HCP in a primary care practice. The intervention will be delivered at the infant’s 2, 4, 6, 12 and 13 month vaccination visits and involves brief verbal infant feeding messages and additional resources, including a leaflet, magnet, infant bib and sign-posting to an information website. The implementation strategy encompasses a local opinion leader, HCP training delivered prior to intervention delivery, electronic delivery prompts and additional resources, including a training manual, poster and support from the research team. An embedded mixed-methods process evaluation will examine the acceptability and feasibility of the intervention, the implementation strategy and study processes including data collection. Qualitative interviews will explore parent and HCP experiences and perspectives of delivery and receipt of the intervention and implementation strategy. Self-report surveys will examine fidelity of delivery and receipt, and acceptability, suitability and comprehensiveness of the intervention, implementation strategy and study processes. Data from electronic delivery prompts will also be collected to examine implementation of the intervention. A cost–outcome description will be conducted to measure costs of the intervention and the implementation strategy. Ethics and dissemination This study received approval from the Clinical Research Ethics Committee of the Cork Teaching Hospitals. Study findings will be disseminated via peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited, appropriate credit is given, any changes made indicated, and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.
... In correlational studies to date, greater engagement with a baby-led approach to weaning has been associated with increased self-regulation of food intake (Rowan & Harris, 2012), greater child fruit and vegetable consumption (Fu et al., 2018) and participation in family mealtimes (Brown & Lee, 2011b). However, these studies are cross-sectional and may actually be driven by child behaviours which influence decisions about weaning, or demographic differences between families who choose to adopt different approaches to complementary feeding. ...
... Items were adapted from previous questionnaires assessing babyled approaches to weaning (Brown & Lee, 2011b;Cameron et al., 2012). These three questions about current feeding practices were answered using a sliding scale with response options ranging from never 0 to always 100. ...
Article
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The timing and strategy with which parents first introduce their infants to solid foods may be an important predictor of subsequent developmental outcomes. Recent years have seen a decline in the prevalence of traditional parent-led feeding of soft, puréed food and a rise in the prevalence of infant-led complementary feeding. Although there has been some research espousing the benefits of infant-led complementary feeding for improving food fussiness and self-regulation, there has been little exploration of this approach that may impact on other developmental outcomes in children. The current study explores whether aspects of the infant-led approach, specifically the child eating unaided and consuming finger foods and eating with the family, are related to child language outcomes. One hundred thirty one parents of children aged 8–24 months completed questionnaires about their approach to complementary feeding, their current feeding practices, their child's experiences with family foods and child language comprehension/production. The findings suggest that an approach to complementary feeding which promotes infant autonomy in feeding (i.e., eating finger foods rather than puréed foods) and consuming more family foods is related to more advanced child language production and comprehension. Specifically, the prevalence of eating family foods mediated the relationship between eating unaided at the onset of the complementary feeding period and later language outcomes. This study is the first to find a significant relationship between different approaches to introducing solid foods and child language outcomes and these findings highlight the potential for different complementary feeding approaches to influence behaviour beyond mealtimes.
... In BLW, food is offered to the infant in whole form, as finger food, rather than puréed. Infants self-feed by selecting and grasping food, and join in family meals, consuming family foods [73]. ...
... A recent study demonstrates that infants weaned using a baby-led approach were significantly more satiety-responsive and less likely to be overweight, compared with those weaned using a standard approach [73]. This was independent of breast-feeding duration, timing of introduction to complementary foods, and maternal control. ...
Article
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Relevant factors involved in the creation of some children’s food preferences and eating behaviours have been examined in order to highlight the topic and give paediatricians practical instruments to understand the background behind eating behaviour and to manage children’s nutrition for preventive purposes. Electronic databases were searched to locate and appraise relevant studies. We carried out a search to identify papers published in English on factors that influence children’s feeding behaviours. The family system that surrounds a child’s domestic life will have an active role in establishing and promoting behaviours that will persist throughout his or her life. Early-life experiences with various tastes and flavours have a role in promoting healthy eating in future life. The nature of a narrative review makes it difficult to integrate complex interactions when large sets of studies are involved. In the current analysis, parental food habits and feeding strategies are the most dominant determinants of a child’s eating behaviour and food choices. Parents should expose their offspring to a range of good food choices while acting as positive role models. Prevention programmes should be addressed to them, taking into account socioeconomic aspects and education.
... Parents who implement BLW practices have also been seen to introduce complementary foods later compared with parents who follow traditional spoon-feeding practices, while adhering to the World Health Organization's (WHO) recommendation for the introduction of solids at around 6 months of age [28,29,31,[37][38][39][40][41]. Many studies also focus on primiparous samples, who may differ from multiparous samples [21,31,42]. ...
... Likewise, Alpers et al. (2019) used parent-reported data to conclude that there was no difference in infant (n = 134, 6-12 months) weight-for-age centile between BLW (spoon feeding for 10% or less) and traditional weaning (spoon feeding more than 10%) groups [51]. The results reported by Brown et al. (2011a) similarly showed no association between complementary feeding method and infant weight at 6 or 12 months of age (n = 604), although these findings were too based on parent-reported infant weight and height [21]. ...
Article
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Complementary feeding methods have the potential to not only ensure a diet of nutritional adequacy but also promote optimal food-related behaviours and skills. While the complementary feeding practice known as baby-led weaning (BLW) has gained popularity, evidence supporting the potential benefits and/or risks for infant growth, development, and health warrants consideration. A review of 29 studies was conducted with findings indicating that parents who implement BLW typically have higher levels of education, breastfeed for longer, and differ in other personality traits. Fear of choking was an important factor in parents’ decision not to implement BLW; however, this fear was not supported by the literature. Benefits of BLW included lower food fussiness, higher food enjoyment, lower food responsiveness, and higher satiety responsiveness. While this profile of eating behaviours confers a reduced obesity risk, few studies have examined the relationship between BLW and infant growth robustly. BLW does not seem to increase the risk of inadequate zinc or iron intake; however, emphasis needs to be given to ensuring adequate intake of these micronutrients among all infants. A better understanding of the impacts of BLW is needed to inform evidence-based recommendations to support and guide parents in complementary feeding methods.
... Parental approaches to early infant feeding and weaning are implicated in the development and maintenance of childhood obesity (4)(5)(6). Facets of infant feeding associated with childhood overweight and obesity include duration of breastfeeding (7,8), the type and timing of introduction of solid foods (9)(10)(11)(12)(13) and parent-child interactions during feeding (6,14,15). ...
Article
Background: Interventions to prevent childhood obesity increasingly focus on infant feeding, but demonstrate inconsistent effects. A comprehensive qualitative evidence synthesis is essential to better understand feeding behaviours and inform intervention development. The aim of this study is to synthesize evidence on perceptions and experiences of infant feeding and complementary feeding recommendations. Methods: Databases CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Academic Search Complete, SocIndex and Maternity and Infant Care were searched from inception to May 2017. Eligible studies examined parents' experiences of complementary feeding of children (<2 years). Data were synthesized using thematic synthesis. Results: Twenty-five studies met inclusion criteria for review. Four key themes emerged. 'Guidelines and advice' highlights variety and inconsistencies between sources of complementary feeding information. 'Stage of weaning' describes infant feeding as a process involving different stages. 'Knowing and trying' outlines parents' engagement in feeding approaches based on instinct, prior experience or trial and error. 'Daily life' highlights problematic cost and time constraints for parents. Discussion: Parents predominantly understand and want to engage in healthy feeding processes. Consideration of infant feeding as a process that changes over time is necessary to support parents. Provision of clear, consistent information and guidance from trusted sources on when, what and how to feed is also essential.
... In children aged 13-15 years, pressure to eat from parents was an issue for girls but not boys. It is suggested that parents might encourage girls to eat more, with the girls themselves restricting their food intake [43]. ...
Article
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Purpose: Portion size influences energy intake and is an important factor when developing weight management strategies. The effect of tableware on food intake is less clear, especially in children. To date, the relationship between the body weight of individuals and the tableware used in their households has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to analyze the sizes of tableware in households of children and adolescents with obesity (OBE) in comparison to participants with normal-weight matched for age and gender (NW). Methods: 60 OBE (32 female, 26 male) and 27 NW (12 female, 15 male) aged between 9 and 17 years participated in a structured interview on the tableware used at home. Responses were standardized based on the selection of different sizes of tableware and everyday objects presented to the children. Results: In households of NW, larger plates and bowls were used during meals and desserts compared to OBE. OBE drank out of larger bottles. Shapes and sizes of drinkware, the number of children drinking out of bottles and the cutlery used during dessert did not differ between the groups. Conclusions: Drinking out of large bottles may be an unfavourable habit of OBE if they contain sugar-rich liquids. The use of smaller plates and bowls of OBE may result in multiple helpings being consumed and so contribute to an overall increased portion size. Level of evidence: Level V, Descriptive study.
... Skeptics of the baby-led weaning feeding mode raise concern regarding an increased risk of undernutrition, since an infant's restricted motor control impairs their ability to self-feed with sufficient calories or the desired variety of foods that provides adequate amounts of critical micronutrients such as iron. Baby-led weaning is driven by a hypothesis of improved infant self-control and self-regulation of dietary intake without directing parental involvement at feeding times [35,36] . ...
Chapter
The complementary feeding period is a short transitional period from breastfeeding and formula feeding to family foods. Timing, quantity, and quality are implied to impact growth and obesity risk. We summarized the literature and analyzed data of monthly 3-day food diaries of >1,000 children from 5 European countries in the first 2 years of life, which were collected as part of the prospective European Childhood Obesity Project (CHOP Study). Formula-fed children started complementary food approximately 2 weeks earlier than breastfed children, and almost 40% of them at or before 4 months of age. While introduction of solids between 4 and 6 months or after 6 months does not seem to impact growth and later obesity risk, solids before 4 months of age increased the risk. There are indications that this is especially problematic for formula-fed children. During the complementary feeding period, fat intake decreases, and protein and carbohydrate intakes increase. Protein intake often exceeds European recommendations from 9 months onwards. However, the role of macronutrients during complementary feeding in growth and metabolism needs further clarification. Findings on the role of responsive feeding or baby-led feeding during complementary feeding in growth are not conclusive. In summary, while introduction of complementary foods before 4 months of age should be avoided, the impact of the quality of complementary food on short-term growth and later obesity risk has to be elucidated further.
... The strengths of our study include the randomized trial design, the high level of adherence to the intervention, and the repeated measurement of dietary variety and food preferences using a range of tools. The use of a randomized trial design overcomes the known differences in demographics and parental feeding practices that exist in those who choose to follow BLW rather than traditional feeding practices [14,43], and that could conceivably influence the development of food preferences. Infants who had been randomized to the BLISS intervention group were significantly and substantially more likely to follow a baby-led approach to infant feeding than infants in the Control group [23], so we can be confident that the null findings are not due to poor adherence to the intervention. ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to determine whether food variety and perceived food preferences differ in infants following baby-led instead of traditional spoon-feeding approaches to introducing solids. A total of 206 women (41.3% primiparous) were recruited in late pregnancy from a single maternity hospital (response rate 23.4%) and randomized to Control (n = 101) or BLISS (n = 105) groups. All participants received government-funded Well Child care. BLISS participants also received support to exclusively breastfeed to 6 months and three educational sessions on BLISS (Baby-Led Weaning, modified to reduce the risk of iron deficiency, growth faltering, and choking) at 5.5, 7, and 9 months. Food variety was calculated from three-day weighed diet records at 7, 12, and 24 months. Questionnaires assessed infant preference for different tastes and textures at 12 months, and for ‘vegetables’, ‘fruit’, ‘meat and fish’, or ‘desserts’ at 24 months. At 24 months, 50.5% of participants provided diet record data, and 78.2% provided food preference data. BLISS participants had greater variety in ‘core’ (difference in counts over three days, 95% CI: 1.3, 0.4 to 2.2), ‘non-core’ (0.6, 0.2 to 0.9), and ‘meat and other protein’ (1.3, 0.8 to 1.9) foods at 7 months, and in ‘fruit and vegetable’ foods at 24 months (2, 0.4 to 3.6). The only differences in perceived food preferences observed were very small (i.e., <5% difference in score, at 12 months only). Infants following the modified Baby-Led Weaning were exposed to more varied and textured foods from an early age, but only an increased variety in ‘fruit and vegetable’ intake was apparent by two years of age.
... Parental approaches to early infant feeding and weaning are implicated in the development and maintenance of childhood obesity (4)(5)(6). Facets of infant feeding associated with childhood overweight and obesity include duration of breastfeeding (7,8), the type and timing of introduction of solid foods (9)(10)(11)(12)(13) and parent-child interactions during feeding (6,14,15). ...
Article
Full-text available
Interventions to prevent childhood obesity increasingly focus on infant feeding but demonstrate inconsistent effects. A comprehensive qualitative evidence synthesis is essential to better understand feeding behaviours and inform intervention development. The aim of this study is to synthesise evidence on perceptions and experiences of infant feeding, and complementary feeding recommendations.
... Furthermore, although showing a positive trend that BLW does not appear to increase choking incidences, limitations of the existing research include relatively small samples (<200 infants in each case) and a simplified classification of baby-led versus traditional weaning, whereby mothers were asked to identify as being part of one group. Other research examining BLW has asked mothers to self-define their approach but has also measured frequency of spoon-feeding and puree use, both to clarify whether the chosen approach matches behaviour, as well as to enable more detailed analysis of weaning approach based on degree of spoon-feeding and puree use (4,11,12) . Research has also not examined in detail the choking risk associated with type of food given, particularly in relation to considering type of puree offered (e.g. ...
Article
Background: Baby-led weaning (BLW) where infants self-feed family foods during the period that they are introduced to solid foods is growing in popularity. The method may promote healthier eating patterns, although concerns have been raised regarding its safety. The present study therefore explored choking frequency amongst babies who were being introduced to solid foods using a baby-led or traditional spoon-fed approach. Methods: In total, 1151 mothers with an infant aged 4-12 months reported how they introduced solid foods to their infant (following a strict BLW, loose BLW or traditional weaning style) and frequency of spoon-feeding and puree use (percentage of mealtimes). Mothers recalled if their infant had ever choked and, if so, how many times and on what type of food (smooth puree, lumpy puree, finger food and specific food examples). Results: In total, 13.6% of infants (n = 155) had ever choked. No significant association was found between weaning style and ever choking, or the frequency of spoon or puree use and ever choking. For infants who had ever choked, infants following a traditional weaning approach experience significantly more choking episodes for finger foods (F2,147 = 4.417, P = 0.014) and lumpy purees (F2,131 = 6.46, P = 0.002) than infants following a strict or loose baby-led approach. Conclusions: Baby-led weaning was not associated with increased risk of choking and the highest frequency of choking on finger foods occurred in those who were given finger foods the least often. However, the limitations of noncausal results, a self-selecting sample and reliability of recall must be emphasised.
... This would naturally encourage a responsive maternal feeding style low in control. This was confirmed in one longitudinal study that used a modified version of the child-feeding questionnaire at 6-12 [36] and 18-24 [-19] months to measure maternal pressure to eat, restriction, concern for child weight and monitoring. At both stage, mothers who followed a baby-led approach were lower in each of these, adopting a more responsive feeding style, compared to those following a traditional approach. ...
Article
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Purpose of Review Infants are traditionally introduced to solid foods using spoon-feeding of specially prepared infant foods. Recent Findings However, over the last 10–15 years, an alternative approach termed ‘baby-led weaning’ has grown in popularity. This approach involves allowing infants to self-feed family foods, encouraging the infant to set the pace and intake of the meal. Proponents of the approach believe it promotes healthy eating behaviour and weight gain trajectories, and evidence is starting to build surrounding the method. This review brings together all empirical evidence to date examining behaviours associated with the approach, its outcomes and confounding factors. Summary Overall, although there is limited evidence suggesting that a baby-led approach may encourage positive outcomes, limitations of the data leave these conclusions weak. Further research is needed, particularly to explore pathways to impact and understand the approach in different contexts and populations.
... Chatoor & Ganiban, 2003;Davies et al., 2006;van Dijk, Hunnius, & van Geert, 2009;Linschied, Budd, & Rasnake, 2003). Others have suggested that self-feeding may reduce this risk (Brown & Lee, 2011a, 2011bCameron, Heath, & Taylor, 2012;Wright, Cameron, Tsiaka, & Parkinson, 2011). This study is among the first to identify and describe some of the features of complementary feeding that may account for the presence or absence of friction; further research in this area is urgently needed. ...
Article
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The weaning period, in which complementary foods are introduced into the infant’s diet, can be challenging, with dislike of novel foods known to be common. However, even though at six months (the current recommended age for the introduction of complementary foods) most infants are able to feed themselves with graspable pieces of food, the majority of the research to date assumes the use of spoon feeding and pureed food. The potential impact of the format of the food and the feeding method on the development of food preferences has not been explored. This paper describes the development and piloting of a coding scheme to examine infants’ responses to their first solid food offered in two formats – whole and pureed – and by two methods – self-feeding and spoon feeding, and its first use. The findings for the 10 infants in the study point to some important differences between the two feeding methods.
... 19 Regarding the benefits attributed to BLW, Brown and Lee 20 showed that babies fed with BLW were significantly more sensitive to satiety signals than those fed in the traditional way. In another cross-sectional study, 21 it was also observed that mothers who followed the BLW model did not put so much pressure on their children during meals, were less concerned about weight and did not directly interfere with the amount of food consumed, which promoted selfregulation of hunger and satiety in babies. In relation to this last aspect, in this study the results were not as conclusive, although there was a higher percentage of parents who reported less anxiety and over-involvement in feeding babies. ...
Article
Objective Baby-led-weaning (BLW) is a novel model of complementary feeding. Although there is little scientific evidence to support the suitability or superiority of this complementary feeding model, BLW is followed by many families today. The aim was to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes of a group of parents and health professionals regarding BLW in Spain. Methods This research was designed as a cross-sectional study in a sample of 502 parents and 364 health professionals. Two questionnaires generated and disseminated through Google forms were used. The differences between groups of professionals were analyzed using the Chi-Square test. Results 92.3% of professionals and 93.4% of parents knew about BLW. They recommend BLW “always” in 39.8% and 69.3% of the cases, and “sometimes” in 49.7% and 24.9%, respectively. Of the health professionals, 80.5% recommended starting complementary feeding as of six months, 36% of them using BLW, 24% followed traditional weaning, 3.3% bottle feeding and the remaining 36% did not indicate. Eighty-three percent recommended chewing as soon as the child showed interest. Conclusion Both health professionals and parents recommend BLW and consider it helps promote the developmental milestones of the baby. Providing nurses with an adequate number of resources to guide parents on complementary feeding will continue to improve childcare.
... Several studies have characterized samples that practice BLW, comparing them to those who practice more traditional complementary feeding practices, focusing primarily on maternal characteristics. Mothers who practice BLW tend to have a high level of education, exercise less control over food intake, use less emotional feeding and worry less about their child's weight compared to their non-BLW counterparts [10][11][12]. Some evidence is also available on the first foods offered by families who practice BLW and their sources of information. ...
Article
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Baby-Led Weaning (BLW) is a new and emerging method of introducing complementary feeding in solid consistency, without the use of a spoon and entirely guided by the baby. This study aims to analyze the implementation of the BLW approach in relation to compliance with basic components and sources of information in Chilean families. Using a cross-sectional design, we assessed early nutrition, including breastfeeding and foods offered, maternal/child characteristics and sources of information on BLW among a non-probabilistic sample of mothers of children <24 months who reported practicing BLW (n = 261, median age = 28 years) in Chile. We found that 57.5% of mothers reported their child ate the same food as the family, 44.1% shared ≥3 meals with the family, 84.7% offered ≥3 foods at each meal and 75.6% reported only occasionally offering food with a spoon. The majority reported obtaining information on BLW from social media (82%). Moreover, 56% had offered cookies, 32% added salt and 9% sugar in the first 2 years. Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months related to higher odds of consuming family foods (OR = 2.45, 95% CI 1.24–4.84), while having received information from professional sources and social media related to lower odds (OR = 0.45, 95% CI 0.22–0.88 and OR = 0.31, 95% CI 0.15–0.66, respectively). Those who had appropriate weight gain had lower odds of consuming ≥3 foods in meals (OR = 0.35, 95% CI 0.13–0.96). Among mothers who reported practicing BLW with their children, we observed a wide variety of feeding habits, sources of information and low compliance with the studied components. Eating the same food as the family was the most prevalent component and social media was the main source of information on BLW.
... Tais autores, em outro estudo transversal, com uma amostra de 702 díades mãe-bebê, identificaram que as mães que seguiam o BLW faziam uma menor pressão em seus filhos na hora da alimentação, tinham menor preocupação com o peso, não interferiam diretamente na quantidade consumida e consequentemente promoviam a autorregulação do apetite e da saciedade. 29 Os autores sugerem o método BLW como padrão de alimentação complementar, visto que o autoconhecimento da saciedade e do apetite contribuem para um padrão alimentar e comportamental saudável no futuro. ...
Article
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Objective: To analyze the scientific literature on Baby-Led Weaning with an integrative literature review to identify risks and benefits. Data source: The databases used were: National Library of Medicine (MEDLINE), Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences (LILACS – Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde), US National Library of Medicine (PubMed), and Virtual Health Library (BVS – Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde) in December 2017. The inclusion criteria established were publications in English with the descriptor “baby-led weaning” in the heading, abstract, or keywords, classified as original articles, of primary nature, and available online and in full. We excluded review articles, editorials, letters to the editor, critical commentaries, and books on the subject, as well as articles not available in full and duplicates. Data summary: We identified 106 articles, of which 17 met the selection criteria. The Baby-Led Weaning method was significantly associated with the baby’s satiety, the start of complementary feeding, and adequacy of weight gain. On the other hand, choking and the intake of micronutrients were negatively associated, however with no statistical differences. Conclusions: Despite the benefits found, the risks still deserve attention and should be investigated with longitudinal randomized controlled studies to ensure the safety of the method when practiced exclusively.
... This research was conducted throughout Indonesia with the consideration that there was no data on mothers who applied baby-led weaning in the country, so the study was conducted nationally. A national study was also carried out by several previous baby-led weaning researchers in other countries (4,10). ...
Article
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Background: development of feeding methods for babies grow over time with new ones is baby-led weaning. The concern for this method that is felt by mothers and health workers is the risk of choking when the baby is self-feeding. Studies to address this problem are still lacking; therefore, further research must be conducted. Objectives: This study aimed to identify differences in choking incidents in babies using baby-led weaning and traditional weaning. Methods: This study used a comparative descriptive method, with a sample of babies aged 6-12 months. The sampling technique is convenience sampling, which was taken in one month. Inclusion criteria included babies living in Indonesia, those without congenital or chronic disease, and completed the self-report questionnaire. A total of 286 respondents were eligible for this study. Data were analysed using a chi-square test. Results: There was a significant difference in choking incidents between the baby-led and traditional weaning groups (p value = 0.014). Baby-led weaning babies were 1.98 times more prone to choking than traditional weaning babies. Conclusions: This study adds references to the field of baby-led weaning in terms of safety concerns. Therefore, mothers who decide to use this method for their babies should consider observing the baby during feeding
Chapter
Newborn infants are born with primitive reflexes to support the transition from intrauterine to extrauterine life; among the most important are the reflexes that support eating. Across the first 1000days of life, the responsibilities and tasks of eating transition from the parent feeding, to the child independently eating a wide variety of foods. Skills across developmental domains underlie the child's ability to transition to a variety of foods across the first 1000days of life. Development in gross, fine, and oral motor domains, as well as food preferences and acceptance of various sensory properties of foods, and cognitive abilities, all influence how the infant and young child assumes their responsibilities within the feeding context. Parents influence their child's eating habits; however, the child's characteristics and behaviors influence the parent's behaviors during mealtimes as well. The interdependence of these factors ultimately provide a framework for early eating habits.
Thesis
Aim and objectives: The overall aim of this research was to investigate maternal and paternal behaviours and attitudes and their influences on the diet and growth of infants in the first year of life. Specific objectives were to assess: maternal wellbeing and breastfeeding outcomes; weaning and supplementation practices; infant growth and body composition; and the views of fathers on having a breastfeeding partner. Methodology: The first study was a prospective observational study, involving the recruitment of 270 pregnant women from the public and semi-private antenatal clinics of the Coombe Women and Infants University Hospital. Mother-infant dyads were then followed-up at birth and at four, nine and 12 months post-partum. Data were obtained on maternal wellbeing and on infant milk feeding, weaning practices and growth. The second study was a cross-sectional study in which a semi-quantitative questionnaire explored the feeding experiences of 417 men whose partner breastfed. Results: Of the sample of 270 pregnant women, 55.9% (n151) initiated breastfeeding. From this initial sample, 172 mothers were followed-up at four months post-partum, and 36.0% (n62) of these mothers were distressed. Controlling for other factors, distress was significantly (p=0.01) more likely at this time if a mother was breastfeeding. Only two in five (42.9%, n47) of these mothers put supports in place to help them to breastfeed, and of the 417 men whose partner breastfed, almost half (49.4%, n117) were unable to help their partner when she experienced breastfeeding difficulties. Of the 158 infants followed-up to one year of age, the average age at which they were weaned on to solid food was 20.7 weeks and 86.1% (n136) were weaned at or after 17 weeks of age. Only 57.6% (n91), 34.2% (n54) and 23.4% (n37) of infants were being correctly supplemented with vitamin D at four, nine and 12 months of age, respectively. Supplementing as recommended was significantly more likely if mothers had received advice on doing so from a health professional. Regarding growth, 28.5% (n45) of infants grew rapidly during the first year of life, with male infants having a significantly (p<0.01) higher fat-free mass at birth and at age one year, compared to females. Conclusions: Parents need structured guidance to assist them in preparing for breastfeeding. Health professionals must persist in promoting healthy weaning and vitamin D supplementation practices. Further research is needed to identify clinically useful ways in which the growth and body composition of infants can be assessed.
Article
Objective Baby-led-weaning (BLW) is a novel model of complementary feeding. Although there is little scientific evidence to support the suitability or superiority of this complementary feeding model, BLW is followed by many families today. The aim was to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes of a group of parents and health professionals regarding BLW in Spain. Methods This research was designed as a cross-sectional study in a sample of 502 parents and 364 health professionals. Two questionnaires generated and disseminated through Google forms were used. The differences between groups of professionals were analyzed using the Chi-Square test. Results 92.3% of professionals and 93.4% of parents knew about BLW. They recommend BLW “always” in 39.8% and 69.3% of the cases, and “sometimes” in 49.7% and 24.9%, respectively. Of the health professionals, 80.5% recommended starting complementary feeding as of six months, 36% of them using BLW, 24% followed traditional weaning, 3.3% bottle feeding and the remaining 36% did not indicate. Eighty-three percent recommended chewing as soon as the child showed interest. Conclusion Both health professionals and parents recommend BLW and consider it helps promote the developmental milestones of the baby. Providing nurses with an adequate number of resources to guide parents on complementary feeding will continue to improve childcare.
Article
Importance Baby-led approaches to complementary feeding, which promote self-feeding of all nonliquid foods are proposed to improve energy self-regulation and lower obesity risk. However, to date, no randomized clinical trials have studied this proposition. Objective To determine whether a baby-led approach to complementary feeding results in a lower body mass index (BMI) than traditional spoon-feeding. Design, Setting, and Participants The 2-year Baby-Led Introduction to Solids (BLISS) randomized clinical trial recruited 206 women (168 [81.6%] of European ancestry; 85 [41.3%] primiparous) in late pregnancy from December 19, 2012, through March 17, 2014, as part of a community intervention in Dunedin, New Zealand. Women were randomized to a control condition (n = 101) or the BLISS intervention (n = 105) after stratification for parity and education. All outcomes were collected by staff blinded to group randomization, and no participants withdrew because of an adverse event. Data were analyzed based on intention to treat. Interventions Mothers in the BLISS group received lactation consultant support (≥5 contacts) to extend exclusive breastfeeding and delay introduction of complementary foods until 6 months of age and 3 personalized face-to-face contacts (at 5.5, 7.0, and 9.0 months). Main Outcomes and Measures The primary outcome was BMI z score (at 12 and 24 months). Secondary outcomes included energy self-regulation and eating behaviors assessed with questionnaires at 6, 12, and 24 months and energy intake assessed with 3-day weighed diet records at 7, 12, and 24 months. Results Among the 206 participants (mean [SD] age, 31.3 [5.6] years), 166 were available for analysis at 24 months (retention, 80.5%). The mean (SD) BMI z score was not significantly different at 12 months (control group, 0.20 [0.89]; BLISS group, 0.44 [1.13]; adjusted difference, 0.21; 95% CI, −0.07 to 0.48) or at 24 months (control group, 0.24 [1.01]; BLISS group, 0.39 [1.04]; adjusted difference, 0.16; 95% CI, −0.13 to 0.45). At 24 months, 5 of 78 infants (6.4%) were overweight (BMI≥95th percentile) in the control group compared with 9 of 87 (10.3%) in the BLISS group (relative risk, 1.8; 95% CI, 0.6-5.7). Lower satiety responsiveness was observed in BLISS infants at 24 months (adjusted difference, −0.24; 95% CI, −0.41 to −0.07). Parents also reported less food fussiness (adjusted difference, −0.33; 95% CI, −0.51 to −0.14) and greater enjoyment of food (adjusted difference, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.07 to 0.43) at 12 months in BLISS infants. Estimated differences in energy intake were 55 kJ (95% CI, −284 to 395 kJ) at 12 months and 143 kJ (95% CI, −241 to 526 kJ) at 24 months. Conclusions and Relevance A baby-led approach to complementary feeding did not result in more appropriate BMI than traditional spoon-feeding, although children were reported to have less food fussiness. Further research should determine whether these findings apply to individuals using unmodified baby-led weaning. Trial Registration http://anzctr.org.au Identifier: ACTRN12612001133820
Conference Paper
Background: Mothers’ responsiveness to hunger and fullness cues has been implicated in the development of infant overweight, and baby led weaning (BLW) has been cited as being protective in this area. We know something of maternal perceptions of hunger, fullness and adequate intake in spoon feeding (SF) contexts, but not in BLW. Aim and Objectives: This study aimed to examine and compare maternal perceptions of hunger, fullness and adequate intake in both BLW and SF meals Method: 11 mothers of infants from 6 to 18 months participated in semi-structured, video-elicited interviews regarding perceptions of infant hunger, fullness and adequate intake. Data were analysed using Template Analysis. Interviews were read, transcribed and coded using themes drawn from the research questions. Themes were modified as coding progressed to produce an initial template. This was checked against the data and revised to produce a final template for interpreting findings. Results: BLW and SF mothers reported similar feeding cues though SF mothers identified a wider range of fullness cues. Assessments of adequate intake were guided by infant cues, but by other concerns also e.g. worries about infant over and under-eating, infant sleep etc. Both groups also reported using numerous strategies for judging the adequacy of intake. Interpretation: Mothers from both groups showed an awareness of infant feeding cues. SF mothers’ reporting of a wider range of fullness cues may indicate that SF is a less responsive feeding approach than BLW. However, in both groups, decisions about when infants had consumed enough were influenced by issues other than infant cues alone. Conclusions: Mothers are adept at recognising fullness cues and gauging feeding state. However, judgements about adequate intake are not made solely on the basis of infant cues. Such information is likely to be helpful to professionals supporting mothers in developing responsive feeding practices.
Article
A introdução alimentar é extremamente importante para o crescimento e desenvolvimento infantil, e quando feito de maneira correta, diminui as chances de problemas futuros para a criança. Sendo assim, novos métodos de introdução alimentar complementar ganharam força ao longo dos anos. Um desses é o Baby-Led Weaning (BLW), que em português significa: Alimentação guiada pelo bebê. A abordagem acredita promover um comportamento alimentar saudável, melhorar o controle do apetite, gerando resultados positivos para o desenvolvimento do bebê, se tornando conhecida pelo fato de promover as crianças um crescimento saudável e mais independente. Portanto, o objetivo geral da seguinte revisão bibliográfica é analisar as evidências científicas acerca dos efeitos da aplicação do BLW como método de introdução alimentar nos bebês. Tendo como questão norteadora identificar quais os efeitos da aplicação do BLW como método de introdução alimentar nos bebês. Metodologia: Foram realizadas buscas de artigos nas bases de dados do PubMed (Publisher Medline), MEDLINE (Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online), e BMJ Open (British Medical Journal Open), como descritores para a pesquisa foram utilizados: Baby-led weaning, Baby-Led, e BLW, utilizando and e o delineador de palavra–chave, isolados ou combinados entre si. Como critérios de inclusão foram utilizados artigos publicados em inglês, espanhol e português, textos disponíveis na íntegra e datas de publicações entre 2005 e 2019. Os critérios de exclusão foram artigos duplicados e artigos que não envolvem o tema de forma direta. A busca na base de dados resultou em 12 artigos, e dados epidemiológicos do Ministério da Saúde. Foram encontrados diversos resultados que mostraram a influência do método na melhora da relação família e bebê, melhora no desenvolvimento da criança, nos fatores de percepção de fome e saciedade e na relação com a comida. Dessa forma, conclui-se que a abordagem estudada foi associada a um aumento das refeições em família, e um menor consumo de alimentos industrializados. No entanto foi observado uma deficiência de nutrientes, e um menor IMC, em bebês que seguiram o método BLW.
Article
Baby-led weaning (BLW) is an alternative complementary feeding method by which children feed themselves starting at 6 months with suitable solid finger foods. Despite its increasing popularity worldwide, research is limited on its effects on diet-related behaviours and no study has yet addressed its association with fine motor skills. This cross-sectional study aimed to compare 10- to 14-month-old children's mealtime behaviours, food acceptance and fine motor skills between the BLW and traditional spoon-feeding (TSF) methods (n = 82; 41 per group). Parents completed three online questionnaires regarding feeding practices, eating behaviours and food consumption acceptance, and the Peabody developmental motor scale test was performed in person with each child. Compared to the TSF method, BLW was associated with a higher satiety responsiveness score (mean ± SEM: BLW 13.6 ± 0.5 vs. TSF 11.6 ± 0.5, p = 0.005), a slower eating pace (BLW 10.0 ± 0.5 vs. TSF 11.4 ± 0.5, p = 0.04), and a marginally higher grasping skill score and fine motor quotient (p = 0.05 for both). There was no difference in food acceptance between the two feeding methods. Parental pressure was negatively associated with some food acceptance and mealtime behaviours. BLW is associated with beneficial mealtime behaviours and possibly with fine motor skills development. This study reiterates the importance of avoiding pressuring infants while eating.
Article
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Bebek Liderliğinde Beslenme (BLW) 2001-2002 yılında Gill Rapley tarafından normal gelişim gösteren bebekler için geleneksel tamamlayıcı beslenme modeline alternatif olarak geliştirilmiştir. BLW modelinde bebeğe sunulan yiyecekler bebeğin beslenmesiyle ilgilenen kişilere göre değişmektedir. Hangi bakıcılara kimler tarafından nasıl eğitim verileceği ve uygulamaların nasıl gerçekleşeceği konusunda standart bir eğitim ve uygulama kılavuzu bulunmamaktadır. BLW modeli bebeğin aktif katılımı ve tercihleri doğrultusunda ilerlediği için makro ve mikro besin ögesi yetersizlikleri, boğulma riski, besin tercihleri ve kalitesi, açlık tokluk mekanizması üzerindeki etkisi, ailenin tutumlarının bebek üzerine etkisi gibi birçok yönden tartışmaya konu olmuştur. Dünya Sağlık Örgütü tarafından BLW modelini öneren bir açıklama yapılmamıştır. Avrupa Pediatrik Gastroenteroloji, Hepatoloji ve Beslenme Derneği (ESPGHAN) de 2017 yılında yayınlandığı raporda BLW modeli konusunda çıkarımda bulunmak için yeterli kanıtın bulunmadığını belirtmiştir. Bu nedenle bu alanda geniş çaplı kontrollü çalışmalara gereksinim bulunmaktadır. Bu derlemede, son günlerde popüler olan BLW modeli güncel literatür ışığında incelenmiştir.
Thesis
Être capable d’ajuster les quantités consommées selon la densité énergétique des aliments contribue au maintien de l’équilibre de la balance énergétique. Dans un contexte de prévalence du surpoids chez l’enfant, il est crucial d’identifier les facteurs précoces susceptibles d’affecter les capacités d’ajustement énergétique. Durant toute la diversification alimentaire, les quantités ingérées, et donc les capacités d’ajustement énergétique, dépendent en partie de la qualité de l’interaction parent-enfant. Une étude épidémiologique suggère que les capacités d’ajustement énergétique se détérioreraient vers l’âge de un an. C’est aussi à cette période que survient le passage d’une alimentation spécifique bébé à une alimentation de type adulte.Aussi, dans ce travail, nous avons mis en place un suivi longitudinal afin de décrire, à l’aide d’une mesure expérimentale de compensation calorique, les changements développementaux des capacités d’ajustement énergétique entre 11 et 15 mois. Nous avons aussi exploré si certains facteurs relatifs aux caractéristiques individuelles des nourrissons, aux aliments qu’ils avaient consommés ou à l’interaction mère-nourrisson au cours du repas étaient liés aux capacités d’ajustement énergétique.Nous avons mis en évidence qu’à 11 et 15 mois les nourrissons sous-compensent leur prise énergétique à la suite de la consommation d’un premier aliment plus ou moins calorique, avec cependant de grandes différences interindividuelles. L’ajustement énergétique n’est pas meilleur si l’on considère l’ensemble des prises alimentaires au cours des 24h suivant la consommation de ce premier aliment. À 11 mois, les nourrissons ont de meilleures capacités d’ajustement énergétique lorsque, au cours du repas, la mère adapte le rythme des cuillerées à la taille des cuillerées ce qui pourrait refléter un nourrissage réceptif. À 15 mois, les nourrissons ajustent leur prise alimentaire sur des critères volumétriques plutôt que caloriques. Quel que soit l’âge, aucun lien n’a été mis en évidence entre l’expérience alimentaire des nourrissons (lactée et diversifiée) et leurs capacités d’ajustement énergétique. Concernant les changements développementaux, nous avons montré que les capacités d’ajustement énergétique se détériorent de 11 à 15 mois. Les nourrissons pour lesquels cette détérioration est plus importante sont perçus par leur mère comme étant plus ‘attirés’ par la nourriture. De plus, la détérioration des capacités d’ajustement énergétique est associée à une augmentation du z-IMC entre 11 et 15 mois et à un z-IMC plus élevé à 24 mois. Par ailleurs, plus les nourrissons sont exposés à des recettes de légumes de densité énergétique variable entre 8 et 11 mois, moins leur z-IMC est élevé à 8 mois et 11 mois. Ce travail souligne que les capacités d’ajustement énergétique sont associées à différents facteurs précoces relatifs au fonctionnement de la dyade mère-nourrisson et au statut pondéral des nourrissons. Ces résultats ouvrent un nouveau champ de recherche visant à comprendre la causalité de ces liens. In fine, cela permettrait de mieux accompagner les parents pour qu’ils adoptent des pratiques permettant le développement optimal des capacités d’ajustement énergétique de leur enfant au cours de la période clé des 1000 premiers jours.
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Weaning plays an essential role in many facets of human life. What are the characteristics of weaning? What are the practices of weaning? What are causes for early weaning? What are the risk factors for the termination of breastfeeding? What are the strategies to cope with early weaning? What are the management options? In this research, The Biblical verses concerning weaning are described. Therefore, the present research investigates the description of weaning various medical situations. The Present Research shows that the awareness of the weaning has accompanied humans during the long years of our existence
Article
Objetivo: Comparar as características da alimentação complementar de lactentes cujas mães referiram praticar o baby-led weaning com aquelas que relataram utilização da abordagem tradicional. Métodos: Estudo quantitativo descritivo com entrevistas online de mães de bebês de 1 a 2 anos, convidadas via redes sociais a preencherem formulário contendo dados socioeconômicos, de aleitamento materno e relativos à alimentação complementar. As diferenças entre os grupos foi verificada por meio dos teste t ou do qui-quadrado. Resultados: Foram identificadas 208 entrevistadas (57,9%) que relataram usar a abordagem tradicional e 151 (42,1%), o baby-led weaning. Dos bebês em baby-led weaning, 84,1% mantinham-se em aleitamento materno, contra 56,2% em abordagem tradicional, e foram menos expostos a fórmulas, espessantes, mamadeiras e chupetas (p<0,05). Quanto à alimentação complementar, 7,3% do grupo baby-led weaning iniciou antes dos 6 meses, comparados aos 23,1% do grupo abordagem tradicional (p<0,05). Observaram-se diferenças estatisticamente significantes para a idade de introdução da maioria dos grupos de alimentos, para utilização de produtos ultraprocessados, sucos, açúcar e sal. Aqueles em baby-led weaning chegaram, significativamente, aos 12 meses com diferenças quanto a compartilhar a comida da família (71,5% vs 11,5%), sentar-se adequadamente à mesa (89,4% vs 66,8%) e utilizando a consistência adequada dos alimentos (74,2% vs 62,0%). Conclusão: No presente estudo, lactentes cujas mães relataram realizar o baby-led weaning caracterizaram-se pela introdução de alimentos atendendo às recomendações nacionais comparados àqueles que foram expostos à abordagem tradicional.
Article
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Infant feeding experiences are important for the development of healthy weight gain trajectories. Evidence surrounding milk feeding and timing of introduction to solids is extensive; however, the impact of the method of introducing solids on infant growth has been relatively underexplored. Baby‐led weaning (where infants self‐feed family foods) is proposed to improve appetite regulation, leading to healthier weight gain and a reduced risk of obesity. However, the evidence is mixed and has methodological inconsistencies. Furthermore, despite milk being a large part of the infant diet during the period infants are introduced to solid foods, its influence and interaction with introductory style have not been considered. The aim of this study was to explore growth among infants aged 3–12 months according to both style of introduction to solid foods and milk feeding; 269 infants were weighed and measured, and body mass index (BMI) computed. The results showed that overall, infants who were spoon‐fed (compared with self‐fed) at introduction to complementary feeding (CF) had greater length (but not weight or BMI). However, when milk feeding was accounted for, we found that infants who were both spoon‐fed and fully formula fed had greater weight compared with spoon‐fed, breastfed infants. There was no significant difference in weight among self‐fed infants who were breastfed or formula fed. The results highlight the importance of considering infant feeding as a multicomponent experience in relation to growth, combining both milk feeding and method of CF. This relationship may be explained by differences in maternal feeding style or diet consumed.
Article
When baby‐led weaning (BLW) first emerged as a concept, in the early 2000s, it was seen as a new and different approach to complementary feeding, a challenge to the accepted way of doing things – which indeed it was. Since then, there has been a gradual reassessment of the perceived wisdom that guides how complementary feeding is approached, with the result that many of the features of BLW are now reflected in mainstream thinking. The publication of the report of the UK Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition, Feeding in the First Year of Life, which summarises and evaluates the existing evidence base for infant feeding as a benchmark for UK guidelines, provides a useful opportunity to look at how well the baby‐led approach fits with current evidence and which aspects of the introduction of solid foods remain to be investigated.
Article
Early life feeding habits may potentially alter future metabolic programming and body composition. Complementary feeding is the period of time when infants introduce food different from milk in their diet, together with a gradual reduction of the intake of milk (either breast milk or formula), to finally acquire the diet model of their family. This period is important in the transition of the infant from milk feeding to family foods, and is necessary for both nutritional and developmental reasons. Over time, the timing for introducing complementary foods and the method of feeding have changed over time. Available literature data show increasing interest and concerns about the impact of complementary feeding timing and modality on the onset of later non-communicable disorders, such as overweight and obesity, allergic diseases, celiac disease, or diabetes. While international scientific guidelines on complementary feeding have been published, many baby food companies' websites, blogs, and books, in most European countries exist. The aim of this manuscript is to look over current recommendations, and to revise "old myths". The adoption of an adequate weaning method is a cornerstone in the development of life-long health status. A correct strategy could reduce the risk of feeding disorders and other health problems later in life.
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Objective To compare food and nutrient intakes of infants aged 6–12 months following a baby-led complementary feeding (BLCF) approach and a standard weaning (SW) approach. Design Participants completed an online questionnaire consisting of sociodemographic questions, a 28 d FFQ and a 24 h dietary recall. Setting UK. Participants Infants ( n 134) aged 6–12 months ( n 88, BLCF; n 46, SW). Results There was no difference between weaning methods for the food groups ‘fruits’, ‘vegetables’, ‘all fish’, ‘meat and fish’, ‘sugary’ or ‘starchy’ foods. The SW group was offered ‘fortified infant cereals’ ( P < 0·001), ‘salty snacks’ at 6–8 months ( P = 0·03), ‘dairy and dairy-based desserts’ at 9–12 months ( P = 0·04) and ‘pre-prepared baby foods’ at all ages ( P < 0·001) more often than the BLCF group. The SW group was offered ‘oily fish’ at all ages ( P < 0·001) and 6–8 months ( P = 0·01) and ‘processed meats’ at all ages ( P < 0·001), 6–8 months ( P = 0·003) and 9–12 months ( P < 0·001) less often than the BLCF group. The BLCF group had significantly greater intakes of Na ( P = 0·028) and fat from food ( P = 0·035), and significantly lower intakes of Fe from milk ( P = 0·012) and free sugar in the 6–8 months subgroup ( P = 0·03) v . the SW group. Fe intake was below the Reference Nutrient Intake (RNI) for both groups and Na was above the RNI in the BLCF group. Conclusion Compared with the SW group, the BLCF group was offered foods higher in Na and lower in Fe; however, the foods offered contained less free sugar.
Chapter
This chapter explores infant feeding during the introduction of complementary foods and beverages and transition to solid foods. This chapter discusses how responsive feeding during this developmental stage can promote infants’ preferences for healthy foods and development of eating behaviors that support effective self-regulation of intake. In particular, novel implications of infants' increased motor skills and autonomy are examined within the context of responsive feeding, and best practices for promoting infants' preferences for healthy foods will be outlined. The concepts of the Division of Responsibility During Feeding and Baby-Led Weaning are introduced as effective conceptualizations of the principles of responsive feeding during this developmental period. This chapter concludes with recommended action items for promoting responsive feeding during the transition to solid foods.
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This study evaluated maternal restriction of children's access to snack foods as a predictor of children's intake of those foods when they were made freely available. In addition, child and parent eating-related "risk" factors were used to predict maternal reports of restricting access. Participants were 71, 3-to-5-year-old children (36 boys, 35 girls) and their parents. Children's snack food intake was measured immediately following a meal, in a setting offering free access to palatable snack foods. Child and maternal reports of restricting children's access to those snack foods were obtained. In addition, information on child and parent adiposity as well as parents' restrained and disinhibited eating was used to examine "risk" factors for restricting access. For girls only, child and maternal reports of restricting access predicted girls' snack food intake, with higher levels of restriction predicting higher levels of snack food intake. Maternal restriction, in turn, was predicted by children's adiposity. Additionally, parents' own restrained eating style predicted maternal restriction of girls' access to snack foods.
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To compare the diet quality and weight status of girls consuming diets meeting the recommendation of the American Academy of Pediatrics for dietary fat with those of girls consuming >30% of energy from fat and to examine relationships between girls' dietary fat intake, mothers' nutrient intakes, and mothers' child-feeding practices. Participants were 192 white girls and their mothers, who were divided into 2 groups: >30% of energy from fat (high fat [HF]) or </=30% of energy from fat (low fat [LF]), based on girls' 3-day dietary recalls. Girls' food group and nutrient intakes, Healthy Eating Index, body mass index, and mothers' nutrient intakes and child-feeding practices were compared. Girls with HF diets consumed fewer fruits, more meat, and more fats and sweets and had lower Healthy Eating Index scores than did the girls in the LF group. Mothers of girls in the HF group had higher fat intakes than did those in the LF group. Girls and mothers in the HF group had lower intakes of fiber and vitamins A, C, B6, folate, and riboflavin. Mothers in the HF group reported using more restriction and pressure to eat in feeding their daughters. Girls in the HF group showed greater increase in body mass index and skinfold thickness from age 5 to 7 years. These findings provide additional support for the recommendation of the American Academy of Pediatrics to limit total dietary fat. Findings reveal that mothers' use of controlling feeding practices are not effective in fostering healthier diets among girls and that mothers' own eating may be more influential than their attempts to control the intake of their daughters. dietary fat, dietary quality, nutrient intake, overweight, feeding practices, children.
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Multiple studies have been carried out to assess the effect of zinc supplementation on children's growth. The results of these studies are inconsistent, and the factors responsible for these varied outcomes are unknown. Meta-analyses of randomized controlled intervention trials were therefore completed to assess the effect of zinc supplementation on the physical growth and serum zinc concentrations of prepubertal children. A total of 33 acceptable studies with appropriate data were identified by MEDLINE (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD) searches and other methods. Weighted mean effect sizes (expressed in SD units) were calculated for changes in height, weight, weight-for-height, and serum zinc concentration by using random-effects models; factors associated with effect sizes were explored by meta-regression techniques. Zinc supplementation produced highly significant, positive responses in height and weight increments, with effect sizes of 0.350 (95% CI: 0.189, 0.511) and 0.309 (0.178, 0.439), respectively. There was no significant effect of zinc on weight-for-height indexes [weighted mean effect size: -0.018 (-0.132, 0.097)]. Zinc supplementation caused a large increase in the children's serum zinc concentrations, with an effect size of 0.820 (0.499, 1.14). Growth responses were greater in children with low initial weight-for-age z scores and in those aged >6 mo with low initial height-for-age z scores. Interventions to improve children's zinc nutriture should be considered in populations at risk of zinc deficiency, especially where there are elevated rates of underweight or stunting. The population mean serum zinc concentration is a useful indicator of the successful delivery and absorption of zinc supplements in children.
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This review addresses the association between restrictive feeding practices by parents and the development of overweight in children. To date, only one parent feeding domain--feeding restriction--has been consistently linked to variations in child eating patterns or weight status. Despite challenges to unravelling causal pathways, the most current data suggest that restrictive feeding practices are elicited by child characteristics (e.g. weight status or obesity risk) and depend on parent characteristics as well. Restriction, in turn, may maintain or exacerbate child overweight. There remain important questions to be addressed in this literature, pertinent both to the development of childhood overweight and clinically to overweight prevention. Two areas of importance are the roles of cultural differences, as well as genes that confer risk for overweight, on the relationship between restriction and child weight status.
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Reeves, S. (2008). Baby-led weaning. British Nutrition Founda-tion Nutrition Bulletin, 33, 108–110.
Baby-led weaning: Helping your baby to love good food
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Can babies initiate and direct the weaning process? Unpublished MSc interprofessional health and community studies (care of the breastfeeding mother and child)
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Netmums: Online support for parents Community Practitioner: The journal of the Community Practitioners’ and Health Visitors Association
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Baby-led weaning: A developmental approach to the introduction of complementary foods
  • G Rapley