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Abstract

This report proposes a method for assessing resilience-building components in coastal social-ecological systems. Using the proposed model, the preferences of experts in Masan Bay (South Korea) and Puget Sound (USA) are compared. A total of 30 management objectives were determined and used to build a hierarchic tree designed using the principles of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). Surveys were performed with 35 Puget Sound experts using face-to-face interviews and with 28 Masan Bay experts by mail. The results demonstrate that the legal objective, which enables legislation, was the highest preferred component in both regions. The knowledge translation variable was also given a high preference score in both regions. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that the Puget Sound experts significantly favored attention to education, habitat restoration and species protection objectives in comparison to the Masan Bay experts. The Masan Bay experts placed greater emphasis on legislation and the type of institutional design than did the Puget Sound experts. Using cluster analysis, four distinct groups of respondents were independently identified in Puget Sound and three groups were identified in Masan Bay. One unique subgroup in the Puget Sound experts group, which was characterized by its high preferences for habitat restoration and species protection, was not observed in Masan Bay. Demographic variables (length of career and role in coastal issue) failed to account for the differences in groupings and preferences in either region, except for the variable 'favoring information source' in the Puget Sound group. This finding implies that the demographic information was not related to differences in group opinions in both regions. The analysis framework presented here was effective in identifying expert preferences regarding the overall structure and emphasis in coastal management programs. Thus, this framework can be applied towards coastal policy development.

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... A significant consideration in these studies has been how to attribute weights to the index parameters, with multicriteria analysis being commonly employed (Fabbri 1998). For example, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) has been used to optimize the weights of CVI parameters (Bagdanavi ciute, Kelp saite, and Soomere 2015) and to prioritize specialists' preferences in large coastal projects (Ryu et al. 2011). Stochastic multicriteria analysis has been utilized to prioritize management options in the Guadalfeo Delta in Spain (F elix et al. 2012), whereas Torresan et al. (2012) employed a vulnerability conceptual model where value, pathway, and susceptibility factors were quantified. ...
... It facilitates assessment of the effects of indicator weights on the final ranking. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), which relies on expert judgment to create priority scales, was used to perform pair-wise beach comparisons (Ryu et al. 2011) and the Priority Estimation Tool-PriEsT (Siraj 2014) utilized as the decision making tool. PriEsT is a public domain model/tool (http://sourceforge.net/projects/priority), in which user-defined problems, prioritization goals, and indicators/criteria are considered together in the weighing approach. ...
... Bagdanavi ciute, Kelp saite, and Soomere 2015). In this context, the employed HP method has made the procedure more objective (Ryu et al. 2011). ...
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... We further employed the methods of ANOVA, in order to compare the perceptions of the influential factors between the experts and individuals, referring to the analysis method performed by Ryu et al. (2011). By comparing the means in the weights of the dimensions and factors obtained from the AHP analysis, we attempt to identify how much difference there was between the two groups in recognizing the importance and relevance of these constructs as barriers to the diffusion of EVs. ...
... Saaty (1990) and Saaty and Kearns (1985) suggested a CR value of less than 0.1 as a reasonable criterion, and a value between 0.1 and 0.2 as a tolerable criterion. This criterion depends on the size of the matrix of the pairwise comparisons (Wedley 1993), and individual questionnaires with CR values in the range of 0.1-0.2 are acceptable in practice (Nikou and Mezei 2013;Ryu et al. 2011). ...
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... Masan Bay has been identified as a coastal area that is becoming one of the most polluted estuaries in Korea (Khim and Koh, 2011). During the last 40 years, the natural features of the bay have been dramatically modified by urban, industrial, and port developments, with its tidal wetlands having been reclaimed to accommodate the expansion of a large population and ever-growing industry (Ryu et al., 2011). As a result, the bay system became quickly and heavily polluted by a variety of wastes, including untreated municipal sewage and industrial wastewater, which led to harmful algal blooms, sharp oxygen depletion, loss of aquatic life, and aesthetic problems. ...
Article
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... For example, rubbish, burning of garbage, and rotting old gear were widely observed in the harbour in Sim-ri, a nonparticipant to the Jayul program. A reason for inaction inferred from the images of the community members could be that Sim-ri opens up to highly industrialized Masan bay, one of the most polluted bays in Korea (Rye et al., 2011). Being confronted with an image of over 30 years of chronic pollution and contamination problems may have caused coastal inhabitants to feel powerless against the large-scale projects and to become disillusioned about local cleanup activities. ...
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... There has been significant review of system resilience to disasters [5,14,22,24,35], in addition to quantitative research [1][2][3][4]21]. The RCI produced by Vugrin et al. [32] shown in Fig. 1 is distinct from other quantitative studies in that it recognizes that the recovery effort is as important as the system impact in resilience assessment and it thus includes the magnitude of the recovery effort to quantify the resilience. ...
... There are many applications of MCDA methods applicable to environmental planning and management (Bojorquez-Tapia et al., 2001), Pohekar and Ramachandran, 2004;Tsoutos et al., 2009;Kahraman et al., 2009;Kangas and Kangas, 2002;Wang et al., 2010). In addition, some studies have been published on the use of MCDM techniques in coastal management (Ryu, J. et al. 2011). These techniques have been used for various issues in coastal areas, such as evaluating the potential impacts of climate change on coastal zones by considering different scenarios (Horstman et al., 2009), integration of information (Bojorquez et al., 2001;Ayad, 2005) and the development of decisionsupport systems for evaluating the current state of coastal areas and predicting future trends (Ballinger and Smith, 1994;Fabbri, 2006;Fedra, K., 2003Fedra, K., , 2007, as well as some new methods such as Analytic Network Processes (ANP) (Pourebrahim et al., 2011(Pourebrahim et al., , 2010. ...
... Marxan can also calculate the optimal locations for defined planning objectives. Other tools have been proposed to examine the resiliency of coastal areas based on storm, typhoons, expected future sea-level rise and storm water surge scenarios (e.g., Ryu et al. 2011;Larsen, Calgaro, and Thomalla 2011). In general, management tools designed specifically for comparing management plans provide a way to simulate what-if scenarios and assess various options. ...
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The livelihood of coastal communities is directly linked to the health of intertidal and marine ecosystems. Coastal zones and marine areas are rapidly changing and highly vulnerable to impacts from climate change, accelerating human development, and over-fishing. Quality of life and the benefits of coastal development can be greatly enhanced, and costs minimized, by projecting and comparing alternative policy outcomes before management decisions are made. This article describes the Marine Integrated Decision Analysis System (MIDAS), an interactive decision support tool designed to assist the users and managers of Belize's system of marine management areas (MMAs) in understanding the interactions among various ecological, socioeconomic, and governance conditions in a spatially explicit manner. MIDAS can simulate and visualize the likely effects of alternative management strategies and therefore provides an important tool for evaluating potential scenarios. We developed two MIDAS modules to address specific threats in Belize -spatial risk resulting from mangrove deforestation in coastal areas and the potential effect of an oil spill off the coast of Belize. Workshops conducted in Belize indicate that diverse user groups such as fishers, tourism operators, and public environmental agencies can successfully utilize MIDAS to understand MMA outcomes, and environmental risks.
... Table 6 shows the perception differences between individuals and experts on benefits and concerns for CAVs through an analysis of variance (ANOVA) on the local weights in dimensions and the global weights in factors. Comparisons between groups using ANOVA for values derived from the AHP have been commonly applied in previous literature (e.g., Kim et al., 2018;Ryu, Leschine, Nam, Chang, & Dyson, 2011). ...
... Each product of a pairwise comparison is considered an expression of the appraiser's relative preferences for one alternative over another based on a set of fundamental numerical values composed of figures ranging from 1 to 9 [26,28]. The rating scale for judging preferences used for the pairwise comparison of various criteria is specified in Table 2. ...
... Here, we take the median of "m" weights as the final weight for each criterion. While arithmetic mean (Ryu et al., 2011;Tian et al., 2013) can also be used to aggregate these weights, median is preferred when the number of stakeholders is typically small. Geometric mean (Saengsupavanich, 2013) is not used as the stakeholders are not homogeneous. ...
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... To account for the different effects of each factor, using AHP [47,48], we assigned a specific weight to each factor and then created a weight matrix (W) for all evaluation factors, which was achieved in the design of matrix J = (A ij )n*n: ...
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This article presents a social-ecological resilience assessment and attempts to explicitly examine the impacts of urbanization on resilience, with a view to explore how to strengthen social-ecological governance of the resilience of urban ecosystems. We use a combined Grey-Fuzzy evaluation model to discuss a case study of the Su-Xi-Chang city cluster, a metropolitan area in East China, in which total social-ecological resilience scores generally exhibited an upward trend, from 0.548 in 2001 to 0.760 in 2013. In the same period, resilience increased in relation to deterioration of environmental quality, pollution discharge, and landscape and ecological governance change, but decreased in relation to social-economic development. Besides, different contributions of indicators to their related resilience values reveal the heterogeneity of the resilience in terms of various disturbances. In addition, several scenarios are posited in an attempt to detect the relationship between social-ecological resilience and urbanization with the goal of improving urban governance. The results suggested that rapid urbanization under rigid and vertically organized forms of governance would cause the social-ecological system to lose resilience, or even to bring it near collapse. When the growth rate of urban land expansion reaches 16%, disturbances caused by urbanization would push the social-ecological system over a particular threshold, where the way it functions changes. However, it is found that adaptive and collaborative governance, incorporating increases in both public participation and the efficiency of environment administration, would strengthen social-ecological governance of resilience to provide the urban system with a wide operating space, and even with accelerated urbanization ratios..
... Several techniques, such as the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) (Saaty 2004) can assist with the integration, analysis and interpretation of information. Ryu et al. (2011) used an AHP to compare expert preferences across two large-scale coastal management programs. Although, as noted above, the TOPSIS method determines the solution with the shortest distance from the ideal solution and the farthest distance from the negative-ideal solution, it does not consider the relative importance of these distances (Hwang and Yoon 1981;Yoon 1987). ...
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To guarantee sustainability in urban coastal areas, it is essential to have more conservation plans in these areas under various pressures. The first large urban conurbation in Malaysia, which stretches from the central mountain spine to the west coast, has expanded and emerged as a potential mega-urban region. To evaluate its sustainability, several critical criteria and indicators must be identified. The process of choosing criteria is very sensitive. If too many criteria are selected, the focus of the plan becomes narrow, and this simplification often leads to poor decision making. The use of a limited number of criteria allows accommodation of spatial and temporal changes and also makes it easier to collect data. This paper presents an innovative, reliable method for identification of the most important criteria and alternatives using integrated extent analysis and fuzzy TOPSIS (technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution). The weights of the criteria are determined using the fuzzy pairwise comparison of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method. Criteria were also selected by interviewing thirty experts in the fields of economic, social and environmental sustainability. This set of criteria was drawn from several policies and strategies for development in Malaysia. Interviews with coastal managers, town and country planners and academic experts at the national and local levels provided information used to refine and modify these criteria. Seventeen criteria in three clusters of ecological, social and economic issues were considered in the evaluation of six alternatives sites for conservation in coastal areas, Port Dickson, Kelanang, Jugra, Pulau Indah, Kuala Selangor and Morib. Jugra was determined to be the most appropriate area for conservation.
... Each product of a pairwise comparison is considered an expression of the appraiser's relative preferences for one alternative over another based on a set of fundamental numerical values composed of figures ranging from 1 to 9 [26,28]. The rating scale for judging preferences used for the pairwise comparison of various criteria is specified in Table 2. ...
... The effectiveness of AHP depends on its capacity for decomposing the complexity of the ranking into a hierarchal structure, and its ability to use the capacity of human cognition in undertaking paired comparisons to determine the relative importance among a collection of criteria [44]. AHP is widely used to determine the relative importance of different management objectives in the fisheries sector and for coastal management [52,53]. In the case of a climate change vulnerability assessment, the AHP model can be applied for indicators' measurement of individual preferences by comparing the sub-components with each other and assigning weights to these components [44]. ...
Article
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... The effectiveness of AHP depends on its capacity for decomposing the complexity of the ranking into a hierarchal structure, and its ability to use the capacity of human cognition in undertaking paired compar- isons to determine the relative importance among a collection of criteria [44]. AHP is widely used to determine the relative importance of different management objectives in the fisheries sector and for coastal management [52,53]. In the case of a climate change vulner- ability assessment, the AHP model can be applied for indicators' measurement of individual preferences by comparing the sub-compo- nents with each other and assigning weights to these components [44]. ...
... Each product of a pairwise comparison is considered an expression of the appraiser's relative preferences for one alternative over another based on a set of fundamental numerical values composed of figures ranging from 1 to 9 [26,28]. The rating scale for judging preferences used for the pairwise comparison of various criteria is specified in Table 2. ...
... The AHP is a methodological approach to decision making that can be applied to resolve highly complex problems involving multiple scenarios, criteria, and actors [34]. This approach has been used in various studies that aimed to enhance development in different sectors such as tourism [35,36], environmental and natural resources [37], forestry [38], coastal management [39], and disaster and risk management [40,41]. As a decision system, the AHP is valuable for using human cognition in determining the relative importance among a collection of alternatives using paired comparisons [42]. ...
... They account for intrinsic uncertainty by considering different climate change scenarios. Ryu et al. (2011) use an Analytic Hierarchy Process to compare expert preferences across two large-scale coastal management programs. ...
Article
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... Marxan can also calculate the optimal locations for defined planning objectives. Other tools have been proposed to examine the resiliency of coastal areas based on storm, typhoons, expected future sea-level rise and storm water surge scenarios (e.g., Ryu et al. 2011;Larsen, Calgaro, and Thomalla 2011). In general, management tools designed specifically for comparing management plans provide a way to simulate what-if scenarios and assess various options. ...
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... Groups consisting of people with similar expertise and working on the field but in different setting have also been found to have different opinions. For example, in a resiliencebased approach for comparing expert preferences across two large-scale coastal management programs in Masan Bay, USA and Puget Sound, Korea study; the technical experts in the two regions showed several significant differences in their preferences for management objectives (Ryu et al., 2011). The extension staff and the farmers groups appeared to give almost similar magnitude of weights to the surface water resources which is also the highest ranked criteria. ...
... There is limited scientific understanding of the mechanisms of these blooms due to uncertain primary sources of nutrients. Under the right conditions of ample sunlight and nutrients, 41 Ryu, 201142 Liu, 2011. 43 Fletcher, 2009 Anderson, D.M. 1994. ...
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p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align: justify;"> The Parliament of the Salgado River provided actions and recommendations for the future of the Salgado River Basin which is in the south of Ceara State, Brazil. These recommendations were obtained through a democratic process, with the involvement of around 100 participants from private companies, public organizations and the third sector. The intention was to define a model that is compatible with the aspirations of society regarding the use and quality of the water, as well as define necessary decision actions and strategies. The main goal of this article is to determine, with a multi-criteria decision analysis, an appropriate policy for the river basin management. Therefore, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was applied. The criteria are a combination of economic, environmental, and social issues; the alternatives were defined as essentially preservationist policy, sustainable policy, and essentially economic policy. The AHP application was effective in this decision analysis. </div
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Fisheries management is typically characterized by multiple and often conflicting objectives. The Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council (WPRFMC) is the authority for managing exclusive economic zone (EEZ) fisheries in Hawaii. The array of multiple objectives coupled with the heterogeneous composition of WPRFMC creates a complex decision-making environment for fishery management in Hawaii. In this paper, we applied the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to evaluate four alternatives for limiting entry of longliners into the Hawaii pelagic fishery. We first elicited the factors deemed to be important for a sustainable pelagic fishery using a questionnaire survey, followed by another questionnaire to elicit judgments from all of the individuals involved in the decision-making process of WPRFMC. While there is considerable variation among individuals, the overall weighting of objectives and ranking of alternatives is robust in the sense of being consistent across all four bodies of the WPRFMC. There was no statistical difference in mean results among the WPRFMC bodies at the 5% level. This experience demonstrated an application of the AHP process in fishery management. The results of the present evaluation of the alternatives for limiting entry of longliners are comparable to earlier decisions. As compared to conventional decision making, this process has the advantages of timeliness, quantification, and documentation. It may also provide policy analysts with insights into potential conflicts and tradeoffs before the decision-making process unfolds.
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Combined modality chemoirradiation is commonly used as a component of treatment in combination with maximum resection for both high-risk resectable and locally advanced primary or recurrent rectal cancers. With surgically resected but high-risk rectal cancers, postoperative chemoirradiation has been shown to improve both disease control (local and distant) and survival (disease-free and overall) and was recommended as standard adjuvant treatment at the 1990 National Institute of Health (NIH) Consensus Conference on Adjuvant treatment for patients with rectal and colon cancers. Subsequent intergroup trials are being conducted to help define optimal combinations of postoperative chemoirradiation for resected high-risk rectal cancers and to test sequencing issues of preoperative versus postoperative chemoirradiation. With locally unresectable primary or recurrent colorectal cancers, standard therapy with surgery, external beam irradiation (EBRT) and chemotherapy is often unsuccessful. When intraoperative electron irradiation (IOERT) is combined with standard treatment, local control and survival appear to be improved in separate analyses from the Mayo Clinic and the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH). However, routine use of systemic therapy is also needed as a component of treatment, in view of high rates of systemic failure.
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Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is an intrinsically complex multi-dimensional process, involving multiple criteria and multiple actors. Multi-criteria methods can serve as useful decision aids for carrying out the EIA. This paper proposes the use of a multi-criteria technique, namely the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), for the purpose. AHP has the flexibility to combine quantitative and qualitative factors, to handle different groups of actors, to combine the opinions expressed by many experts, and can help in stakeholder analysis. The main shortcomings of AHP and some modifications to it to overcome the shortcomings are briefly described. Finally, the use of AHP is illustrated for a case study involving socio-economic impact assessment. In this case study, AHP has been used for capturing the perceptions of stakeholders on the relative severity of different socio-economic impacts, which will help the authorities in prioritizing their environmental management plan, and can also help in allocating the budget available for mitigating adverse socio-economic impacts.
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Environmental management decisions typically lie at the interface of science and public policy. Consequently, these decisions involve a number of stakeholders with competing agendas and vested interests in the ultimate decision. In such cases, it is appropriate to adopt formal methods for consensus building to ensure transparent and repeatable decisions. In this paper, we use an environmental management case study to demonstrate the utility of a mathematical consensus convergence model in aggregating values (or weights) across groups. Consensus models are applicable when all parties agree to negotiate in order to resolve conflict. The advantage of this method is that it does not require that all members of the group reach agreement, often an impossible task in group decision making. Instead, it uses philosophical foundations in consensus building to aggregate group members' values in a way that guarantees convergence towards a single consensual value that summarizes the group position. We highlight current problems with ad hoc consensus and negotiation methods, provide justification for the adoption of formal consensus convergence models and compare the consensus convergence model with currently used methods for aggregating values across a group in a decision making context. The model provides a simple and transparent decision support tool for group decision making that is straightforward to implement.
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This paper examines how multiple criteria analysis (MCA) can be used to support multi-stakeholder environmental management decisions. It presents a study through which 48 stakeholders from environmental, primary production and community interest groups used MCA to prioritise 30 environmental management problems in the Mackay-Whitsunday region of Queensland, Australia. The MCA model, with procedures for aggregating multi-stakeholder output, was used to inform a final decision on the priority of the region's environmental management problems. The result was used in the region's environmental management plan as required under Australia's Natural Heritage Trust programme. The study shows how relatively simple MCA methods can help stakeholders make group decisions, even when they hold strongly conflicting preferences.
Evaluating fisheries management options in Hawaii using analytic hierarchy process (AHP). Fish-eries Research 36, 171e183 Redundancy and diversity: do they influence optimal management?
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Management objective importance in fish-eries: an evaluation using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) Environmental Management 33, 1e11. Masan-si, 1994. Monitoring of Masan Bay during sediments dredging
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A formal model for consensus and negotiation in environmental management Multicriteria Decision Making: The Analytic Hierarchy Process
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The engagement of stakeholders in the marine spatial planning process. Marine Policy 32, 816e822 Puget sound action agenda, updated may 27th 2009 Available at: http://www.psp.wa.gov/aa_action_agenda Puget Sound trends: population of cities and towns
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Marine policy in the Republic of Korea Marine Policy 19, 97e113 Making watershed partnerships work: a review of the empirical literature Policy issues and management framework of Chinhae bay, Republic of Korea
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Hong, S.-Y., 1995. Marine policy in the Republic of Korea. Marine Policy 19, 97e113. Leach, W.D., Pelkey, N.W., 2001. Making watershed partnerships work: a review of the empirical literature. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management 127, 378e385. Lee, J., 1998. Policy issues and management framework of Chinhae bay, Republic of Korea. Ocean and Coastal Management 38, 161e178. Leschine, T.M., 1990. Setting the agenda for estuarine water quality management: lessons from Puget Sound. Ocean and Shoreline Management 13, 295e313.
Sociale ecological resilience to coastal disasters Introduction Knowledge systems for sustainable development
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Adger, W.N., 2000. Social and ecological resilience: are they related? Progress in Human Geography 24 (3), 347e364. Adger, W.N., Hughes, T.P., Folke, C., Carperter, S.R., Rockstrom, J., 2005. Sociale ecological resilience to coastal disasters. Science 309, 1036e1039. Berkes, F., Colding, J., Folke, C., 2003. Introduction. In: Berkes, F., Colding, J., Folke, C. (Eds.), Navigating SocialeEcological Systems: Building Resilience for Complexity and Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 1e29. Cash, D.W., Clark, W.C., Alcock, F., Dickson, N.M., Eckley, N., Guston, D.H., Jager, J., Mitchell, R.B., 2003. Knowledge systems for sustainable development. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100, 8086e8091.
Status Review of Pacific Hake, Pacific Cod, and Walleye Pollock from Puget Sound
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Gustafson, R.G., Lenarz, W.H., McCain, B.B., Schmitt, C.C., Grant, W.S., Builder, T.L., Methot, R.D., 2000. Status Review of Pacific Hake, Pacific Cod, and Walleye Pollock from Puget Sound. Dept. Commer., NOAA Tech. Memo, Washington, U.S., NMFS-NWFSC-44, 275 pp.
Transportation and Marine affairs (MLTM) Basic plan for coastal TMDL in Masan Bay, a special management area
  • Land Ministry
Ministry of Land, Transportation and Marine affairs (MLTM), 2008. Basic plan for coastal TMDL in Masan Bay, a special management area.
Monitoring of Masan Bay during sediments dredging
  • Masan-Si
Masan-si, 1994. Monitoring of Masan Bay during sediments dredging, (1990e1994).
Puget sound action agenda, updated may 27th Available at
  • Puget Sound
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Puget Sound Partnership (PSP), 2009. Puget sound action agenda, updated may 27th 2009. Available at: http://www.psp.wa.gov/aa_action_agenda.php.
Sociale ecological resilience to coastal disasters
  • W N Adger
  • T P Hughes
  • C Folke
  • S R Carperter
  • J Rockstrom
Adger, W.N., Hughes, T.P., Folke, C., Carperter, S.R., Rockstrom, J., 2005. Sociale ecological resilience to coastal disasters. Science 309, 1036e1039.
Basic plan for coastal TMDL in Masan Bay, a special management area
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA), 2005. Synthesis. Island Press, Wash-ingtonDC. Available at: http://www.MAweb.org. Ministry of Land, Transportation and Marine affairs (MLTM), 2008. Basic plan for coastal TMDL in Masan Bay, a special management area.
Puget sound action agenda
  • Puget Sound Partnership
Puget Sound Partnership (PSP), 2009. Puget sound action agenda, updated may 27th 2009. Available at: http://www.psp.wa.gov/aa_action_agenda.php.