Prenatal Exposure to Maternal and Paternal Smoking on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders Symptoms and Diagnosis in Offspring

Department of Psychology, Queens College, The City University of New York, Flushing, NY 10029, USA.
The Journal of nervous and mental disease (Impact Factor: 1.69). 09/2010; 198(9):672-8. DOI: 10.1097/NMD.0b013e3181ef3489
Source: PubMed


The study examined the effect of maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy on the child's inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms, and the risk for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Generalized estimating equations, incorporating data from multiple informants (parents and teachers), was used to evaluate levels of ADHD as a function of parental smoking. The risk for ADHD, ODD, and comorbid ADHD and ODD was evaluated using polytomous logistic regression. We found that maternal, but not paternal, smoking was significantly associated with elevated inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, and total ADHD symptoms in children. Children of smoking, relative to nonsmoking, mothers had a significant increased risk for comorbid ADHD and ODD and ADHD, but not ODD. Although father's smoking was not associated with an increased risk, as it strongly influenced mothers' smoking, intervention for both parents may be most effective in preventing the pathway to ADHD-related problems in the children.

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Available from: Yoko Nomura, Oct 16, 2014
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    • "The aim of the present paper is to present two tests of the causal effects of maternal SDP on offspring internalizing and externalizing behaviors in a large population-based sample of 3-year-old children in the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR). Like others (Keyes et al. 2014; Langley et al. 2012; Nomura et al. 2010), we examined the possible direct causal effect of maternal smoking on dimensions of externalizing and internalizing by comparing the associations of maternal and paternal prenatal smoking with dimensions of offspring externalizing and internalizing in the offspring. A stronger effect of maternal SDP is consistent with a causal effect. "
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    ABSTRACT: Maternal smoking during pregnancy (SDP) is associated with increased risk of externalizing and internalizing behaviors in offspring. Two explanations (not mutually exclusive) for this association are direct causal effects of maternal SDP and the effects of genetic and environmental factors common to parents and offspring which increase smoking as well as problem behaviors. Here, we examined the associations between parental SDP and mother rated offspring externalizing and internalizing behaviors (rated by the Child Behavior Checklist/2-3) at age three in a population-based sample of Dutch twins (N = 15,228 pairs). First, as a greater effect of maternal than of paternal SDP is consistent with a causal effect of maternal SDP, we compared the effects of maternal and paternal SDP. Second, as a beneficial effect of quitting smoking before pregnancy is consistent with the causal effect, we compared the effects of SDP in mothers who quit smoking before pregnancy, and mothers who continued to smoke during pregnancy. All mothers were established smokers before their pregnancy. The results indicated a greater effect of maternal SDP, compared to paternal SDP, for externalizing, aggression, overactive and withdrawn behavior. Quitting smoking was associated with less externalizing, overactive behavior, aggression, and oppositional behavior, but had no effect on internalizing, anxious depression, or withdrawn behavior. We conclude that these results are consistent with a causal, but small, effect of smoking on externalizing problems at age 3. The results do not support a causal effect of maternal SDP on internalizing behaviors.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Behavior Genetics
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    • "Furthermore, this disorder can be highly related to both environmental and familial disorder as well as many other modifiable risk factors. Some studies showed that (ADHD) can also be related to heavy metal and chemical exposures, lifestyle and psychosocial factors, prenatal substance exposures as well as nutritional factors [12]. Attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder can be considered as a psychiatric problem type since there is a significant problem related to the attention that makes children act impulsively which are not appropriate for their age. "

    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014
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    • "Stene-Larsen et al., 2009; Hutchinson et al., 2010; Nomura et al., 2010; Wakschlag et al., 2006). In addition, offspring of mothers who smoked during pregnancy have been shown to have greater risk of substance use and dependence in adolescence and adulthood (Nomura et al., 2011; Monshouwer et al., 2011; Lawlor et al., 2005; Al Mamun et al., 2006; Buka et al., 2003; Kandel et al., 1994; Munafò et al., 2006; Roberts et al., 2005). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Comparison of the associations of maternal and mother's partner smoking with offspring outcomes is, in theory, a useful method for assessing whether there may be an intrauterine effect of tobacco exposure on these outcomes. However, this approach assumes that the effects of passive smoking from exposure to partner smoking during pregnancy are minimal. We evaluated this assumption using a biochemical measure of tobacco exposure in pregnant women. Methods Cotinine levels taken during the first trimester of pregnancy were measured in a sample of 3,928 women from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Median cotinine values were compared across categories of smoking heaviness (cigarettes per day) of the women during the first trimester and in non-smoking women by the smoking heaviness of their partner. Results Cotinine levels were substantially higher in women who smoked compared to non-smokers (range of medians across smoking heaviness categories: 900 to 5,362 ng/ml versus 20 ng/ml, interquartile range (IQR) (0 to 63) for non-smokers). In contrast, cotinine levels in non-smoking women were only very weakly related to partner smoking status (range of medians in women with smoking partners: 34 to 69 ng/ml versus 12 ng/ml, IQR (0 to 48) in women with non-smoking partners). Conclusions Levels of tobacco exposure from partner smoking, as assessed by cotinine, were low in non-smoking pregnant women. This suggests that using mother's partner's smoking as a negative control for investigating intrauterine effects is valid.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Drug and alcohol dependence
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