Article

Phosphorylation by the c-Abl protein tyrosine kinase inhibits Parkin’s ubiquitination and protective function

Neuroregeneration Program, Institute for Cell Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.67). 09/2010; 107(38):16691-6. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1006083107
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Mutations in PARK2/Parkin, which encodes a ubiquitin E3 ligase, cause autosomal recessive Parkinson disease (PD). Here we show that the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase c-Abl phosphorylates tyrosine 143 of parkin, inhibiting parkin's ubiquitin E3 ligase activity and protective function. c-Abl is activated by dopaminergic stress and by dopaminergic neurotoxins, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) in vitro and in vivo by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), leading to parkin inactivation, accumulation of the parkin substrates aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase-interacting multifunctional protein type 2 (AIMP2) (p38/JTV-1) and fuse-binding protein 1 (FBP1), and cell death. STI-571, a c-Abl-family kinase inhibitor, prevents the phosphorylation of parkin, maintaining parkin in a catalytically active and protective state. STI-571's protective effects require parkin, as shRNA knockdown of parkin prevents STI-571 protection. Conditional knockout of c-Abl in the nervous system also prevents the phosphorylation of parkin, the accumulation of its substrates, and subsequent neurotoxicity in response to MPTP intoxication. In human postmortem PD brain, c-Abl is active, parkin is tyrosine-phosphorylated, and AIMP2 and FBP1 accumulate in the substantia nigra and striatum. Thus, tyrosine phosphorylation of parkin by c-Abl is a major posttranslational modification that inhibits parkin function, possibly contributing to pathogenesis of sporadic PD. Moreover, inhibition of c-Abl may be a neuroprotective approach in the treatment of PD.

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Available from: Bharathi Shrikanth Gadad
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    • "Parkin ubiquitination ligase activity is intrinsically repressed due to structural features of the protein that occlude the E2 and catalytic sites [34]. Enzyme activity is regulated by mitochondrial relocalization, post-translational modifications and ligand binding to the ubiquitin-like (Ubl) domain [31]–[33], [35]–[38]. In addition, the enzyme can be constitutively activated either by deletion of amino-terminal sequences containing the Ubl and zinc-finger RING0 domains or by various missense mutations responsible for juvenile autosomal recessive PD [34]. "
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