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Extract of Passion Fruit (Passiflora edulis) Seed Containing High Amounts of Piceatannol Inhibits Melanogenesis and Promotes Collagen Synthesis

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Abstract

The effect of passion fruit, the fruit of Passiflora edulis , on melanin inhibition and collagen synthesis was studied using cultured human melanoma and fibroblast cells. Passion fruit was divided into three parts, rind (PF-R), pulp (PF-P), and seed (PF-S), and each part was extracted using 80% ethanol. The concentration of polyphenols was higher in PF-S than in PF-R or PF-P. Treatment of melanoma cells with PF-S led to inhibition of melanogenesis. In addition, the production of total soluble collagen was elevated in dermal fibroblast cells cultured in the presence of PF-S. PF-R and PF-P did not yield these effects. Furthermore, the removal of polyphenols from PF-S led to the abolishment of the effects described above. We discovered that piceatannol (3,4,3',5'-tetrahydroxy-trans-stilbene) is present in passion fruit seeds in large amounts and that this compound is the major component responsible for the PF-S effects observed on melanogenesis and collagen synthesis.

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... We discovered that passion fruit seeds are rich in piceatannol, which has shown effects such as antioxidant action (2), endothelial nitric oxide synthase induction (3), SIRT1 induction (4), and improvement of metabolic disorders (5)(6)(7). As for the skin, effects of piceatannol, including inhibition of melanin synthesis (8,9), promotion of collagen production (9), and MMP-1 suppression by eliminating active oxygen (10), have been demonstrated. ...
... We discovered that passion fruit seeds are rich in piceatannol, which has shown effects such as antioxidant action (2), endothelial nitric oxide synthase induction (3), SIRT1 induction (4), and improvement of metabolic disorders (5)(6)(7). As for the skin, effects of piceatannol, including inhibition of melanin synthesis (8,9), promotion of collagen production (9), and MMP-1 suppression by eliminating active oxygen (10), have been demonstrated. ...
... The composition of PFSE is 11.3% moisture, 10.7% protein, 0.3% lipid, 6.3% ash, and 73% polyphenols (conversion into epicatechin). Piceatannol, a major polyphenol of passion fruit seed (9), makes up approximately 20% of the polyphenols, and we think piceatannol is an active ingredient of PFSE. ...
Article
Piceatannol has been reported to have a wide variety of effects on the skin, including promoting collagen production, inhibiting melanin synthesis, inducing the antioxidant glutathione, and eliminating reactive oxygen species. In this study, a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial was conducted to clinically evaluate the effects of piceatannol-rich passion fruit seed extract on the skin of healthy Japanese women (age, 35-54 y). Thirty-two women with dry skin received either passion fruit seed extract (5 mg piceatannol) or a placebo (dextrin) for 8 wk. Skin hydration and other parameters on the face were assessed at 0, 4, and 8 wk by using specialized equipment. Furthermore, questionnaire interviews were conducted regarding the physical condition of subjects at 0, 4, and 8 wk. The results showed that consumption of passion fruit seed extract led to significant increases in the moisture content of human skin after 4 and 8 wk compared with that before the trial. The amount of transepidermal water loss decreased over time, although the differences were not significant. Moreover, a stratified analysis of subjects with moisture values of ≤200 μS revealed increased moisture content in the passion fruit seed extract group as compared with the placebo group. Furthermore, the results of questionnaires showed significant reductions in "perspiration" and "fatigue" in the passion fruit seed extract group as compared with the placebo group. These results indicate that oral intake of passion fruit seed extract that is rich in piceatannol could improve the moisture of dry skin and reduce fatigue.
... Piceatannol shows activity similar to resveratrol [12]; however, because its levels in plants such as grapes, and wines, are significantly lower than those of resveratrol [13], it has received far less research attention. Matsui et al. previously found that passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) seeds have a high piceatannol content [14], and several reports have shown that piceatannol has various properties, such as Sirt1 induction activity [15], a vasorelaxant effect [16], upregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression [17], promotion of collagen synthesis [14], inhibition of melanogenesis [14], and protection of the skin from ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation [18]. Piceatannol shows much higher activity than resveratrol in some cases [14,17]; however, whether these effects of piceatannol apply to humans remains uncertain. ...
... Piceatannol shows activity similar to resveratrol [12]; however, because its levels in plants such as grapes, and wines, are significantly lower than those of resveratrol [13], it has received far less research attention. Matsui et al. previously found that passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) seeds have a high piceatannol content [14], and several reports have shown that piceatannol has various properties, such as Sirt1 induction activity [15], a vasorelaxant effect [16], upregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression [17], promotion of collagen synthesis [14], inhibition of melanogenesis [14], and protection of the skin from ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation [18]. Piceatannol shows much higher activity than resveratrol in some cases [14,17]; however, whether these effects of piceatannol apply to humans remains uncertain. ...
... Piceatannol shows activity similar to resveratrol [12]; however, because its levels in plants such as grapes, and wines, are significantly lower than those of resveratrol [13], it has received far less research attention. Matsui et al. previously found that passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) seeds have a high piceatannol content [14], and several reports have shown that piceatannol has various properties, such as Sirt1 induction activity [15], a vasorelaxant effect [16], upregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression [17], promotion of collagen synthesis [14], inhibition of melanogenesis [14], and protection of the skin from ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation [18]. Piceatannol shows much higher activity than resveratrol in some cases [14,17]; however, whether these effects of piceatannol apply to humans remains uncertain. ...
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Animal studies have shown the beneficial effects of piceatannol on metabolic health; however, there is a lack of human studies designed to examine these effects. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of piceatannol on metabolic health in humans. This randomized, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 39 subjects, including 10 overweight men and 9 overweight women (BMI ≥ 25), as well as 10 non-overweight men and 10 non-overweight women (BMI < 25). Subjects received piceatannol (20 mg/day) or placebo capsules for eight weeks in a random order. The primary outcome was the effect of piceatannol on glucose-metabolism, including insulin sensitivity. The secondary outcomes were the effects on other parameters, including blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), endothelial function, lipids, inflammation, oxidative stress, mood status, and Sirt1 and phospho-AMP-activated kinase (p-AMPK) expression in isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs). Supplementation with piceatannol in overweight men reduced serum insulin levels, HOMA-IR, BP and HR. Other groups, including non-overweight men, as well as overweight and non-overweight women, showed no beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity, BP and HR. Furthermore, piceatannol is not associated with other data, including body weight (BW), body composition, endothelial function, lipids, inflammation, oxidative stress, mood status, and Sirt1/p-AMPK expression in PBMNCs. In conclusion, supplementation with piceatannol can improve metabolic health, including insulin sensitivity, BP and HR, in overweight men.
... The authors found that piceatannol, very abundant in P. edulis seeds, was responsible for these bioactivities. Matsui et al. (2010) (continued on next page) Gil, Restrepo, Mill an, Alzate, and Rojano (2014), who studied the microencapsulation of banana passion fruit pulp by spray drying for the obtaining of natural antioxidants, identified the following phenolic compounds by HPLC, with results expressed in mg per 100 g of pulp on a dry weight base: ferulic acid (126.3 ± 0.004) caffeic acid (13.9 ± 0.004) and p-coumaric acid (5.9 ± 0.001). Contreras-Calder on, Calder on-Jaimes, Guerra-Hern andez, and García-Villanova (2011) investigated the antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of peels from two varieties of banana passion fruits and found a total phenolic content of 246 mg GAE/100 g (of fresh peel) for P. mollissima and 288 mg GAE/100 g for P. tarminiana, with considerable antioxidant activities measured by different methods (Table 3). ...
... Considerable amounts of chlorogenic and rosmarinic acids, along with quercetin, were identified in the ethyl acetate fraction, while reasonable quantities of kojic and gallic acids were found in the aqueous seed fraction. Matsui et al. (2010) have attributed to the compound piceatannol (3,4,3 0 ,5'-tetrahydroxy-trans-stilbene), very abundant in P. edulis seeds, not only the inhibition of melanogenesis but also the increase in total soluble collagen, both observed in dermal fibroblast cell cultures treated with passion fruit seed's extract. Posteriorly, Sano, Sugiyama, Ito, Katano, and Ishihata (2011) have isolated a dimmer of piceatannol, scirpusin B, which in its turn showed greater vasorelaxant and antioxidant activities than piceatannol in rat thoracic aorta ex-vivo assays, with minor vasoconstriction effects (Table 3). ...
Article
Background: For centuries, Passiflora species have been used in folk medicine, especially as sedatives and anxiolytics, and in recent decades exploited by the food, pharmacological and cosmetics industries. Currently, the concentrated juice manufacture is the most impacting activity involving Passiflora spp., since its market is in frank expansion worldwide. Such a wide-scale passion fruit processing inevitably ends up generating huge amounts of wastes (i.e. seeds, rinds and bagasse), as it corresponds to more than a half of the fruit mass. Scope and Approach: The present review aims to summarize and evaluate the past decade findings related with nutritional composition, bioactive molecules and biotechnological applications of Passiflora spp., with special attention to the potentialities of its co-products. Key Findings and Conclusions: A series of emerging technologies firmed on non-thermal principals, along with encapsulation by nanoparticles methods, have been studied for the sustainable recovery of some target high added-value compounds from Passiflora spp. and their co-products, which include biologically active components such as polyphenols, terpenes, peptides, polysaccharides and dietary fibers. In addition, the passion fruit co-products are promising (and still underutilized) agents of bioconversion and bioremediation, besides low-cost functional ingredients for both cosmetic and food industry. Key words: passion fruit wastes, recovery technologies, bioactive extracts, phytochemicals, dietary fibers, functional ingredients
... Piceatannol, a structurally related analog of resveratrol, is a naturally occurring stilbene derivative present in a high concentration in passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) seeds (Matsui et al., 2010). Previously, we reported that piceatannol exhibits many biological activities such as vasodilation (Kinoshita et al., 2013;Sano, Sugiyama, Ito, Katano, & Ishihata, 2011;Ishihata et al., 2016), skin protection (Maruki-Uchida et al., 2013;Matsui et al., 2010), Sirtuin-1 (Sirt1) induction (Kawakami et al., 2014), and metabolic health improvement (Kitada et al., 2017;Maruki-Uchida et al., 2015;Yamamoto et al., 2016). ...
... Piceatannol, a structurally related analog of resveratrol, is a naturally occurring stilbene derivative present in a high concentration in passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) seeds (Matsui et al., 2010). Previously, we reported that piceatannol exhibits many biological activities such as vasodilation (Kinoshita et al., 2013;Sano, Sugiyama, Ito, Katano, & Ishihata, 2011;Ishihata et al., 2016), skin protection (Maruki-Uchida et al., 2013;Matsui et al., 2010), Sirtuin-1 (Sirt1) induction (Kawakami et al., 2014), and metabolic health improvement (Kitada et al., 2017;Maruki-Uchida et al., 2015;Yamamoto et al., 2016). Piceatannol has also been reported to promote neural stem cell differentiation into astrocytes (Arai et al., 2016), and possess anti-proliferative activity against cancer cells (Takasawa et al., 2017). ...
Article
In addition to the development of chrononutrition, food ingredients have been demonstrated to contribute to expression changes in the peripheral clock genes responsible for circadian rhythms. Passion fruit seeds extract (PFSE) contains a high concentration of piceatannol that exhibits many physiological activities; however, whether PFSE and piceatannol affect clock genes is not known with certainty. In this study, we evaluated the effects of PFSE and piceatannol on the rhythm of PER2 using bioluminescence in mPer2Luc knock-in mice and their embryonic fibroblasts. Piceatannol was demonstrated to advance and delay the phase of PER2::LUC oscillation owing to differences in timing of treatment in vitro. In the in vivo imaging system, oral administration of piceatannol significantly advanced the luminescence rhythm of PER2::LUC in peripheral organs. Furthermore, piceatannol recovered the phase change of PER2::LUC disturbed by high-fat diet intake. These findings indicate that piceatannol affects peripheral clock gene expression and may prevent circadian disturbance.
... In Viet Nam, P. edulis is popularly cultivated in Tay Nguyen, Nghe An and Son La with areas of over ten thousand hectares. The P. edulis extracts were found to possess biological activities, including antioxidant [2], antifungal [3] and compounds from the seeds of P. edulis were found to inhibit melanogenesis and promote collagen synthesis [4]. Previous studies on chemical constituents of P. edulis seeds showed the presence of stilbenoids [4,5], oil and tocopherols [6]. ...
... The P. edulis extracts were found to possess biological activities, including antioxidant [2], antifungal [3] and compounds from the seeds of P. edulis were found to inhibit melanogenesis and promote collagen synthesis [4]. Previous studies on chemical constituents of P. edulis seeds showed the presence of stilbenoids [4,5], oil and tocopherols [6]. P. edulis seeds accounted for 6-12 % of fruit weight and they were used for the treatment of constipation and hemorrhoids [7]. ...
Article
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The present research was aimed to study the chemical compositions of Passiflora edulis Sims seeds oil, including the fatty acid profiles, contents of tocopherols, sterols, and triglycerides. The seeds oil yield is 24.88% by using Soxhlet method. Passiflora edulis seeds oil showed high levels of unsaturated fatty acids (89.25%) with main ingredient linoleic acid (w-6, 66.94%) and oleic acid (w-6, 18.86%). Tocopherols (18.04 mg/kg), sterols (2935.35 mg/kg) and triglycerides (monomere TAG, 74.11%) are also determined by using IOC and ISO methods, respectively. The findings demonstrate that P. edulis seeds oil could be used beneficially in the food and cosmetic industries.
... Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trans-trihydroxystilbene) is found in plants such as peanuts, mulberries, blueberries, raspberries and grapes [7] and it has attracted increasing attention due to its multiple beneficial properties, including anti-cancer, antiinflammatory and antioxidant activities [5,8]. Also, piceatannol shows activity similar to resveratrol [6] and its levels in plants such as grapes and wines are significantly lower than those of resveratrol [9] but much higher activity than resveratrol has been reported in few studies [10,11]. ...
... Scirpusin A, a hydroxystilbene dimer with antiobesity and anti-adipogenic activity and inhibitory effects on amyloid-β aggregation [12]. Studies have shown that passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) seeds have a high piceatannol and scirpusin B content [10,13]. Piceatannol has various properties, such as sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) induction activity, a vasorelaxant effect, upregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression, promotion of collagen synthesis, inhibition of melanogenesis, and protection of the skin from ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation [13,14], while Scirpusin B functional properties include vasorelaxing and anti-HIV effects [15]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Aim: To determine the effect of analogy and dimerization of bioactive compounds at the molecular level on the biological functions. Methodology: This work was carried out on a model set of bioactive compounds which consisted of resveratrol, piceatannol, isorhapontigenin, scirpusin A and scirpusin B, using computational methods which include target prediction, pharmacokinetics prediction, and molecular docking. Results: It was observed that the increase in structural complexity reduces the solubility and gastrointestinal absorption but it does not affect the bioavailability score. The probability of target decreases with increasing structural complexity. In most of the targets, different molecular parameters were observed which exists between compound resveratrol and piceatannol as well as between scirpusin A and scirpusin B, while resveratrol, isorhapontigenin, and scirpusin B showed the related mode of molecular modulation in most of the targets. Conclusion: The model of this study showed that natural bioactive dimer compounds have high binding affinity than its monomer in most cases and that usually with a different mechanism of action.
... This polyphenol is largely found in the seeds and shows high antioxidant and potential antibacterial activity. 3,4 Propionibacterium acnes is a Gram-positive anaerobic bacillus normally found on human skin and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. People with acne lesions have higher numbers of P. acnes compared with controls. ...
... Matsui et al reported that 88% of total polyphenols of the fruit is found in the seeds, which comprised 33% of the freezedried seed compounds, and the majority of these is piceatannol (4.8 mg/g). 3 Our results are in accordance with a study on the antimicrobial effect of piceatannol on P. acnes, which also showed significant inhibitory activity in comparison with resveratrol, benzoyl peroxide, and erythromycin. The average IC 50 and IC 100 of piceatannol were 123 and 234 mg/L, respectively, for three strains of P. acnes (ATCC 25746, 29399, and 33179). ...
Article
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Background: Passion fruit is used commercially for consumption and in beverages. This plant exhibits various pharmacological properties and possesses a complex phytochemistry. In recent years, this plant has been shown to have potential antimicrobial activity. The seeds contain a high amount of piceatannol, which exhibits an inhibitory effect on Propionibacterium acnes. Therefore, the seed extract of purple variant, Passiflora edulis Sims var. edulis, may have potential antibacterial activity against P. acnes. Aim: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of P. edulis Sims var. edulis seeds extract on P. acnes. Methods: Seed extract was prepared by maceration and dissolved in DMSO in multiple concentrations. Propionibacterium acnes was cultured in Brucella blood sheep 5% agar for 24 hours and the agar disc diffusion method was used to evaluate the inhibitory effect of each concentration (1.25%, 2.5%, 5%, 10%, 20%, and 40%), in comparison with clindamycin and erythromycin. Zones of inhibition at 24 hours were measured and documented, then analyzed to obtain the mean inhibition zone (MIZ). The Mann-Whitney test was conducted to compare the antibacterial activity of the extract, clindamycin and erythromycin. A serial dilution assay of five different concentrations (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25%) in brain-heart infusion broth was performed to determine the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). Results: After 24 hours, all concentrations of P.edulis Sims var. edulis showed an inhibitory effect against P. acnes, with MIZs for of each concentration of 1.25% 6 mm, 2.5% 6.83 mm, 5% 8.5 mm, 10% 10.08 mm, 20% 14 mm, and 40% 16 mm. Clindamycin revealed comparable antibacterial effect to 5% seed extract, with an MIZ of 8 mm. However, erythromycin was found to be superior to the seed extract, with a 22.67 mm MIZ (p<0.05). The serial dilution assay revealed an MIC of 20% and MBC of 25%. Conclusion: Seed extract of P. edulis Sims var. edulis had good antibacterial activity against P. acnes, and the effect increased with the concentration.
... The oil is rich in stilbenes, vitamins, and catechin. It is described in the literature the presence of piceatannol and resveratrol in passion fruit from Japan and Brazil [10]. ...
... The benefits of piceatannol have not been studied as extensively as in the case of resveratrol [20]. Piceatannol (3,3 ,4 ,5-trans-tetrahydroxystilbene) is a polyphenolic compound that has been found in some plants, including grapes, passion fruit, white tea, rhubarb, peanuts, berries, and some mushroom species [10,21,22]. ...
Article
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Recently, studies on the by-products from the food industry, such as passion fruit seeds, have significantly increased, as these can have an added value, due to their properties, such as potential antioxidant activity. This study was conducted to determine the presence of piceatannol and resveratrol in various extracts of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) seeds from Madeira Island and a commercial passion fruit oil was used as reference. The commercial oil and the extracts that were obtained by traditional Soxhlet method with ethanol and acetone did not reveal the presence of the two stilbenes, piceatannol and resveratrol. However, the extracts that were obtained by the ultrasound method showed significant amounts of piceatannol and resveratrol when compared with the commercial oil. The presence of these compounds indicates that this oil could have potential application in cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries, due to their proven antioxidant and anti-aging properties.
... The authors found that piceatannol, very abundant in P. edulis seeds, was responsible for these bioactivities. Matsui et al. (2010) (continued on next page) Gil, Restrepo, Mill an, Alzate, and Rojano (2014), who studied the microencapsulation of banana passion fruit pulp by spray drying for the obtaining of natural antioxidants, identified the following phenolic compounds by HPLC, with results expressed in mg per 100 g of pulp on a dry weight base: ferulic acid (126.3 ± 0.004) caffeic acid (13.9 ± 0.004) and p-coumaric acid (5.9 ± 0.001). Contreras-Calder on, Calder on-Jaimes, Guerra-Hern andez, and García-Villanova (2011) investigated the antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of peels from two varieties of banana passion fruits and found a total phenolic content of 246 mg GAE/100 g (of fresh peel) for P. mollissima and 288 mg GAE/100 g for P. tarminiana, with considerable antioxidant activities measured by different methods (Table 3). ...
... Considerable amounts of chlorogenic and rosmarinic acids, along with quercetin, were identified in the ethyl acetate fraction, while reasonable quantities of kojic and gallic acids were found in the aqueous seed fraction. Matsui et al. (2010) have attributed to the compound piceatannol (3,4,3 0 ,5'-tetrahydroxy-trans-stilbene), very abundant in P. edulis seeds, not only the inhibition of melanogenesis but also the increase in total soluble collagen, both observed in dermal fibroblast cell cultures treated with passion fruit seed's extract. Posteriorly, Sano, Sugiyama, Ito, Katano, and Ishihata (2011) have isolated a dimmer of piceatannol, scirpusin B, which in its turn showed greater vasorelaxant and antioxidant activities than piceatannol in rat thoracic aorta ex-vivo assays, with minor vasoconstriction effects (Table 3). ...
... In Viet Nam, P. edulis is popularly cultivated in Tay Nguyen, Nghe An and Son La with areas of over ten thousand hectares. The P. edulis extracts were found to possess biological activities, including antioxidant [2], antifungal [3] and compounds from the seeds of P. edulis were found to inhibit melanogenesis and promote collagen synthesis [4]. Previous studies on chemical constituents of P. edulis seeds showed the presence of stilbenoids [4,5], oil and tocopherols [6]. ...
... The P. edulis extracts were found to possess biological activities, including antioxidant [2], antifungal [3] and compounds from the seeds of P. edulis were found to inhibit melanogenesis and promote collagen synthesis [4]. Previous studies on chemical constituents of P. edulis seeds showed the presence of stilbenoids [4,5], oil and tocopherols [6]. P. edulis seeds accounted for 6-12 % of fruit weight and they were used for the treatment of constipation and hemorrhoids [7]. ...
... 6 Piceatannol is an analog and a metabolite of resveratrol, which possesses an additional hydroxyl group in position 3 of resveratrol ( Fig. 1). 7 Picea- tannol can be found in many plant sources, including grapes, white tea, and passion fruits, 8,9 and similar to resveratrol, many studies have reported the beneficial effects of picea- tannol, such as estrogenic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer activities. 7 Moreover, it has been reported that the catechol group present in ring B of piceatannol formed by phenolic groups in positions 3 0 and 4 0 significantly increases its antioxidant activity, 10 suggesting a possibility that picea- tannol may have a greater beneficial effect than resveratrol. ...
Article
Excess fat accumulation and abnormal metabolism are involved in numerous diseases and thus the research on identification of compounds that can regulate energy homeostasis could significantly facilitate the current effort to prevent and/or treat metabolic disorders. Piceatannol, one of the natural stilbenes, was previously found to decrease lipid accumulation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes. However, its role in fat metabolism in vivo is not known. Thus, Caenorhabditis elegans as an animal model was used in the current study to determine the effect of piceatannol on fat accumulation and its underlying mechanisms. The results showed that 50 and 100 μM piceatannol significantly reduced fat accumulation of wild-type worms grown in normal and high-glucose conditions without altering the growth rate, worm length, pumping rate, or moving speed. The current study further indicated that piceatannol decreased the expression of sbp-1 (encodes an ortholog of mammalian sterol regulatory element-binding protein) and its target gene fasn-1 (encodes an ortholog of fatty acid synthase) as well as increased the expression of hosl-1 (encodes an ortholog of hormone-sensitive lipase) in glucose-treated worms. These data suggested that piceatannol reduced fat accumulation in C. elegans by suppression of genes involved in lipid synthesis and possibly through stimulation of lipolysis. Given that piceatannol exerts similar effects in both C. elegans and 3T3-L1 cells, our finding could provide a mechanistic insight into the role of piceatannol in lipid metabolism in mammals.
... The residual seeds from the juice industrialization and frozen pulp of yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) are an important source of piceatannol, a natural stilbene that presents high antioxidant capacity (Matsui et al., 2010), anti-inflammatory, vaso-relaxing (Frombaum et al., 2011;Kinoshita et al., 2013;Sano, Sugiyama, Ito, Katano, & Ishihata, 2011;Seyed, Jantan, Bukhari, & Vijayaraghavan, 2016), antitumor, antidiabetic, and anti-adipogenic properties (Kukreja, Mishra, & Tiwari, 2013;Piotrowska, Kucinska, & Murias, 2012;Uchida-Maruki et al., 2015). ...
Article
The hygroscopic behavior of microcapsules of antioxidant extract of defatted passion fruit seed, produced using spray drying technique, was analyzed at 20 and 40 °C by the static method with saturated saline solutions. The isosteric heat of sorption of the microcapsules, concentration of phenolic compounds and piceatannol, and the antioxidant capacity using ABTS and DPPH methods were measured during storage at different relative humidities. The isotherms were classified as GAB isotherms, exhibiting a Type II behavior. Isosteric heat of sorption decreased when the relative humidity increased and critical equilibrium moisture reached 61%. The microencapsulated extracts retained their antioxidant capacities within the evaluated conditions, what suggests that it may be applied in food at any of these water activity values. Practical applications Piceatannol is a stilbene with expressive antioxidant capacity which can be found in passion fruit seeds. In this work, the seeds were used to obtain the crude hydroethanolic extract which was microencapsulated by spray drying. The hygroscopic behavior of the microencapsulated extract of piceatannol was evaluated by fitting the data on different isotherm theoretical models. It was possible to verify the interference of the water activity in the antioxidant capacity and establish a relationship with possible critical storage conditions of the microencapsulated extract.
... The effect of passion fruit on melanogenesis and collagen synthesis in dermal cells and the components responsible for these effects were studied. The ethanolic seed extract contained piceatannol which exhibited antioxidative properties and melanin inhibitory activity [17]. The crude extract of passion fruit peel contains flavonoids, cyanogenic, phenolics and polysaccharides. ...
Article
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Plants belonging to the Genus Passiflora have been commonly used in traditional medicine for a variety of health conditions. The major bioactive components present in these plants are identified as flavonoids, alkaloids, glycosides and phenolic compounds. Six species belonging to the Genus Passiflora which have been well documented are P. alata, P. caerulea, P. edulis, P. foetida, P. incarnata, P. ligularis. Also, the subspecies P. edulis Sims f. Flavicarpa has been well documented for its phytochemical composition and human healthcare applications. There are well documented evidence-based scientific studies which are continuing to be reported on the medicinal value of these plants. These studies include both in vitro and in vivo studies using cell lines and animal models, respectively. The studies highlight the importance of these plant species for their therapeutic values in gastrointestinal conditions, neurological complications, cardiovascular conditions, inflammation and as anti-anxiolytic agents. We present in this review a systematic account on the phyto-constituents present in various plant parts of the six different species of this Genus along with the in vitro and in vivo experiments that highlighted their pharmacological importance.
... Skin aging is characterized by atrophy of the dermal-epidermal junction with a decrease in mechanical tension and loss of elasticity, due mainly to marked reduction of the dermal extracellular matrix, including collagen, elastin, and hyaluronic acid [27,28]. Collagen secreted by normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs) plays important roles in cell-cell adhesion, cell proliferation and cell differentiation, and thus the functional properties of the skin depends on the quality and condition of the collagen present in the dermis [29]. ...
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The leaves of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) possess high medicinal value and have been used as traditional medicines. However, there are no evidence-based studies on the skin-care effects of E. japonica leaves. To explore new biological activities of E. japonica leaves against skin disorder and to gain a better understanding of the chemical components associated with bioactivities, we evaluated 18 triterpenoids from E. japonica leaves on anti-melanogenesis, anti-acne, anti-allergy and anti-aging activities. Our results revealed that eight compounds showed anti-melanogenesis activity, of which ursolic acid (1) and maslinic acid (7) were the most potent with the similar selective index to that of arbutin. Structure–activity relationship and possible mechanism of active compounds were proposed. Twelve compounds exhibited anti-acne effect; ursolic acid (1), maslinic acid (7), corosolic acid (8) and euscaphic acid (12) showed highest activities against P. acnes. Four compounds displayed anti-allergy and anti-inflammatory activity; 3-epicorosolic acid (9) and euscaphic acid (12) showed marked activity against β-hexosaminidase release. Finally, ursolic acid (1), pomolic acid (10), colosolic acid (8) and its methylated derivative (6) exhibited the highest anti-aging activity by stimulating collagen and hyaluronic acid (HA) production. Our findings provide valuable evidence that E. japonica leaves have potential applications as ingredients of function foods or cosmetics for health benefits and a number of triterpenoids may play an important role in these bioactivities.
... Apart from berries, recent studies have detected the presence of resveratrol, piceatannol and piceid in others plants and fruits such as rhubarb, banana, guava, leech, pineapple, apple, peach, passion fruit and pears (Zheng et al. 2013;Arslan and Yilmaz 2013;Peng et al. 2015;Matsui et al. 2010), but at low concentrations. In fact, these studies showed that piceid was the major form existing in vegetable foods, higher than resveratrol. ...
Article
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Stilbenes are a class of phenolic metabolites found in various edible plants, such as grapevine, berries and peanuts. Their bioactivitiy and their potential benefits for human health have been the subject of several studies. Among all identified stilbenes, resveratrol has been particularly studied and results from literature showed that it presents several biological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative effects. Likewise, some researches focused on other stilbenes and highlighted similar biological activity for those compounds. However, stilbenes present a high diversity in their phenolic structures (various chemical substituents and polymerization) which is a determining factor of their absorption and metabolism rates. Consequently, this could affect the effectiveness of stilbenes in vivo. In this context, an evaluation of the bioavailability and metabolism of stilbenes is necessary to move forward with pharmacological and clinical studies. Hence, this review aims to present recently obtained data and results concerning stilbenes sources and bioavailability, as a contribution to the valorization of the role of dietary stilbenes in the human diet.
... Piceatannol is known as a hydroxylated metabolite and an analog of resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) that has higher antioxidant and anticancer activities than resveratrol [6]. Piceatannol can be affective on human dermal cells with the suppression of melanogenesis and synthesis of collagen [7]. The positive effects of piceatannol were represented in health, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and functional foods [8][9][10] and also vasorelaxant effects in rat thoracic aorta [11]. ...
Article
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For the first time, we developed an electrochemical sensor for piceatannol based on a new type of nanocomposite: graphene oxide nano sheets decorated with core-shell [email protected] nanoparticles ([email protected]/GO) mixed with nafion and casted on the surface of glassy carbon electrode. The nanocomposite was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) techniques. The square wave voltammetry as a sensitive technique and cyclic voltammetry were selected for the quantification of piceatannol in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.0). Several parameters were evaluated such as pH value, scan rate and supporting electrolyte type for the determination of piceatannol. In addition, selectivity and repeatability measurements were also evaluated. Under the optimized conditions, linear range and limit of detection were obtained 0.01–10.0 µM and 0.003 µM, respectively. Relative standard deviation for 3.0 µM and 6.5 µM were calculated 3.25% and 1.83%, respectively. The proposed sensor was applied successfully for the quantification analysis of piceatannol in grape skin essential oil and urine sample with satisfactory results.
... 14 In addition, passion fruit contains a high amount of piceatannol in its seed, detected at a dry weight concentration of 4.8 mg/g. 15 Vaccinium berries (blueberries) also contain piceatannol at a dry concentration of 138-422 ng/g. 16 As with most secondary plant metabolites, piceatannol is produced in response to stress. ...
Article
Metabolic disease comprises a set of risk factors highly associated with obesity and insulin resistance and is a consequence of central adiposity, hyperglycemia, and dyslipidemia. Furthermore, obesity increases the risk of the development of metabolic disease due to ectopic fat deposition, low-grade inflammation, and systemic energy disorders caused by dysregulated adipose tissue function. Piceatannol is a naturally occurring polyphenolic stilbene found in various fruits and vegetables and has been reported to exhibit anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties. In addition, recently reported beneficial effects of piceatannol on hypercholesterolemia, atherosclerosis, and angiogenesis underscore its therapeutic potential in cardiovascular disease. However, investigation of its role in metabolic disease is still in its infancy. This review intensively summarizes in vitro and in vivo studies supporting the potential therapeutic effects of piceatannol in metabolic disease, including inhibition of adipogenesis and lipid metabolism in adipocytes, and regulation of hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and fatty acid-induced inflammation and oxidative stress.
... The anti-inflammatory [14] [15] and anxiety-reducing [16] [17] effects of the leaves, vines, and flowers of Passion fruit has already been reported and associated with its polyphenol content. However, specific polyphenols are found in the seeds, such as piceatennol and scirpusin B (a dimer of the prior), which have an important antioxidant function [18] [19], due to the dose-dependent up-regulation of a relevant reduction system, glutathione. In addition, besides inhibiting matrix-metalloproteinase 1 [20], activated by UVB light and responsible for collagen degeneration in skin-aging, they also stimulate collagen synthesis and inhibit melanogenesis [21]. ...
Article
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In this study, we assessed the efficacy and safety of four skin care products indicated for skin hydration (Aqua Therapy® and Perfecta® ), skin aging (Unica Resurfacing Therapy® ) and sensitive skin (Comfort Therapy® ), in four groups of 7 volunteers with different skin types. These products belong to four skin care ranges (Aqua® , Perfecta® , Unica® and Comfort® ) and are formulated with a specific combination of active compounds (Dermo28® ). Evaluation of sebum secretion, hydration and pH of the skin (all groups), wrinkle severity (Unica Resurfacing Therapy® ) and erythema (Comfort Therapy® ) was performed at baseline and after 4 weeks of treatment. A significant increase in hydration was recorded in subjects with dry skin receiving Aqua Therapy® for facial hydration and Perfecta® for body hydration, respectively (p ® group. In subjects with sensitive skin (Comfort Therapy® ), a decrease in erythema (p = 0.012), an increase in sebum secretion (p = 0.001) and hydration (p < 0.001), and a reduction in pH (p = 0.005) were detected at the end of treatment. Only one patient reported a minor adverse event. This specific combination of active ingredients was clinically effective and safe, and contributed to skin surface hydrolipidic film regeneration, improvement of wrinkle depth and reduction of redness.
... Piceatannol (3,5,3′,4′-tetrahydroxystilbene) (Fig. 1) is a naturally occurring 3′-hydroxylated product of resveratrol that is found in various plants. It was first isolated from the heartwood of Vouacapoua americana (King et al. 1956) and has been extracted from various plants like Polygonum cuspidatums, passion fruit (Passiflora edulis), Arachis hypogaea, Vitis thunbergii, and many more (Beňová et al. 2008;Matsui et al. 2010;Sano et al. 2011;Lin et al. 2007). But the important sources of piceatannol in edible form are grapes and wine. ...
Article
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Resveratrol (3,5,4′-trihydroxystilbene) and piceatannol (3,5,3′,4′-tetrahydroxystilbene) are well-known natural products that are produced by plants. They are important ingredients in pharmaceutical industries and nutritional supplements. They display a wide spectrum of biological activity. Thus, the needs for these compounds are increasing. The natural products have been found in diverse plants, mostly such as grapes, passion fruit, white tea, berries, and many more. The extraction of these products from plants is quite impractical because of the low production in plants, downstream processing difficulties, chemical hazards, and environmental issues. Thus, alternative production in microbial hosts has been devised with combinatorial biosynthetic systems, including metabolic engineering, synthetic biology, and optimization in production process. Since the biosynthesis is not native in microbial hosts such as Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Corynebacterium glutamicum, genetic engineering and manipulation have made it possible. In this review, the discussion will mainly focus on recent progress in production of resveratrol and piceatannol, including the various strategies used for their production.
... The review reveals the presence of wide ranges of phytochemical constituents from the plant like flavonoids, tannins, phenol, glycosides, fatty acids, alkaloids. The leaves and fruit having high medicinal values like seed containing high amounts of piceatannol inhibits melanogenesis and promotes collagen synthesis [9] and possess anticancer properties [10]. The flavonoids from the leaf extract possess the antioxidative capacity [11]. ...
Conference Paper
1. INTRODUCTION: Currently, nanoscience and nanotechnology become a broader area because of its increase in usage in many fields. Nanoparticles possess advanced applications based on their particle size, distribution, capping agents, shape, and other morphological features. They show the difference in properties and applications while compared to their bulk state because they have a large volume to surface ratio as particle size decreases the volume to surface ratio was increased due to this fact, nanotechnology becomes the most emerging area in the present era. Nanoparticles can be synthesized various chemical and physical methods. Recently synthesis of nanoparticles using various parts of medicinal plant extracts owning different active compounds of phytochemicals have more advanced improvised properties in medicinal fields as these active compounds were combined with the metal nanomaterials. The metal nanoparticles having distinctive properties in many fields, particularly various applications of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) includes sensing devices, information storage [1], recording media [2], biosensor design, catalysis [3], optoelectronics4, wound healing [5], pollution control [6], genetic disorders detection [7] and determination of ct-DNA [8]. The selected plant for the phytomediated PVA capped AgNPs was Passiflora edulis its common name was passion fruit belongs to the family Passifloraceae. It was cultivated commercially for its seedy sweet fruit. The plant has a shallow-rooted, woody. The alternate, evergreen leaves with 3 lobes in the mature stage and finely toothed, 3 to 8 Abstract: The cutting-edge investigation reports about the evaluation of antibacterial studies of AgNPs (AgNPs) using an aqueous leaf extract of Passiflora edulis as reducing agent and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a capping agent. This is a simple, one pot, and rapid, eco-friendly, non-toxic and cost-effective method for the synthesis of AgNPs. Synthesis of AgNPs using plant extract has more advanced biological applications as they are the sources of the active compounds which were used in many medical remedies. So this active compound of phytochemicals from the Passiflora edulis plant extracts acts as a reducing agent for the synthesis of AgNPs. The synthesized PVA capped AgNPs were characterized by using diversify instrumental techniques such as UV-Vis spectroscopy reveals the formations of AgNPs as they depicting maximum absorption peak at 436 nm due to surface plasmon resonance. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic studies were conducted to know the phytochemicals responsible for the synthesis of AgNPs from the studies of the vibration bands of functional groups. The crystalline nature of the synthesized AgNPs had been studied by X-ray diffraction studies and the average particle size was found to be 24 nm calculated using Debye-Scherrer formula. The morphology of the AgNPs was studied by Scanning electron microscopy and the elemental signal profile carried out automatically with Energy dispersive spectroscopy, which coupled with SEM as it shows spherically shaped particles and the energy dispersive spectroscopy data showing a good atomic and weight content of stable silver. The characterized AgNPs afterward used for the antibacterial studies of the four harmful bacteria Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas putida, and Staphylococcus aureus, which exhibited high activity. The conducted studies constitute the premise for further investigations of the potential use of AgNPs as a chemotherapeutic.
... Some works point out that passion fruit by-products are rich sources of phytonutrients such as fatty acids [1,2], carotenoids [3], tocopherols and tocotrienols (tocols) [4], and phenolic compounds [5][6][7][8]. Some studies have concentrated their efforts in performing extraction processes to obtain such compounds. ...
Article
This work presents the economic evaluation of two processes to obtain: i) four extract fractions from passion fruit bagasse by sequential multi-stage process comprising three steps of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and one step of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE); ii) one extract from passion fruit rinds by single-stage PLE process. The economic simulation and sensitivity study were performed for plants containing two extraction vessels of 1, 5, 50 and 500 L. The scale-up led to a decrease in the cost of manufacturing (COM). COMs of extracts from sequential multi-stage and single-stage processes decreased from US$ 220.51/kg to US$ 26.33/kg and US$ 71.03/kg to US$ 11.96/kg, respectively, when the system capacity increased from 2 × 1 L to 2 × 500 L. Itemized costs related to materials, facilities, labor and utilities are also presented. Both processes are economically promising, especially when the extracts are produced in large scale and sold by the current market price.
... Larger amounts of chlorogenic acid, rosmarinic acid and quercetin were found in the ethyl acetate extract. Also the presence of piceatannol, resveratrol and scirpusin B in the seed and their properties are documented and should be mentioned (Matsui et al. 2010;Sano et al. 2011;Maruki-Uchida et al. 2013Matsumoto et al. 2014;Kitada et al. 2017). ...
Chapter
The quality of passion fruit oil is determined by its main components like the lipids but also by minor compounds whose levels are influenced by several factors (i.e. genetic, environmental, etc.). Description of properties of bioactive components in passion fruit seed oil and their potential beneficial role for human health will be a focal point of this chapter. Presence of aroma compounds and their contribution to the organoleptic properties of the fruit and its industrial residues will be discussed. Suitable research strategies as well as the definition of practical possibilities for using passion fruit oils and its constituents represents another focus: conventional procedures and advanced extraction technologies, as well as analytical techniques, with particular attention to green procedures will be taken into account. An integrated and multidisciplinary system of analysis combined with statistical methods is becoming an increasingly valuable tool for analyzing and modeling agro-food systems in their totality. These new directions will be discussed, with particular regards to spectroscopy combined with advanced chemometrics. Such approaches are applied in classification, discrimination and authentication studies. Furthermore, they are used in detection and monitoring of contaminants and adulterants. The use of passion fruit oil in different fields (i.e. pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, cosmetic, bio-based applications) will be discussed.
... Piceatannol (PIC), a natural polyphenolic compound, is present in large amounts in passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) seeds [9]. It also presents in red grape and other plants [10]. ...
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Piceatannol (PIC), a phytochemical, is abundant in passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) seeds. In this study, we investigated the effects of PIC on the expression levels of antioxidant enzymes in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells and compared its effects with those of PIC analogues and polyphenols. We also evaluated its effects on hydrogen peroxide–induced accumulation of reactive oxygen species in C2C12 myotubes. Treatment with PIC led to dose-dependent upregulation of heme oxygenase-1 (Ho-1) and superoxide dismutase 1 (Sod1) mRNA expression in C2C12 myotubes. PIC was the most potent inducer of Ho-1 among the PIC analogues and major polyphenols tested. In addition, treatment with PIC suppressed the hydrogen peroxide–induced increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species levels. Our results suggest that PIC protects skeletal muscles from oxidative stress by activating antioxidant enzymes such as HO-1 and SOD1 and can therefore help prevent oxidative stress–induced muscle dysfunction such as muscle fatigue and sarcopenia.
... Piceatannol (PIC) (Figure 1k) is a polyphenolic stilbene phytochemical that is found in large amounts in passion fruit seeds, berries, and grapes [278,279]. PIC is a hydroxylated analog of RES but has stronger free-radical-scavenging activity as well as greater bioavailability than RES [280,281]. Previous studies have reported that PIC has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activity [282,283]. ...
Article
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Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury is one of the major drawbacks of mortality and causes significant short/long-term neurological dysfunction in newborn infants worldwide. To date, due to multifunctional complex mechanisms of brain injury, there is no well-established effective strategy to completely provide neuroprotection. Although therapeutic hypothermia is the proven treatment for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), it does not completely chang outcomes in severe forms of HIE. Therefore, there is a critical need for reviewing the effective therapeutic strategies to explore the protective agents and methods. In recent years, it is widely believed that there are neuroprotective possibilities of natural compounds extracted from plants against HIE. These natural agents with the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-apoptotic, and neurofunctional regulatory properties exhibit preventive or therapeutic effects against experimental neonatal HI brain damage. In this study, it was aimed to review the literature in scientific databases that investigate the neuroprotective effects of plant extracts/plant-derived compounds in experimental animal models of neonatal HI brain damage and their possible underlying molecular mechanisms of action.
... The literature reports that passion fruit seed present higher amounts of phenolic compounds and the main component is the PIC [22,23,29,30]. The yellow passion fruit (P. ...
Article
Objectives: Piceatannol (PIC) is a polyphenolic and resveratrol analog that is found in many vegetables consumed by humans. Like resveratrol, PIC has beneficial effects on health due to its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and anti-proliferative features. However, the molecular targets of PIC in prostate cancer (PCa), which is the second most common cancer in men worldwide, are still poorly understood. Preventing cancer through dietary sources is a promising strategy to control diseases. Therefore, the aim of present study was to investigate the molecular mechanistic of actions of PIC in PCa cell lines with different genetic background common to human prostate cancer. Methods: Human PCa cell lines (PC-3, 22Rv1, LNCaP, and VCaP) were treated with different doses of PIC (5-40 µM) and used for cell viability assay, measurement of total free fatty acids (FFA) and lactate, and cell cycle distribution. Results: PIC treatment dose- and time-dependently reduced viability in PC-3 (androgen-independent, PTEN null, p53 null) and VCaP cells (androgen-responsive, wild-type PTEN, mutant p53). Because metabolic alterations, such as increased glucose and lipid metabolism are implicated in pathogenesis of in PCa, we tested if PIC could affect these pathways. Results from lactate and total free fatty acid assays in VCaP, 22Rv1 (castration-resistant, wild-type PTEN, mutant p53), and LNCaP (androgen-responsive, PTEN null, wild-type p53) revealed no effect of PIC on these metabolisms. However, PIC treatment delayed cell cycle progression in G0/G1 phase concomitant with the induction of apoptosis in both LNCaP and 22Rv1 cells, suggesting that growth inhibitory effect of PIC in PCa is associated with cell cycle arrest and apoptotic cell death at least LNCaP and 22Rv1 cells. Conclusions: While PIC treatment does not alter lipid or glucose metabolism, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction are likely important in anti-cancer effects of PIC. Funding sources: São Paulo Research Foundation (2018/09793-7).
... Moreover, the peel and seed extracts of passion fruit exhibited an antidiabetic and antioxidant potential against streptozotocininduced diabetes in rats (Kandandapani et al., 2015). In the latest study, oil samples obtained from passion fruit seed had antioxidant and antimicrobial activities , probably due to the present of piceatannol which showed in some recent studies (Matsui et a., 2010, Hedenstrom et al., 2016, Hu et al., 2014. Therefore, it is suggested that the passion fruit by-products, coming from the processing industry, are a possible source of natural antioxidants and antimicrobial compounds, as an adjunct therapy in the management of diabetes; but it should be more carefully evaluated in further studies. ...
... The effect of passion fruit on melanogenesis and collagen synthesis in dermal cells and the components responsible for these effects were studied. The ethanolic seed extract contained piceatannol which exhibited antioxidative properties and melanin inhibitory activity [17]. The crude extract of passion fruit peel contains flavonoids, cyanogenic, phenolics and polysaccharides. ...
... Pic belongs to the natural polyphenolic compound family, and has been confirmed to be a naturally occurring hydroxylated analogue of resveratrol (34). due to the similarity in the molecular structure with resveratrol, Pic was hypothesized to exert similar pharmacological properties. ...
Article
Reperfusion is a critical therapeutic intervention used following acute ischemic stroke; however, it may cause cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury (CIRI) and aggravate brain damage. Piceatannol (Pic), a hydroxylated analog of resveratrol, has been reported to exhibit anti‑inflammatory effects. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms and its effects on CIRI have not been sufficiently assessed, and, to the best of our knowledge, current methods of prevention of CIRI are limited. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Pic on improving neurological function in a mouse model of CIRI. For the animal experiments, 8‑week‑old C57BL/6 mice were raised and randomly grouped, and an in vivo model of CIRI was established. Mice were administered a low (10 mg/kg/day) or high‑dose (20 mg/kg/d) of Pic 1 h after CIRI orally and once daily for the next 6 days. Neurological dysfunction was assessed using a modified neurological severity score and a rotarod test 1 week after CIRI establishment, and the cognitive status of the mice was assessed using a Morris water maze. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to evaluate the histopathological changes. The expression levels of sirtuin 1 (Sirt1), FoxO1, cleaved caspase‑3 (CC‑3), Bax and Bcl‑2 were measured using western blotting. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase, glutathione (GSH) peroxidase and catalase] and non‑enzymatic antioxidants (GSH) were also detected using spectrophotometry. After inhibition of the Sirt1/FoxO1 pathway, a TUNEL assay was used for the detection of apoptotic cells in vitro and in vivo. The co‑localization of neuron‑specific nuclear protein and CC‑3 was assessing using immunofluorescent staining. Pic improved neurological functions and ameliorated hippocampal neuronal pathology following CIRI. In addition, the expression levels of CC‑3 and Bax and intracellular ROS levels were increased, while levels of antioxidant and non‑enzymatic enzymes were decreased in the mouse model of CIRI. Low and high doses of Pic significantly decreased ROS production and the expression levels of apoptosis‑related proteins, but increased antioxidant enzyme levels. However, a high‑dose of Pic did not result in increased levels of non‑enzymatic enzymes. Furthermore, low and high doses of Pic treatment significantly activated the Sirt1/FoxO1 pathway. Following inhibition of the Sirt1/FoxO1 pathway, the percentage of TUNEL‑positive cells and expression of CC‑3 were increased, and CC‑3 was enriched in neurons. The antioxidant effects of Pic were blocked by inhibition of Sirt1 in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, these results suggested that Pic may exert a neuroprotective effect against in hippocampal neurons via the Sirt1/FoxO1 pathway.
... In this regard, they have been able to identify considerable amounts of chlorogenic and rosmarinic acids, together with quercetin, in the ethyl acetate fraction, while reasonable amounts of kojic and gallic acids were found in the aqueous seed fraction (Lourith and Kanlayavattanakul, 2013). In the same study, the presence of scirpusin B and stilbene piceatannol was reported, simply and dimerically in passion fruit seeds, and a previous study the compound was reported as the majority phenol in gulupa seeds (Matsui et al., 2010). ...
Article
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This study aimed to assess the anti-aging potential of the ethanol extract of Passiflora edulis f. edulis Sims seeds, through in vitro determination of antioxidant activity and inhibition assays of some enzymes related to skin aging. Furthermore, using in silico methods (docking and molecular dynamics), were established the affinity of the majority compounds of the extract on the target enzymes, ending with the prediction of drug-likeness properties. The extract showed a high total phenolic content, represented mainly by flavonoids and phenolic acids, as well as a considerable antioxidant potential measured through the DPPH, FRAP and ORAC methods. In the inhibition assays of the enzymes collagenase, elastase and tyrosinase, IC50 values presented were optimal. Docking studies demonstrated marked binding ability of the extract constituients (specially, fisetin, galangin and S-eriodictyol) to the Collagenase and Tyrosinase. Molecular dynamics validated the stability and rationality of these molecular docking studies, MM/PBSA calculations provide strong evidence for both their specific heavy binding and how enzyme-ligand complex stabilized inside the catalytic domain, and drug-likeness studies showed suitable dermato-pharmacokinetics indices for most of components of extract. Findings from this study suggest that ethanol extract of P. edulis has a great potential as an anti-aging agent.
... Passion fruit seeds contain high amounts of piceatannol (3,4,3',5'-tetrahydroxytans-stilbene) in their phenolic composition. Piceatannol is a resveratrol hydroxylate which presents strong antioxidant activity (Uchida-Maruki et al., 2015;Matsui et al., 2010). According to the reported data, the high piceatannol content in passion fruit seeds exerts positive effects on cultured dermal cells with respect to melanogenesis inhibition and collagen synthesis. ...
Article
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The wild passion fruit species Passiflora setacea, Passiflora alata, and Passiflora tenuifila are native to the Brazilian biomass. The seed waste generated from the extraction of passion fruit juice contains functional polyunsaturated fatty acids and phenolic compounds. The aims of this study were to obtain lipids and natural antioxidants from passion fruit seeds. Passion seed oils were extracted using a lab-scale continuous press and their oxidative stability was evaluated using the Rancimat® method. Higher antioxidant extract capacity was observed when using an ethanol-water solution (70:30) at 45 ºC. In these cases, the total phenolic contents expressed as gallic acid equivalents from P. setacea, P. alata, and P. tenuifila cakes were approximately 1800, 600 and 900 mg·100g−1 of extract. Induction periods increased up to two-fold when adding these extracts to their respective seed oil. Therefore, passion fruit seed extract can contribute to increasing the oxidative stability of polyunsaturated oils.
... Abnormal melanogenesis causes skin pigment disorders, such as freckles and erythema [45]. Because tyrosinase is the key enzyme in the process of melanin biosynthesis, a tyrosinase inhibitor may be a potential candidate for inhibiting or reducing melanin biosynthesis. ...
Article
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Previous studies suggested that fucoidan with a molecular weight of 102.67 kDa, isolated from Hizikia fusiforme, possesses strong antioxidant activity. To explore the cosmeceutical potential of fucoidan, its anti-photoaging and anti-melanogenesis effects were evaluated in the present study. The anti-photoaging effect was investigated in ultraviolet (UV) B-irradiated human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells), where fucoidan effectively reduced the intracellular reactive oxygen species level and improved the viability of the UVB-irradiated cells without any cytotoxic effects. Moreover, fucoidan significantly decreased UVB-induced apoptosis in HaCaT cells by regulating the protein expression of Bax, Bcl-xL, PARP, and Caspase-3 in HaCaT cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The anti-melanogenesis effect of fucoidan was evaluated in B16F10 melanoma cells that had been stimulated with alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), and fucoidan treatment remarkably inhibited melanin synthesis in α-MSH-stimulated B16F10 cells. Further studies indicated that fucoidan significantly suppressed the expression of tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein-1 and -2 (TRP-1 and-2) in B16F10 cells by down-regulating microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) through regulation of the ERK–MAPK (extracellular signal regulated kinase-mitogen activated protein kinase) pathway. Taken together, these results suggest that fucoidan isolated from H. fusiforme possesses strong anti-photoaging and anti-melanogenesis activities and can be used as an ingredient in the pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical industries.
... As it occurs in other species, such as passion fruit [78], piceatannol is present in seed in higher amounts than in the pulp. Figure 4 shows the trans-piceatannol concentration of the pulp (2.085 µg/mg) and the seed (127.315 ...
Article
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Fruits and byproducts are valuable sources of nutrients and bioactive compounds, which are associated with a decreased risk of developing several diseases, such as cancer, inflammation, cardiovascular diseases, and Alzheimer’s. The fruits of canjiqueira (Byrsonima cydoniifolia) are already exploited as a food resource, while the seeds are discarded. This study aimed at showing the potential of the whole fruit of canjiqueira. Elemental characterization was performed on ICP OES, while thermal stability was assessed on thermogravimetry. The determination of the fatty acid profile was carried out on gas chromatography and bioactive compound identification using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Results show that both parts of canjiqueira fruit are a source of various minerals, such as Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, and Mn while the seed only is a good source for Zn. Oleic and linoleic acids are the main compounds in pulp and seed. The thermal stability of seed oil is superior to pulp oil, while piceatannol concentration is higher in seed than pulp. All parts of canjiqueira fruit may be used as a strategy to address nutrition issues and are valuable ingredients to prospective food products.
... Piceatannol (3,4,3′,5′-tetrahydroxy-trans-stilbene) is a polyphenol commonly found in grapes, Japanese knotweed, and passion fruit (Benová et al. 2008;Cantos et al. 2003;Matsui et al. 2010;Piotrowska et al. 2012). This compound is a hydroxylated analog of resveratrol (3,5,4′-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene), a well-known therapeutic agent. ...
Article
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Piceatannol is a valuable natural polyphenol with therapeutic potential in cardiovascular and metabolic disease treatment. In this study, we screened for microorganisms capable of producing piceatannol from resveratrol via regioselective hydroxylation. In the first screening, we isolated microorganisms utilizing resveratrol, phenol, or 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid as a carbon source for growth. In the second screening, we assayed the isolated microorganisms for hydroxylation of resveratrol. Using this screening procedure, a variety of resveratrol-converting microorganisms were obtained. One Gram-negative bacterium, Ensifer sp. KSH1, and one Gram-positive bacterium, Arthrobacter sp. KSH3, utilized 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid as a carbon source for growth and efficiently hydroxylated resveratrol to piceatannol without producing any detectable by-products. The hydroxylation activity of strains KSH1 and KSH3 was strongly induced by cultivation with 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid as a carbon source during stationary growth phase. Using the 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid–induced cells as a biocatalyst under optimal conditions, production of piceatannol by strains KSH1 and KSH3 reached 3.6 mM (0.88 g/L) and 2.6 mM (0.64 g/L), respectively. We also cloned genes homologous to the monooxygenase gene hpaBC from strains KSH1 and KSH3. Introduction of either hpaBC homolog into Escherichia coli endowed the host with resveratrol-hydroxylating activity.
... This pattern of reduced glycemic response following the consumption of nutrient-extracted fruit was also observed for passionfruit. Passionfruit seeds contain a high proportion of piceatannol, which is a phenolic compound, and its extraction plays critical roles in inhibiting the glucose rise in the blood [20]. Passionfruit and piceatannol administration have shown a significant reduction in blood glucose levels in diabetic mice [21]. ...
Article
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Fruit consumption is recommended as part of a healthy diet. However, consumption of fruit in the form of juice is positively associated with type 2 diabetes risk, possibly due to resulting hyperglycemia. In a recent study, fruit juice prepared by nutrient extraction, a process that retains the fiber component, was shown to elicit a favorable glycemic index (GI), compared to eating the fruit whole, in healthy weight adults. The current study expanded on this to include individuals with obesity, and assessed whether the nutrient extraction of seeded fruits reduced GI in a higher disease risk group. Nutrient extraction was shown to significantly lower GI, compared to eating fruit whole, in subjects with obesity (raspberry/mango: 25.43 ± 18.20 vs. 44.85 ± 20.18, p = 0.034 and passion fruit/mango (26.30 ± 25.72 vs. 42.56 ± 20.64, p = 0.044). Similar results were found in those of a healthy weight. In summary, the current study indicates that the nutrient-extraction of raspberries and passionfruit mixed with mango lowers the GI, not only in healthy weight individuals, but also in those with obesity, and supports further investigation into the potential for nutrient extraction to enable increased fruit intake without causing a high glycemic response.
... The antioxidant activity of passion fruit dietary fibre has been studied using ethanol solvent with ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid), DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1picrylhydrazyl) and FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) assay and was determined to be 2.1µM TE (Trolox Equivalent )/ g, 1.5 µM TE/g and 4.6 µM TE/g respectively (Martínez et al. (2012). It has been discovered that piceatannol (3,4,30 ,50tetrahydroxytrans-stilbene) is present in passion fruit seeds in large amounts and that this compound is the major component responsible for the passion fruit seed extract effects observed on melanogenesis and collagen synthesis (Matsui et al. 2010). Kishore et al. (2011) evaluated the Total Soluble Solid content and titrable acidity in purple passion fruit pulp Passiflora edulis Sims which were found to be 15.30 and 3.80% respectively and total carotenoid content as determined by Pongener et al. (2013) was found to be 1467 μg/100 ml. ...
... In recent years there has been increased interest in the passion fruit seeds, because from these can be extracted an oil with a high content of unsaturated fatty acids (mainly linoleic acid) and polyphenols, in particular piceatannol [1,2]. Internal phase droplets size measurement of microemulsion in μm after 0, 15 and 30 days. ...
Conference Paper
Passion fruit oil has been used on the skin as a moisturizer, antioxidant, and depigmenting, due to its high content of polyphenols. The objective of this work was to evaluate different methods of preparation of microemulsions containing passion fruit seeds oil. For this, we used sonication and high pressure homogenization (HPH) methods under different conditions. In order to characterize the microemulsions, accelerated stability tests, pH, and internal phase droplets size measurements were performed. Then, a double face hydrophilic and lipophilic stick was prepared from the microemulsion chosen and characterized according to their hardness and coloration. The results showed that the microemulsion did not change its internal phase droplets size throughout the study. The stick hydrophilic face had lower hardness and showed less color change than lipophilic face. This study showed that it is possible to develop sticks from microemulsions containing passion fruit seeds oil with good stability characteristics.
... Hasil penelitian tersebut menunjukkan bahwa peningkatan kadar GSH di keratinosit berperan penting pada proteksi sinar UV pada kulit. 14 Kandungan flavonoid pada biji markisa dapat bekerja langsung menghambat enzim tirosinase dan juga bekerja pada bagian akhir dari jalur oksidatif melanogenesis, sehingga biji markisa dapat menjadi bahan pencegah timbulnya pigmentasi kulit akibat paparan sinar UV. 15 Matsui et al. 12 menemukan bahwa piceatannol (3,4,3', 5'-tetrahidroksi-transstilbene) merupakan komponen utama dari markisa (Passiflora edulis) yang berefek menghambat melanogenesis dan memperlihatkan sprektrum luas pada aktivitas biologik. Piceatannol dapat menghambat aktivitas beberapa faktor transkripsi, termasuk Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF-kB), juga menghambat Janus Kinase 1 (JAK1) dan spleen tyrosine kinase. ...
Article
Ultraviolet B (UVB) ray may cause hyperpigmentation of the skin due to increased melanin level. Passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) is a plant traditionally used to brighten the skin and can give satisfactory result due to its natural tyrosinase and antioxidant activities. This study was aimed to prove that cream of passion fruit extract could prevent the increase of skin melanin in UVB-exposed guinea pig (Cavia porcellus). This was an experimental study using a completely randomized posttest only control group design. Subjects were 30 brown guinea pigs, male, adult (6-8 months old), body weight of 250-300 g, divided into 3 groups as follow: 1) P0, the negative control group, exposed to ultraviolet B and applied with cream based substance; P1, the positive control group, exposed to ultraviolet B and applied with 4% hydroquinone cream; and P2, the treatment group, exposed to ultraviolet B and applied 75% passion fruit extract cream. The results showed that the average amount of melanin in the P0 group was 17.52±4.72%, whereas in the P1 group was 1.25±0.45%, and in the P2 group was 1.79±0.78% (P <0.001). The LSD test showed that the P0 group had the highest amount of melanin (P <0.01) meanwhile the P1 group had the similar result with the P2 group (P >0.05). Conclusion: Passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) extract crream could prevent increased skin melanin in UVB-exposed guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) and its effectiveness was similar to those of 4% hydroquinone cream.Keywords: passion fruit, melanin, UVB, guinea pigsAbstrak: Paparan sinar ultraviolet B (UVB) mengakibatkan terjadinya kelainan hiperpigmentasi yang ditandai dengan peningkatan jumlah melanin. Markisa (Passiflora edulis) secara tradisional digunakan untuk mencerahkan kulit dan dapat memberikan hasil yang memuaskan karena memiliki aktivitas tirosinase dan antioksidan alamiah. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membuktikan bahwa krim ekstrak markisa dapat mencegah peningkatan jumlah melanin kulit marmut (Cavia porcellus) yang dipapar sinar UVB. Jenis penelitian ialah eksperimental menggunakan completely randomized posttest only control group design. Subyek ialah 30 ekor marmut jantan, berwarna coklat, dewasa (usia 6-8 bulan), berat badan 250-300 gr, yang dibagi menjadi 3 (tiga) kelompok masing-masing berjumlah 10 ekor marmut. Kelompok P0 (kelompok kontrol negatif) diberikan penyinaran ultraviolet B dan bahan dasar krim. Kelompok P1 (kelompok kontrol positif) diberikan penyinaran ultraviolet B dan krim hidrokuinon 4%. Kelompok P2 (kelompok perlakuan) diberikan penyinaran ultraviolet B dan krim ekstrak markisa 75%. Hasil penelitian mendapatkan rerata jumlah melanin pada kelompok P0 ialah 17,52±4,72%; pada kelompok P1 1,25±0,45%, sedangkan pada kelompok P2 1,79±0,78%. Uji LSD menunjukkan bahwa kelompok P0 memiliki jumlah melanin yang paling tinggi (P <0,01), sedangkan kelompok P1 memiliki jumlah melanin yang tidak berbeda nyata dengan kelompok P2 (P >0,05). Simpulan: Krim ekstrak markisa (Passiflora edulis) dapat mencegah peningkatan jumlah melanin kulit marmut (Cavia porcellus) yang dipapar sinar UVB dengan efektifitas yang tidak berbeda dengan krim hidrokuinon 4%.Kata kunci: markisa, melanin, UVB, marmut
... Piceatannol, a structurally related analog of resveratrol, is a naturally occurring stilbene derivative present at high concentrations in passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) seeds. We previously reported that piceatannol displays a variety of biological effects, such as skin protection [12,13], vasodilatation [14], Sirt1 induction [15], and improvement in metabolic health [16][17][18]. Piceatannol is also a promising natural component for cancer prevention [19][20][21], because it alters various cellular targets and is antitumorigenic in cell line and animal models [22][23][24]. ...
Article
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Passion fruit seed extract (PFSE), a product rich in stilbenes such as piceatannol and scirpusin B, has various physiological effects. It is unclear whether PFSE and its stilbene derivatives inhibit cancer cell proliferation via human glyoxalase I (GLO I), the rate-limiting enzyme for detoxification of methylglyoxal. We examined the anticancer effects of PFSE in two types of human cancer cell lines with different GLO I expression levels, NCI-H522 cells (highly-expressed GLO I) and HCT116 cells (lowly-expressed GLO I). PFSE and its stilbenes inhibited GLO I activity. In addition, PFSE and its stilbenes supressed the cancer cell proliferation of NCI-H522 cells more than HCT116 cells. These observations suggest that PFSE can provide a novel anticancer strategy for prevention and treatment.
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This study aims at examining the hypolipidemic effect of piceatannol on high fat diet (HFD)-induced hypercholesterolemic Sprague-Dawley rats and serum metabolite changes. Piceatannol supplement significantly lowered the total cholesterols, low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and the atherogenic index as compared to the HFD model which only have increased dietary cholesterol intake. Using untargeted mass spectrometry-based metabolomic platforms, multivariate statistics revealed that HFD significantly perturbed fatty acids, lysophospholipids, bile acids and conjugated bile acids. Reduced CYP7A1 protein expression and increase in glycocholate and taurodeoxycholate after piceatannol treatment suggested the conjugated bile acid might contribute to the cholesterol-lowering effect. For lipid profiles, lysoPC (20:2) and lysoPC (20:0) were decreased while the ratio of esterified arachidonic acid to esterified dihomo-γ linoleic acid was up-regulated for rats after piceatannol supplement. These results indicated that the therapeutic effect of piceatannol is associated with bile acid and fatty acid metabolisms and reduced absorption of dietary cholesterols.
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High oxidative stress in cells due to inflammation process or excessive cell proliferation would produce oxidants or free radicals with biomarkers, one of which is malondialdehyde (MDA). Passion fruit seed’s contain high antioxidant and are expected to decrease the level of cholesterol and MDA. The objective is to identify the effect of passion fruit seed’s ethanol extract in Wistar rats that have been fed with atherogenic feed. The method was preclinical trial (post-test control group design) in rats, by administering passion fruit seed’s ethanol extract for 14 days. This study used 26 male rats aged two months, divided into 5 groups. The result showed significant difference in MDA level which was found in group that was given passion fruit seed extract 10mg/kg BW with positive control group that was given standard feed. Passion fruit seed’s extract showed significant difference in level of triglyceride, which was found in negative control group that was given atherogenic feed with group that was given passion fruit seed’s extract 5mg/kg BW (mean±standard deviation: 1.09±0.30 mg/dL vs 0.77±0.25mg/dL; p=0.048). This study showed that passion fruit seed’s ethanol extract had significant lowering effect in level of MDA, total cholesterol, and triglyceride for 14 days.
Article
Piceatannol is a natural stilbene with many beneficial effects, such as antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antiatherogenic activities; however, its role on aging is not known. In this study, we used Caenorhabditis elegans as an animal model to study the effect of piceatannol on its lifespan and investigated the underlying mechanisms. The results showed that 50 and 100 µM piceatannol significantly extended the lifespan of C. elegans without altering the growth rate, worm size and progeny production. Piceatannol delayed the age-related decline of pumping rate and locomotive activity, and protected the worms from heat and oxidative stress. This study further indicated that lifespan extension and enhanced stress resistance induced by piceatannol requires DAF-16. Since DAF-16 is conserved from nematodes to mammals, our study may have important implications in utilizing piceatannol to promote healthy aging and combat age-related disease in humans.
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An array of foodstuffs was screened for the suppressive effect on production of IgE, a key molecule in the type I allergic reaction, using U266 cells. An ethanol extract from passion fruit seeds (PFS) has emerged as a food material with the IgE production-suppressive effect as the result of screening. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that the IgE production-suppressive effect was caused by downregulated IgE gene expression. In addition, PFS selectively suppressed IgE production and did not affect the production of IgG, IgA, or IgM by mouse splenocytes. Resveratrol and piceatannol were identified as bioactive ingredients contained in passion fruit seeds. The effect of oral administration of PFS, resveratrol, and piceatannol was evaluated using a mouse model of allergic contact dermatitis. Both stilbenoids significantly suppressed IgE production in orally administered mice. Overall results indicated that passion fruit seeds are a promising candidate with the antiallergy effect for development of functional foods.
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Piceatannol is a resveratrol metabolite that is considered a potent antioxidant and cytoprotector because of its high capacity to chelate/sequester reactive oxygen species. In pathogenesis of periodontal diseases, the imbalance of reactive oxygen species is closely related to the disorder in the cells and may cause changes in cellular metabolism and mitochondrial activity, which is implicated in oxidative stress status or even in cell death. In this way, this study aimed to evaluate piceatannol as cytoprotector in culture of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts through in vitro analyses of cell viability and oxidative stress parameters after oxidative stress induced as an injury simulator. Fibroblasts were seeded and divided into the following study groups: control, vehicle, control piceatannol, H2O2 exposure, and H2O2 exposure combined with the maintenance in piceatannol ranging from 0.1 to 20 μM. The parameters analyzed following exposure were cell viability by trypan blue exclusion test, general metabolism status by the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method, mitochondrial activity through the ATP production, total antioxidant capacity, and reduced gluthatione. Piceatannol was shown to be cytoprotective due the maintenance of cell viability between 1 and 10 μM even in the presence of H2O2. In a concentration of 0.1 μM piceatannol decreased significantly cell viability but increased cellular metabolism and antioxidant capacity of the fibroblasts. On the other hand, the fibroblasts treated with piceatannol at 1 μM presented low metabolism and antioxidant capacity. However, piceatannol did not protect cells from mitochondrial damage as measured by ATP production. In summary, piceatannol is a potent antioxidant in low concentrations with cytoprotective capacity, but it does not prevent all damage caused by hydrogen peroxide.
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Methylglyoxal (MG) is a reactive α-oxoaldehyde that increases under diabetic conditions and subsequently contributes to the complications associated with this disease. Piceatannol is a naturally occurring analogue of resveratrol that possesses multiple biological functions. The present study investigated the effects of piceatannol on MG-induced cytotoxicity in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells. Piceatannol significantly restored MG-induced reductions in cell viability and reduced lactate dehydrogenase release in MG-treated MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells, which suggests that it suppressed MG-induced cytotoxicity. Piceatannol also increased glyoxalase I activity and glutathione levels in MG-treated cells, which indicates that it enhanced the glyoxalase system and thus cellular protection. The present study also showed that piceatannol inhibited the generation of inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species and ameliorated mitochondrial dysfunction induced by MG. Furthermore, piceatannol treatment significantly reduced the levels of endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy induced by MG. Therefore, piceatannol could be a potent option for the development of antiglycating agents for the treatment of diabetic osteopathy.
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Piceatannol (PIC), a polyphenol presents in many vegetables and fruits including yellow passion fruit extract (PFE; Passiflora edulis), has anti-cancer activity, but its molecular targets are still poorly understood. The aims of this study were to investigate the molecular mechanistic actions of PIC in prostate cancer cell lines and to test if the extract from PFE rich in PIC can affect the growth of prostate cancer cells in the Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of the Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) model. The PC-3, 22Rv1, LNCaP, and VCaP prostate cancer cells were exposed to PIC (10-40 μM), and cell viability, lactate measurement, Western blot, and flow cytometric analyses were performed. For an in vivo experiments, eight-week-old TRAMP mice (n = 10 per group each) received an aqueous extract of PFE containing 20 mg of PIC/kg or water (control group) by gavage for 4 or 10 weeks for further analyses. PIC treatment concentration- and time-dependently reduced viability of all cell lines tested. 22Rv1 and LNCaP cells treated with PIC did not exhibit any significant alteration in the intracellular accumulation of lactate. PIC treatment caused G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis in both LNCaP and 22Rv1 cells. PIC-treated cells exhibited altered protein levels of p53, p21, cyclin D1, and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (cdk4). The short and long-term PFE treatments also affected p21, cyclin D1 and cdk4 and delayed disease progression in TRAMP, with a decreased incidence of preneoplastic lesions. In conclusion, PIC apparently does not alter glucose metabolism in prostate cancer cells, while cell cycle arrest and p53 modulation are likely important in anti-cancer effects of PIC alone or as a food matrix byproduct in prostate cancer cells, especially those with an androgen-dependent phenotype.
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The conditions for the solid–liquid extraction of the antioxidant polyphenol compounds from yellow passion fruit seeds were optimized by response surface methodology with the following variables as the extraction parameters: extraction time (12.8–147.2 min), ethanol concentration (13–97%), and temperature (16.4–83.6 C). The polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity, which were assessed by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, b-carotene bleaching assay, and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay, were considered dependent variables. The association of the dependent variables was effective for explaining the effect of the independent variables within a determination coefficient (R2 ) range of 0.88–0.96. A moderate-to-strong correlation for the polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity by the investigated methods was established, and optimized conditions were employed to maximize this response. Extraction was carried out at 80 C using 70% ethanol concentration for 30 min, which was the most efficient condition to obtain an extract with high concentrations of polyphenolic compounds (3.12 g gallic acid equivalent/100 g seed dry basis) and a strong antioxidant capacity. The stilbene piceatannol was the major compound identified by liquid chromatographyelectrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (3.68 g/ 100 g seed dry basis). These results reinforce that agroindustrial waste demonstrates potential as a source of bioactive compounds, with implications in human health as well as in food and chemical industries. Keywords Passiflora edulis Sims Agro-industrial waste Polyphenol extraction Piceatannol Response surface methodology
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Dietary antioxidant supplements such as L-glutathione have gained considerable attention in dermatology and cosmeceutical fields. L-Glutathione possesses antiaging, antimelanogenic, antioxidant, and anticancer properties. This study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effects of L-glutathione on melanogenesis activity and oxidative stress in UVB-irradiated BALB/c mice. Eighteen female BALB/c mice were randomly divided into 3 groups: a control group (n=6), a group without UVB irradiation and L-glutathione administration; a UVB irradiated group (n=6), a group irradiated with a UVB dose of 250 mJ/cm² for 3 minutes; and a treatment group (n=6), a group irradiated with UVB and treated with 100 mg/kg of L-glutathione by oral gavage. Treatment was given for 14 days, and UVB irradiation was given on days 9, 11, and 13. Oral L-glutathione significantly (p<0.05) reduced lipid peroxidation and elevated superoxide dismutase activity the and glutathione level. L-Glutathione also inhibited melanin content and tyrosinase activity significantly (p<0.05) as compared with the UVB-irradiated group. Histopathological examination also showed that L-glutathione reduced the deposition of melanin pigment in the basal layer of the epidermis as compared with that in UVB-irradiated mice. All in all, the present study demonstrated that L-glutathione has the potential to be developed as a photoprotection agent against UVB- induced oxidative stress and melanogenesis.
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Passiflora edulis, also known as passion fruit, is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical areas of the world and becomes popular because of balanced nutrition and health benefits. Currently, more than 110 phytochemical constituents have been found and identified from the different plant parts of P. edulis in which flavonoids and triterpenoids held the biggest share. Various extracts, fruit juice and isolated compounds showed a wide range of health effects and biological activities such as antioxidant, anti-hypertensive, anti-tumor, antidiabetic, hypolipidemic activities, and so forth. Daily consumption of passion fruit at common doses is non-toxic and safe. P. edulis has great potential development and the vast future application for this economically important crop worldwide, and it is in great demand as a fresh product or a formula for food, health care products or medicines. This mini-review aims to provide systematically reorganized information on physiochemical features, nutritional benefits, biological activities, toxicity, and potential applications of leaves, stems, fruits, and peels of P. edulis.
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In this work, for the first time, chlorogenic acid, a natural phytochemical, was conjugated to a lactoferrin derived antimicrobial peptide sequence RRWQWRMKKLG to develop a self-assembled template. To mimic the components of extracellular matrix, we then incorporated Type I Collagen, followed by a sequence of aggrecan peptide (ATEGQVRVNSIYQDKVSL) onto the self-assembled templates for potential applications in ligament tissue regeneration. Mechanical properties and surface roughness were studied and the scaffolds displayed a Young’s Modulus of 169 MP and an average roughness of 72 nm respectively. Thermal phase changes were studied by DSC analysis. Results showed short endothermic peaks due to water loss and an exothermic peak due to crystallization of the scaffold caused by rearrangement of the components. Biodegradability studies indicated a percent weight loss of 27.5 % over a period of 37 days. Furthermore, the scaffolds were found to adhere to fibroblasts, the main cellular component of ligament tissue. The scaffolds promoted cell proliferation and displayed actin stress fibers indicative of cell motility and attachment. Collagen and proteoglycan synthesis were also promoted, demonstrating increased expression and deposition of collagen and proteoglycans. Additionally, the scaffolds exhibited antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus epidermis bacteria, which is beneficial for minimizing biofilm formation if potentially used as implants. Thus, we have developed a novel biocomposite that may open new avenues to enhance ligament tissue regeneration.
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Piceatannol (trans-3,3',4,5'-tetrahydroxy-stilbene) is a natural stilbene occurring in a number of plant species, and it has been shown to have beneficial effects on human health. The compound can seldom be consumed by humans, because it occurs in non-food plants, or in non-edible or-gans. Here we show for the first time that grapes (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon) have significant amounts of piceatannol (0.052 mg g -1 fresh wt). The identity of piceatannol was confirmed by HPLC and LC-MS.
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Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation accelerates formation of ceramide through hydrolysis of sphingomyelin and de novo synthesis. Here, we investigated the effects of ceramide on UV-induced matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) expression in human dermal fibroblasts. Our results showed that acidic-sphingomyelinase (aSMase) and MMP-1 mRNA expression were increased by UV irradiation. Treatment of D609 (aSMase inhibitor) decreased the level of basal and UV-induced MMP-1 expression. On the other hand, basal and UV-induced MMP-1 expression was increased through induction of intracellular ceramide by D-MAPP, a ceramidase inhibitor. Our results also showed that MMP-1 protein expression was dose-dependently increased by C(2)-ceramide or SMase treatment. The activation of ceramide pathway by C(2)-ceramide enhanced phosphorylation of signal transducer and activators of transcription-1 (STAT-1), whereas ceramide-induced MMP-1 expression was potently prevented by piceatannol; Janus kinase (JAK1) inhibtor; and WHI-P131, a specific inhibitor of JAK3; but not by AG490, JAK 2 inhbitor, in human dermal fibroblasts. We also found that UV induced the phosphorylation of STAT-1, and UV-induced MMP-1 expression was significantly decreased by JAK1 inhibitor, piceatannol. Overall, we demonstrate that induction of intracellular ceramide by UV may activate MMP-1 gene expression via JAK1/STAT-1 pathway. Therefore, we suggest that targeted modulation of the ceramide signaling pathway may offer a novel therapeutic approach for inhibiting MMP-1 expression, which is a causing gene of skin aging.
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We recently demonstrated that human melanocyte proliferation and differentiation could be stimulated by endothelin (ET) derivatives via a receptor-mediated signal transduction pathway (Yada, Y., Higuchi, K., and Imokawa, G. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 18352-18357). We show here that the growth factors for human melanocytes are produced and secreted by the surrounding cells, namely human keratinocytes for ET-1 and Big-ET-1. Northern blots have revealed the presence of ET-1 gene transcripts in proliferating human keratinocytes. The ET-1 production by human keratinocytes increased after irradiation with ultraviolet B (UVB) in a dose-dependent manner, accompanied by the significant secretion of interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1 alpha). Among the cytokines related to UVB-induced cellular reactions and keratinocyte growth, only IL-1 alpha and -1 beta stimulated the secretion of ET-1 and Big-ET-1 but not of ET-3 and Big-ET-3 in a time-dependent manner. Northern blots for IL-1 alpha-stimulated or UVB-exposed human keratinocytes revealed that production of ET-1 gene transcripts markedly increased (by about 300 or 1,200%) with constant levels of beta-actin gene transcripts. In a parallel study, the medium conditioned by UVB-exposed human keratinocytes elicited a significant anti-ET-1 antibody-suppressible increase in DNA synthesis by cultured human melanocytes in a UV dose-dependent manner, which was associated with a marked and rapid (80 s) increase in the intracellular calcium level upon incubation with human melanocytes. These studies suggest that ETs produced and secreted by keratinocytes play an essential role in the maintenance of melanocyte proliferation and UV hyperpigmentation in the epidermis.
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Resveratrol is a cancer preventative agent that is found in red wine. Piceatannol is a closely related stilbene that has antileukaemic activity and is also a tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Piceatannol differs from resveratrol by having an additional aromatic hydroxy group. The enzyme CYP1B1 is overexpressed in a wide variety of human tumours and catalyses aromatic hydroxylation reactions. We report here that the cancer preventative agent resveratrol undergoes metabolism by the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP1B1 to give a metabolite which has been identified as the known antileukaemic agent piceatannol. The metabolite was identified by high performance liquid chromatography analysis using fluorescence detection and the identity of the metabolite was further confirmed by derivatisation followed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry studies using authentic piceatannol for comparison. This observation provides a novel explanation for the cancer preventative properties of resveratrol. It demonstrates that a natural dietary cancer preventative agent can be converted to a compound with known anticancer activity by an enzyme that is found in human tumours. Importantly this result gives insight into the functional role of CYP1B1 and provides evidence for the concept that CYP1B1 in tumours may be functioning as a growth suppressor enzyme. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 86, 774–778. DOI: 10.1038/sj/bjc/6600197 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 Cancer Research UK
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Orally administered methanol extract of Passiflora edulis rind (10 mg/kg or 50 mg/kg) or luteolin (50 mg/kg), which is one of consistent polyphenols of the extract, significantly lowered systolic blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Quantitative analysis by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) showed that the extract contained 20 microg/g dry weight of luteolin and 41 microg/g dry weight of luteolin-6-C-glucoside. It also contained gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, 2.4 mg/g dry weight by LC-MS/MS or 4.4 mg/g dry weight by amino acid analysis) which has been reported to be an antihypertensive material. Since the extract contained a relatively high concentration of GABA, the antihypertensive effect of the extract in SHRs might be due mostly to the GABA-induced antihypertensive effect and partially to the vasodilatory effect of polyphenols including luteolin.
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Over the years there has been much debate as to whether α-MSH has a role as a pigmentary hormone in humans. There are two main reasons for this. First, despite the observations in the 1960s that α-MSH increased skin darkening in humans, there are reports that the peptide has no effect on melanogenesis in cultured human melanocytes. Second, the human pituitary, unlike that of most mammals, secretes very little α-MSH and circulatory levels of the peptide in humans are extremely low. However, there is now evidence from several groups that α-MSH is capable of stimulating melanogenesis in cultured human melanocytes. Rather than producing an overall increase in melanin production, it appears that the peptide acts specifically to increase the synthesis of eumelanin. Such an action could well explain the previously observed skin darkening effects of α-MSH. It is also now known that α-MSH is not produced exclusively in the pituitary but has been found at numerous sites, including the skin where it is produced by several cell types. Related Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) peptides such as ACTH are also produced in human skin. The ACTH peptides act at the same receptor (MC-1) as α-MSH and certain of these would appear to be more potent than α-MSH in stimulating melanogenesis. The ACTH peptides are also present in greater amounts than α-MSH in human epidermis and it is likely that they play an important role in regulating pigmentary responses. These POMC peptides are released from keratinocytes in response to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and it has been proposed that they serve as paracrine factors in mediating UV induced pigmentation. Their production by keratinocytes could therefore be critical in determining pigmentary responses and any changes in the availability of these POMC peptides might explain the variations in tanning ability seen in different individuals. However, the possibility that tanning ability is also dependent upon differences at the level of the MC-1 receptor cannot be ruled out and it has been suggested that an inability to tan may depend upon the presence of non-functional changes at the MC-1 receptor. α-MSH does, of course, affect human melanocytes in several ways and its stimulation of melanogenesis could be the consequence of some other fundamental action in the melanocyte. The peptide also has many other target sites in the skin and while it may have a role in regulating skin pigmentation in humans, it should not be viewed solely as a pigmentary peptide. α-MSH clearly has many different actions and its primary role in the skin may be to maintain homeostasis.
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The following 13 carotenoids from yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) were conclusively identified: phytoene, phytofluene, ζ-carotene (principal carotenoid), neurosporene, β-carotene, lycopene, prolycopene, monoepoxy-β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, β-citraurin, antheraxanthin, violaxanthin, and neoxanthin. Electron impact mass spectrometry, complemented by UV−visible spectrophotometry and co-chromatography, besides 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for prolycopene, was used for this purpose. Seven of the carotenoids identified are reported as passion fruit carotenoids for the first time. Keywords: Carotenoids; passion fruit; identification
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Recent studies have shown that dietary fiber and polyphenols of vegetables and fruits improve lipid metabolism and prevent the oxidation of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), which hinder the development of atherosclerosis. The goal of this study was to measure the total polyphenol and dietary fiber contents of some tropical fruits (i.e., pineapple, wax apple, rambutan, lichi, guava, and mango) and compare the results to the content of these substances in the better characterized persimmon. It was found that lichi, guava, and ripe mango (cv. Keaw) have 3.35, 4.95, and 6.25 mg of total polyphenols in 100 g fresh fruit, respectively. This is significantly higher than in persimmon, pineapple, wax apple, mature green mango, and rambutan [P < 0.0005 for pineapple (Smooth Cayene variant), wax apple, persimmon, rambutan, mature green mango (cv. Keaw); the value of P < 0.001 is found only for pineapple (Phuket, Queen variant)]. The same relationship was observed for the contents of gallic acid and of dietary fiber. It can be supposed that among the studied fruit, lichi, guava, and ripe mango may be preferable for dietary prevention of atherosclerosis.
Article
The cortex of 14 French apple varieties (12 cider and 2 juice varieties), one English cider variety, and one dessert apple (i.e., Golden Delicious) were studied for their polyphenol composition. Total polyphenols were assayed by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the precise polyphenolic composition (monomeric catechins, proanthocyanidins, hydroxycinnamic acids, and dihydrochalcones) was obtained by HPLC following thiolysis. ESI-MS and ESI-MS/MS analyses showed that chlorogenic acid and p-coumaroylquinic acid were methylated under the conditions of thiolysis. Depending on the variety, the global polyphenol concentration varied from 1 to 7 g per kilogram of fresh cortex. Cider varieties globally showed a higher polyphenol concentration than the dessert apple Golden Delicious, bitter varieties being the more concentrated. The proportion of the polyphenol classes varied greatly from one cultivar to another. For all varieties, procyanidins were always the predominant class. They were mainly constituted of (-)-epicatechin units with a small proportion of (+)-catechin as a terminal unit. The average degree of polymerization ranged between 4.2 and 7.5 depending upon the variety with an exception for the sharp varieties Guillevic and Avrolles which showed significant concentrations of procyanidins with DPn of 40 and 50, respectively.
Article
Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory studies have implicated solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation in various skin diseases including, premature aging of the skin and melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers. Chronic UV radiation exposure-induced skin diseases or skin disorders are caused by the excessive induction of inflammation, oxidative stress and DNA damage, etc. The use of chemopreventive agents, such as plant polyphenols, to inhibit these events in UV-exposed skin is gaining attention. Chemoprevention refers to the use of agents that can inhibit, reverse or retard the process of these harmful events in the UV-exposed skin. A wide variety of polyphenols or phytochemicals, most of which are dietary supplements, have been reported to possess substantial skin photoprotective effects. This review article summarizes the photoprotective effects of some selected polyphenols, such as green tea polyphenols, grape seed proanthocyanidins, resveratrol, silymarin and genistein, on UV-induced skin inflammation, oxidative stress and DNA damage, etc., with a focus on mechanisms underlying the photoprotective effects of these polyphenols. The laboratory studies conducted in animal models suggest that these polyphenols have the ability to protect the skin from the adverse effects of UV radiation, including the risk of skin cancers. It is suggested that polyphenols may favorably supplement sunscreens protection, and may be useful for skin diseases associated with solar UV radiation-induced inflammation, oxidative stress and DNA damage.
Article
Oxidative damage is involved in many chronic diseases including those cited as the major causes of death in Western societies such as cardiovascular disorders and cancer. Antioxidants may prevent these degenerative processes by various mechanisms including the scavenging of free radicals. Intake of antioxidant supplements is associated with preventing oxidative damages. This study investigated the absorption and antioxidant effects of a xanthone-rich mangosteen liquid in healthy human volunteers after the acute consumption of 59 mL of the supplement. The liquid contained mangosteen, aloe vera, green tea, and multivitamins. Results indicated that alpha-mangostin and vitamins B(2) and B(5) were bioavailable, with observed C(max) at t(max) of around 1 h. The antioxidant capacity measured with the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay was increased with a maximum effect of 18% after 2 h, and the increased antioxidant level lasted at least 4 h. Overall, this study demonstrated the bioavailability of antioxidants from a xanthone-rich mangosteen product and its in vivo antioxidant effects.
Article
The intent was to isolate an antifungal protein from seeds of the passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) and to compare its characteristics with other antifungal proteins and bovine beta-lactoglobulin in view of its N-terminal amino acid sequence similarity to beta-lactoglobulin. The isolation procedure entailed ion-exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose, hydrophobic interaction chromatography on Phenyl-Sepharose, ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, and FPLC-gel filtration on Superdex 75. The isolated 67-kDa protein, designated as passiflin, exhibited an N-terminal amino acid sequence closely resembling that of bovine beta-lactoglobulin. It is the first antifungal protein found to have a beta-lactoglobulin-like N-terminal sequence. Its dimeric nature is rarely found in antifungal proteins. It impeded mycelial growth in Rhizotonia solani with an IC(50) of 16 microM and potently inhibited proliferation of MCF-7 breast cancer cells with an IC(50) of 15 microM. There was no cross-reactivity of passiflin with anti-beta-lactoglobulin antiserum. Intact beta-lactoglobulin lacks antifungal and antiproliferative activities and is much smaller in molecular size than passiflin. However, it has been reported that hydrolyzed beta-lactoglobulin shows antifungal activity. The data suggest that passiflin is distinct from beta-lactoglobulin.
Article
To examine the possibility of luteolin as a whitening agent, we measured antioxidant activity using DPPH assay, NBT/XO assay and intracellular ROS scavengning assay and depigmenting activity using tyrosinase assay, alpha-MSH-induced melanin production in B-16 cells. Luteolin showed dose-dependent anti-oxidant activity in DPPH, NBT/XO and intracellular ROS assay. Also, luteolin directly inhibited xanthine oxidase activity in a dose-dependent manner. Although luteolin did not directly inhibit tyrosinase activity, it dose-dependently inhibited both tyrosinase activity and melanin production in B16 melanoma cells stimulated by 1 microM alpha-MSH. Luteolin dose-dependently inhibited cAMP levels in B16 melanoma cells stimulated by 1 microM alpha-MSH and 1 microM forskolin, which suggest that luteolin directly inhibits adenyl cyclase in B16 melanoma cells. Therefore, these results suggest that whitening activity of luteolin may be due to the inhibition of adenyl cyclase involved in the signal pathway of alpha-MSH in B16 melanoma cells.
Article
The acai berry is the fruit of the acai palm and is traditionally consumed in Brazil but has gained popularity abroad as a food and functional ingredient, yet little information exists on its health effect in humans. This study was performed as an acute four-way crossover clinical trial with acai pulp and clarified acai juice compared to applesauce and a non-antioxidant beverage as controls. Healthy volunteers (12) were dosed at 7 mL/kg of body weight after a washout phase and overnight fast, and plasma was repeatedly sampled over 12 h and urine over 24 h after consumption. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis of total anthocyanins quantified as cyanidin-3-O-glucoside showed Cmax values of 2321 and 1138 ng/L at t max times of 2.2 and 2.0 h, and AUC last values of 8568 and 3314 ng h L(-1) for pulp and juice, respectively. Nonlinear mixed effect modeling identified dose volume as a significant predictor of relative oral bioavailability in a negative nonlinear relationship for acai pulp and juice. Plasma antioxidant capacity was significantly increased by the acai pulp and applesauce. Individual increases in plasma antioxidant capacity of up to 2.3- and 3-fold for acai juice and pulp, respectively were observed. The antioxidant capacity in urine, generation of reactive oxygen species, and uric acid concentrations in plasma were not significantly altered by the treatments. Results demonstrate the absorption and antioxidant effects of anthocyanins in acai in plasma in an acute human consumption trial.
Article
Over the years there has been much debate as to whether alpha-MSH has a role as a pigmentary hormone in humans. There are two main reasons for this. First, despite the observations in the 1960s that alpha-MSH increased skin darkening in humans, there are reports that the peptide has no effect on melanogenesis in cultured human melanocytes. Second, the human pituitary, unlike that of most mammals, secretes very little alpha-MSH and circulatory levels of the peptide in humans are extremely low. However, there is now evidence from several groups that alpha-MSH is capable of stimulating melanogenesis in cultured human melanocytes. Rather than producing an overall increase in melanin production, it appears that the peptide acts specifically to increase the synthesis of eumelanin. Such an action could well explain the previously observed skin darkening effects of alpha-MSH. It is also now known that alpha-MSH is not produced exclusively in the pituitary but has been found at numerous sites, including the skin where it is produced by several cell types. Related Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) peptides such as ACTH are also produced in human skin. The ACTH peptides act at the same receptor (MC-1) as alpha-MSH and certain of these would appear to be more potent than alpha-MSH in stimulating melanogenesis. The ACTH peptides are also present in greater amounts than alpha-MSH in human epidermis and it is likely that they play an important role in regulating pigmentary responses. These POMC peptides are released from keratinocytes in response to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and it has been proposed that they serve as paracrine factors in mediating UV induced pigmentation. Their production by keratinocytes could therefore be critical in determining pigmentary responses and any changes in the availability of these POMC peptides might explain the variations in tanning ability seen in different individuals. However, the possibility that tanning ability is also dependent upon differences at the level of the MC-1 receptor cannot be ruled out and it has been suggested that an inability to tan may depend upon the presence of non-functional changes at the MC-1 receptor. alpha-MSH does, of course, affect human melanocytes in several ways and its stimulation of melanogenesis could be the consequence of some other fundamental action in the melanocyte. The peptide also has many other target sites in the skin and while it may have a role in regulating skin pigmentation in humans, it should not be viewed solely as a pigmentary peptide. alpha-MSH clearly has many different actions and its primary role in the skin may be to maintain homeostasis.
Article
Resveratrol has been associated with reduced cardiovascular disease and reduced cancer risk. This phytoalexin has been reported in a number of plant species, including grapes, and may be one of the compounds responsible for the health benefits of red wine. Analytical methods for measuring resveratrol in wine and peanuts were adapted to isolate, identify, and quantify resveratrol in several cultivars of peanuts. Aqueous ethanol (80% v/v) extracts from peanuts without seed coats were purified over alumina/silica gel columns and analyzed by reversed phase HPLC using a C-18 column. Peanuts from each market type, Virginia, runner, and Spanish, produced in four different locations contained from 0.03 to 0.14 microg of resveratrol/g. Seed coats from runner and Virginia types contained approximately 0.65 microg/g of seed coat, which is equivalent to <0.04 microg/seed. Quantitative analysis of 15 cultivars representing 3 peanut market types, which had been cold stored for up to 3 years, indicated a range of 0.02-1.79 microg/g of peanut compared to 0.6-8.0 microg/mL in red wines.
Article
Methanol extract (RM-ext) obtained from the dried rhizome of Rheum undulatum was screened for activity in experimental models of type I allergy. RM-ext exhibited the inhibition on 48-h homologous passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) in rats and an antigen-induced histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells. Among nine stilbenes isolated from RM-ext, seven inhibited the histamine release. Rhapontigenin (compound 1), piceatannol (2) and piceatannol 3'-beta-D-glycoside (6) with oral administration showed the inhibition on PCA. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited the inhibitory effect on sheep red blood cell-induced delayed-type hyper sensitivity (SRBC-DTH) of type IV allergic model. These results indicated that the rhizome of Rheum undulatum inhibits the allergic reactions and that these inhibitory effects may be partially attributable to the stilbenes mentioned above.
Article
Dietary antioxidants are thought to be beneficial in reducing the incidence of coronary heart disease. In this study, we compared resveratrol and analogues on their antioxidation and free radical scavenging activities to their protective effects on ischaemia-reperfusion induced injuries of rat hearts. Astringinin (3,3′,4′,5-tetrahydroxystilbene) was shown to be a more potent inhibitor than other analogues against Cu2+-induced LDL (low-density lipoprotein) oxidation, as measured by the formation of conjugated diene and TBARS (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance) and by the electrophoretic mobility of the oxidized LDL. Resveratrol (trans-3,4′,5-trihydroxystilbene) and astringinin scavenged the stable free radical DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl) with an IC0.200 of 7.1 and 4.3 μM, respectively. Astringinin has a superoxide anion scavenging activity about 160 fold more potent than resveratrol. After a 30 min global ischemia followed by 2 h reperfusion, astringinin (10 μM) significantly reduced infarct size, superoxide anion production and increased functional recovery of the coronary flow in Langendorff-perfused rat hearts. The result showed there is a positive correlation between the anti-oxidation and cardioprotective activities among these phenolic compounds. Our finding together with the fact that astringinin is more water-soluble than resveratrol suggest that astringinin could potentially be used as an anti-oxidant and cardioprotective agent in biological systems. British Journal of Pharmacology (2002) 135, 1627–1633; doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0704637
Article
Vitamin C content in fresh and freeze-dried herbal juice, such as guava (Psidium guajava Linn.) emblic myrobolan (Phyllanthus embica Linn.), lemon (Citrus aurantifollia Swing), sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum Linn.) Garcinia schomburgkiana Pierre and passion fruit (Passiflora laurifoia Linn.) was determined by direct titration with iodine. The method showed excellent linearity (r2>0.99) over the concentration ranges tested (100-500% of the amount found in the juice samples), good precision (R.S.D.<1.5%) and recovery (>97%). The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were 2.2 and 7.3 mg, respectively. The amount of vitamin C found were 80.1 mg/100 g for guava, 226.0 mg/100 g for emblic myrobolan, 52.8 mg/100 g for sweet pepper, 39.1 mg/100 g for passion fruit, 10.5 mg/100 g for lemon and 4.6 mg/100 g for G. schomburgkiana. The stability of vitamin C during the first 4 weeks was remarkably improved after freeze-dried process. The percent reductions of vitamin C after freeze-dried process were 41.4 and 20.4% for guava and emblic myrobolan, respectively. After 8 weeks, the freeze-dried samples contained only traces amount of vitamin C tested by thin layer chromatography.
Article
The methanol extract of the leaves of Passiflora incarnata (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) exhibited significant antitussive activity on sulfur dioxide-induced cough in mice, the cough inhibition (39.4 and 65.0%, respectively) being comparable to that of codeine phosphate (10 and 20 mg/kg, p.o., respectively).
Article
Yellow passion fruit juice (PFJ, Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa) is an important component of many tropical fruit beverages, but limited data exist on its antioxidant chemical composition and stability during processing and storage. PFJ fortified with ascorbic acid (450 mg/L) and sucrose (10%) was compared to a nonfortified control, and each was evaluated with and without vacuum deaeration to remove dissolved oxygen. Following pasteurization, juices were stored for 28 days at 37 degrees C to accentuate physicochemical changes. Pasteurization (85 degrees C for 30 min) resulted in minor changes to physicochemical attributes, but appreciable changes occurred during storage that resulted in termination of the study after 28 days. Oxygen control strategies proved to be ineffective for quality retention and indicated oxygen-independent reactions affecting juice color, phytochemical content, and antioxidant activity. Ascorbic acid and sucrose fortification had an overall preservation effect on total carotenoids, the former resulting in hyperchromic shifts in absorbance, indicating their chemoprotection. Pasteurization resulted in a 25% loss in l-ascorbic acid, which was completely destroyed after 14 days of storage; losses coincided with increased juice browning and formation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. Numerous polyphenolics were present in PFJ, and 16 of them were tentatively characterized on the basis of spectral similarities to known standards. Individually, polyphenolics increased during pasteurization, only to decline during storage at elevated temperatures. Antioxidant activity was measured in PFJ and in two subfractions (hydrophilic and lipophilic) after processing and storage, but antioxidant values were nonadditive. A significant chemical interaction affecting antioxidant capacity was found for hydrophilic juice components, but none was observed in the presence of lipophilic phytochemicals. Physicochemical attributes and overall quality of PFJ were retained following pasteurization but were significantly impacted by degradative reactions during accelerated storage.
Article
Gnetol (2,3',5',6-tetrahydroxy-trans-stilbene), a naturally occurring compound particularly found in the genus Gnetum, had a strong inhibitory effect on murine tyrosinase activity. Gnetol (IC50, 4.5 microM) was stronger than kojic acid (IC50, 139 microM) as a standard inhibitor for murine tyrosinase activity. Moreover, gnetol significantly suppressed, melanin biosynthesis in murine B16 melanoma cells.
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with (+)-catechin on cutaneous antioxidant enzymes and the skin damage caused by UVB irradiation. BALB/c mice were divided into three groups. Each group was fed a regular diet (RD) or a 2% catechin-supplemented diet for either 2 weeks (2CSD) or 4 weeks (4CSD) ad libitum prior to UVB irradiation. Skin was removed for the antioxidant enzyme assay, hematoxylin and eosin staining, and the TEM analysis before and at various time points after UVB (200 mJ/cm2) irradiation. Before UVB irradiation, the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities of the 2CSD and the 4CSD groups were found to be lower than those of the RD group, whereas the glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity of the 4CSD group was higher than those of the RD and the 2CSD groups (P<0.05). The SOD and CAT activities of the RD group decreased after UVB irradiation, while those of the 2CSD and the 4CSD groups increased immediately after irradiation and then decreased (P<0.05). Immediately after UVB irradiation, the GPx activities of the 4CSD and the 2CSD groups increased, but that of the RD group decreased. The GPx activity of all three groups showed a tendency to return to pre-UVB irradiation levels with time. Light microscopic findings of the RD group showed epidermal thinning and apoptotic cells at 24 h after UVB irradiation and mostly necrotic cells at 48 h, whereas only moderate thickening of the epidermis was observed in the 2CSD group at 48 h after irradiation. An electron microscopic examination produced similar findings. At 48 h after irradiation, nearly all epidermal cells seemed to be damaged in the RD group as compared to the 2CSD group. These results demonstrate that dietary supplementation with (+)-catechin could protect epidermal cells against UVB-induced damage by modulating antioxidant enzyme activities.
Article
We have previously shown that royal jelly (RJ) promoted collagen production by skin fibroblasts in the presence of ascorbic acid-2-O-alpha-glucoside (AA-2G). In this study, we purified the honeybee RJ-derived collagen production-promoting factor (HBRJ-CPF) from an alkali-solubilized fraction of RJ by C18 reverse-phase column chromatography. The elution profile by the C18 column chromatography and the molecular mass of the purified HBRJ-CPF material coincided with those of 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10H2DA). We then examined the collagen production-promoting activities of several commercially available fatty acids contained in RJ. We found that 10H2DA and 10-hydroxydecanoic acid increased the collagen production in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, 10H2DA induced the fibroblast cell line, NHDF, to produce transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) which is an important factor for collagen production. As expected, the collagen production-promoting activity of 10H2DA was neutralized by the anti-TGF-beta 1 antibody. These result suggest that HBRJ-CPF identified as 10H2DA promoted the collagen production of AA-2G-treated fibroblasts by inducing TGF-beta 1 production.
Article
Chronic exposure of solar ultraviolet (UV) light to human skin results in photoaging. UV-induced oxidative damage and induction of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) have been implicated in this process. Because polyphenols from green tea (GTP) prevent other cutaneous adverse effects of UV radiation we hypothesized that UV irradiation-induced oxidative damage and induction of MMP might be prevented in vivo in mouse skin by oral administration of GTP. GTP was administered in drinking water (0.2%, wt/vol) to SKH-1 hairless mice, which were then exposed to multiple doses of UVB (90 mJ per cm2, for 2 mo on alternate days) following in vivo photoaging animal protocol. Treatment of GTP resulted in inhibition of UVB-induced protein oxidation in vivo in mouse skin, a hallmark of photoaging, when analyzed biochemically, by immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry. GTP treatment also inhibited UVB-induced protein oxidation in vitro in human skin fibroblast HS68 cells, which supports in vivo observations. Moreover, oral administration of GTP also resulted in inhibition of UVB-induced expression of matrix degrading MMP, such as MMP-2 (67%), MMP-3 (63%), MMP-7 (62%), and MMP-9 (60%) in hairless mouse skin. These data suggest that GTP as a dietary supplement could be useful to attenuate solar UVB light-induced premature skin aging.
Article
A study was conducted to determine the presence of resveratrol, pterostilbene, and piceatannol in Vaccinium berries. Samples representing selections and cultivars of 10 species from Mississippi, North Carolina, Oregon, and Canada were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Resveratrol was found in Vaccinium angustifolium (lowbush blueberry), Vaccinium arboretum (sparkleberry), Vaccinium ashei (rabbiteye blueberry), Vaccinium corymbosum (highbush blueberry), Vaccinium elliottii (Elliott's blueberry), Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry), Vaccinium myrtillus (bilberry), Vaccinium stamineum (deerberry), Vaccinium vitis-ideae var. vitis-ideae (lingonberry), and Vaccinium vitis-ideae var. minor (partridgeberry) at levels between 7 and 5884 ng/g dry sample. Lingonberry was found to have the highest content, 5884 ng/g dry sample, comparable to that found in grapes, 6471 ng/g dry sample. Pterostilbene was found in two cultivars of V. ashei and in V. stamineum at levels of 99-520 ng/g dry sample. Piceatannol was found in V. corymbosum and V. stamineum at levels of 138-422 ng/g dry sample. These naturally occurring stilbenes, known to be strong antioxidants and to have cancer chemopreventive activities, will add to the purported health benefits derived from the consumption of these small fruits.
Article
In order to develop a new skin whitening agent, safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) seeds were evaluated for melanogenesis inhibitory activity and its active principles were identified following activity-guided isolation. The 80% aqueous methanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction from safflower seeds showed a significant inhibition for mushroom tyrosinase. Three active compounds, N-feruloylserotonin, N-(p-coumaroyl)serotonin, and acacetin, were isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction as the active principles. Compared with arbutin (IC50=0.223 mM), the IC50 values of these compounds were 0.023, 0.074, and 0.779 mM for N-feruloylserotonin, N-(p-coumaroyl)serotonin, and acacetin, respectively. It was also found that N-feruloylserotonin and N-(p-coumaroyl)serotonin strongly inhibited the melanin production of Streptomyces bikiniensis and B16 melanoma cells in comparison with a known melanogenesis inhibitor, arbutin.
Article
A new source to produce a significant quantity of a naturally occurring polyphenol, piceatannol, was investigated in this study. Both resveratrol and piceatannol are recognized as important ingredients in functional foods due to their beneficial health effects. However, unlike resveratrol, the piceatannol concentration in plants is very low. Thus, calluses of peanuts, an easily obtainable source, were chosen as the material to induce piceatannol production under controlled conditions. To induce resveratrol and piceatannol, calluses were exposed to the ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Significant quantities of resveratrol and piceatannol were produced by calluses upon UV irradiation in both static and suspension culture conditions. The amounts of piceatannol and resveratrol produced in 1 g of calluses ranged from 2.17 to 5.31 microg and from 0.25 to 11.97 microg, respectively, in static culture. In suspension culture, the amounts of induced piceatannol and resveratrol were somewhat lower. The quantities of induced piceatannol and resveratrol reached a maximum at 18 h after UV irradiation treatment in static culture. In contrast, the levels of resveratrol and piceatannol remained almost constant throughout the experiments in suspension culture. The piceatannol produced by calluses in all studies was much higher than the values reported in the literature, whereas the resveratrol produced was comparable to reported values.
Article
The influence of the insoluble fiber-rich fraction (FRF) prepared from defatted Passiflora edulis seed, a potential fiber source, on plasma and hepatic lipids and fecal output were investigated in hamsters fed a hypercholesterolemic diet containing 5% insoluble FRF. The results showed that the consumption of insoluble FRF diet relative to cellulose diet could effectively (P < 0.05) decrease the levels of serum triglyceride, serum total cholesterol, and liver cholesterol, and increase (P < 0.05) the levels of total lipids, cholesterol, and bile acids in feces. The consumption of insoluble FRF also increased (P < 0.05) the fecal bulk and moisture. The marked cholesterol- and lipid-lowering effects of insoluble FRF might be partly attributed to its ability to enhance the excretion of lipids and bile acids via feces. Our results suggested that insoluble FRF could be a potential hypocholesterolemic ingredient for fiber-rich functional foods, but some further researches in humans may be needed to confirm its benefits.
Article
Unlabelled: The popular medicine Passiflora edulis has been used as a sedative, tranquilizer, against cutaneous inflammatory diseases and intermittent fever. Most of the pharmacological investigations of Passiflora edulis have been addressed to its Central Nervous System activities, such as anxiolytic, anticonvulsant and sedative actions. Otherwise, there are few reports about the anti-inflammatory activity of the Passiflora species. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous lyophilized extract obtained from leaves of Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa Degener (Passifloraceae) in the mouse model of pleurisy induced by carrageenan (Cg), bradykinin, histamine or substance P, observing the effects upon leucocytes migration, myeloperoxidase (MPO), nitric oxide (NO) concentrations and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta) levels. Results: Passiflora edulis (250mg/kg) administered by intraperitoneal route (i.p.) inhibited the leukocyte, neutrophils, myeloperoxidase, nitric oxide, TNFalpha and IL-1beta levels (P<0.01) in the pleurisy induced by carrageenan. Passiflora edulis (250-500mg/kg, i.p.) also inhibited total and differential leukocytes in the pleurisy induced by bradykinin, histamine or substance P (P<0.05). Conclusion: Several mechanisms, including the inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNFalpha, IL-1beta), enzyme (myeloperoxidase) and mediators (bradykinin, histamine, substance P, nitric oxide) release and/or action, appear to account for Passiflora edulis's actions.
Article
Antioxidants such as vitamins C and E have been reported to inhibit the progression of ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced pigmentation in the skin of hairless mice. However, little is known of the lightening effect of proanthocyanidin, a powerful polyphenolic antioxidant, on UV-induced pigmentation of the skin. We investigated the lightening effect of oral administration of a proanthocyanidin-rich grape seed extract (GSE) using guinea pigs with UV-induced pigmentation. These pigmented guinea pigs were fed diets containing 1% GSE or 1% vitamin C (w/w) for 8 weeks. GSE-feeding had an apparent lightening effect on the guinea pigs' pigmented skin. Histologic evaluation demonstrated a decrease in the number of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA)-positive melanocytes as well as 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)-positive, Ki-67-positive, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive melanin-containing cells in the basal epidermal layer of the UV-irradiated skin in GSE-fed guinea pigs. In contrast, these parameters did not change in the skin of vitamin C-fed or control guinea pigs. GSE inhibited the activity of mushroom tyrosinase and also inhibited melanogenesis without inhibiting the growth of cultured B16 mouse melanoma cells. In conclusion, we demonstrated that oral administration of GSE is effective in lightening the UV-induced pigmentation of guinea pig skin. This effect may be related to the inhibition of melanin synthesis by tyrosinase in melanocytes and the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-related proliferation of melanocytes.
Article
Some plant flavonoids in the form of whole plant extracts have been used topically for skin inflammatory disorders. Since matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1, collagenase-1) plays an important role in unbalanced turn-over or rapid breakdown of collagen molecules in human inflamed/UV-irradiated skin, the effects of natural flavonoids on MMP-1 activity and MMP-1 expression were studied to establish the therapeutic potential. Against recombinant human MMP-1, flavonols such as quercetin and kaempferol were strong inhibitors with IC50 values of 39.6 and 43.7 microM, respectively, while flavones such as apigenin and wogonin showed only weak inhibitory activity. In addition, quercetin, kaempferol, apigenin and wogonin (12.5-25.0 microM) strongly inhibited MMP-1 induction in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate-treated human dermal fibroblasts, but naringenin (a flavanone) did not. By means of the electrophoretic mobility shift assay, these flavonoids were also found to inhibit activation of the transcription factor, activator protein-1 (AP-1). Moreover, quercetin inhibited extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation, and kaempferol inhibited p38 MAPK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation among the MAPKs tested. In contrast, flavones and naringenin did not inhibit the activation of these three MAPKs. These results have shown, for the first time, that naturally-occurring flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol, apigenin and wogonin) inhibit MMP-1 and down-regulate MMP-1 expression via an inhibition of the AP-1 activation although the cellular inhibitory mechanisms differ depending on their chemical structures. Therefore, certain plant flavonoids or plant extracts with these flavonoids as major components may be beneficial to treat some skin inflammatory disorders and to protect skin from photoaging.
Article
In our efforts to find new skin lightening agents, piceatannol (PICE) was investigated for its antioxidative property and ability to inhibit melanogenesis. In this study, PICE's effect on inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase, and tyrosinase inhibiting activity and melanin content were assessed utilizing the B16F10 melanoma cell (B16 cell) culture system. Results indicated that PICE has a strong antityrosinase activity (IC(50)=1.53 microM). To evaluate the relative efficacy of PICE compared to other tyrosinase inhibitors, its inhibitory effect was compared and showed that PICE was significantly stronger than kojic acid (IC(50)=50.1 microM) and resveratrol (IC(50)=63.2 microM). Furthermore, PICE was shown to down-regulate melanin content. To document PICE's antioxidative property, which is known to influence melanogenic activity, we assessed reactive species (RS) generation, reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) levels in these B16 cells. The results showed that PICE suppressed RS generation and enhanced the GSH/GSSG ratio. In conclusion, our results indicated that the antimelanogenic action of PICE is likely exhibited by the combined effect of PICE's antioxidative property and its ability to suppress RS generation while increasing the GSH/GSSG ratio.
Article
Many patients have preoperative anxiety; therefore, the development of a strong anxiolytic with minimal psychomotor impairment for premedication may be desirable. In this study, 60 patients were randomized into two groups to receive either oral Passiflora incarnata (500 mg, Passipy IranDarouk) (n = 30) or placebo (n = 30) as premedication, 90 min before surgery. A numerical rating scale (NRS) was used for each patient to assess anxiety and sedation before, and 10, 30, 60, and 90 min after premedication. Psychomotor function was assessed with the Trieger Dot Test and the Digit-Symbol Substitution Test at arrival in the operating room, 30 and 90 min after tracheal extubation. The time interval between arrival in the postanesthesia care unit and discharge to home (discharge time) was recorded for each patient. The demographic characteristics of patients, ASA physical status, duration of surgery, basal NRS score, sedation at the preset time intervals, and discharge time were similar in the two groups. The NRS anxiety scores were significantly lower in the passiflora group than in the control group (P < 0.001). There were no significant differences in psychological variables in the postanesthesia care unit and recovery of psychomotor function was comparable in both groups. In outpatient surgery, administration of oral Passiflora incarnata as a premedication reduces anxiety without inducing sedation.
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The physical and chemical properties of seeds and seed oil from 'Tainung No. 1' passion fruit in China have been analyzed in order to evaluate their nutritional value. Proximate analysis shows that the seeds have a high amount of protein (10.8 +/- 0.60%) and are rich in oil (23.40 +/- 2.50%). The seeds are found to be a good source of minerals. They contain considerable amounts of sodium (2.980 +/- 0.002 mg/g), magnesium (1.540 +/- 0.001 mg/g), potassium (0.850 +/- 0.001 mg/g), and calcium (0.540 +/- 0.002 mg/g). The passion fruit seeds contain the 17 amino acids that are found naturally in plant protein (tryptophan is not analyzed). The essential amino acids account for 34% of the 17 amino acids. The amino acid score of passion fruit seeds protein is 74 and the first limiting amino acid is methionine and cystine. The oil extracted by solvent and supercritical dioxide carbon is liquid at room temperature and the color is golden-orange. The specific gravity of the oil is about 0.917. Comparing the chemical properties of the oil extracted by solvent with that by supercritical dioxide carbon, the latter may be suitable as edible oil directly, while the former will be edible after it must be refined to improve on clarity. Fatty acid composition of the seed oil indicates that the oil contains two essential fatty acids (linoleic acid and linolenic acid), but the content of linoleic acid (72.69 +/- 0.32%) is by far greater than that of linolenic acid (0.26 +/- 0.00%). The present analytical results show the passion fruit seed to be a potentially valuable non-conventional source for high-quality oil.