Article

Olfactory Deficits in Patients With Anorexia Nervosa

Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, Medical University Hospital Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany.
European Eating Disorders Review (Impact Factor: 2.46). 09/2010; 18(5):385-9. DOI: 10.1002/erv.1010
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) often show gastrointestinal symptoms and have altered gastrointestinal functions. Olfaction is part of the predigestive function and plays an important role in the selection of food and the control of food intake. The question arises if patients with eating disorders have changes in olfactory functions as well. The aim of this study was to compare olfactory functions in patients with AN and controls using the Sniffin' sticks.
We studied 19 patients with AN, restricting type (10 patients) and binge-eating/purging type (9 patients) and 21 healthy controls matched by age. For evaluation of the severity of AN we used the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2).
Differences were found in odour identification with patients with AN having lower scores and there was a significant correlation between results in this subtest and BMI. There were no differences in odour threshold, odour discrimination and overall performance. There was no correlation between test results and EDI-2 scores. We did not find differences between subtypes of AN.
Larger and more homogenous samples are needed to gain a better understanding of degree and type of olfactory deficits in AN-patients with possible consequences for refeeding therapy.

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    • "The Sniffin ' Sticks test ( Hummel et al . , 1997 ) was used in eight ( 57% ) studies published between 2008 and 2014 ( Schreder et al . , 2008 ; Aschenbrenner et al . , 2009 ; Rapps et al . , 2010 ; Weiland et al . , 2011 ; Goldzak - Kunik et al . , 2012 ; Schecklmann et al . , 2012 ; Dazzi et al . , 2013 ; Fernández - Aranda et al . , 2015 ) ( see Table 3 ) . This test is divided into three categories : the olfactory threshold test , the discrimination test and the identification test ."
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    ABSTRACT: The study provides a systematic review that explores the current literature on olfactory capacity in abnormal eating behavior. The objective is to present a basis for discussion on whether research in olfaction in eating disorders may offer additional insight with regard to the complex etiopathology of eating disorders (ED) and abnormal eating behaviors. Electronic databases (Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science) were searched using the components in relation to olfaction and combining them with the components related to abnormal eating behavior. Out of 1352 articles, titles were first excluded by title (n = 64) and then by abstract and fulltext resulting in a final selection of 14 articles (820 patients and 385 control participants) for this review. The highest number of existing literature on olfaction in ED were carried out with AN patients (78.6%) followed by BN patients (35.7%) and obese individuals (14.3%). Most studies were only conducted on females. The general findings support that olfaction is altered in AN and in obesity and indicates toward there being little to no difference in olfactory capacity between BN patients and the general population. Due to the limited number of studies and heterogeneity this review stresses on the importance of more research on olfaction and abnormal eating behavior.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Frontiers in Psychology
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    • "Badania pokazują na przykład jego dużą przydatność w diagnozie sprawności węchu u pacjentów cierpiących na choroby neurodegeneracyjne, takie jak choroba Parkinsona [51] czy Alzheimera [52]. Ponadto utrata węchu jest często jednym z symptomów zaburzeń psychosomatycznych i psychiatrycznych [53] [54]. Stosowanie obiektywnych, standaryzowanych narzędzi do oceny funkcjonowania węchu jest ważne również dlatego, że pacjenci często nie są w stanie ocenić własnej sprawności w tym zakresie [55]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Sniffin’ Sticks Test (SST) is a complex smell test, enabling the diagnosis of various aspects of olfactory sensitivity. It is one of the most popular tools for olfactory testing all over the world; however, so far it has not been commonly used in Poland. Aim The presented study had the following aims: assessment of the applicability of the SST in Poland, adaptation of the identification subtest, normalization of the whole battery and comparison of the Polish results to the norms in the original tool. Materials and methods We tested olfactory sensitivity of 281 healthy volunteers aged 18–87 years. We used the full version of the SST (threshold, discrimination and identification subtests). Results The results of the presented study are the modified version of the identification test response questionnaire and clearly defined normative values for the Polish people of different ages. Normative values and results in Poland were not significantly different from the previously reported findings for the original, German tool. Additionally, consistent with previous reports, olfactory sensitivity of the eldest group of the Polish people was lower than performance in younger age groups. Conclusions The presented findings suggest that the adapted version of the Sniffin’ Sticks Test might be used for both medical and research purposes in Poland.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Otolaryngologia polska. The Polish otolaryngology
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    • "Badania pokazują na przykład jego dużą przydatność w diagnozie sprawności węchu u pacjentów cierpiących na choroby neurodegeneracyjne, takie jak choroba Parkinsona [51] czy Alzheimera [52]. Ponadto utrata węchu jest często jednym z symptomów zaburzeń psychosomatycznych i psychiatrycznych [53] [54]. Stosowanie obiektywnych, standaryzowanych narzędzi do oceny funkcjonowania węchu jest ważne również dlatego, że pacjenci często nie są w stanie ocenić własnej sprawności w tym zakresie [55]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction Sniffin’ Sticks Test (SST) is a complex smell test, enabling the diagnosis of various aspects of olfactory sensitivity. It is one of the most popular tools for olfactory testing all over the world; however, so far it has not been commonly used in Poland. Aim The presented study had the following aims: assessment of the applicability of the SST in Poland, adaptation of the identification subtest, normalization of the whole battery and comparison of the Polish results to the norms in the original tool. Materials and methods We tested olfactory sensitivity of 281 healthy volunteers aged 18–87 years. We used the full version of the SST (threshold, discrimination and identification subtests). Results The results of the presented study are the modified version of the identification test response questionnaire and clearly defined normative values for the Polish people of different ages. Normative values and results in Poland were not significantly different from the previously reported findings for the original, German tool. Additionally, consistent with previous reports, olfactory sensitivity of the eldest group of the Polish people was lower than performance in younger age groups. Conclusions The presented findings suggest that the adapted version of the Sniffin’ Sticks Test might be used for both medical and research purposes in Poland.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Otolaryngologia polska. The Polish otolaryngology
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