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Neonatal Vitamin D Status and Risk of Schizophrenia

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Clues from the epidemiology of schizophrenia suggest that low levels of developmental vitamin D may be associated with increased risk of schizophrenia. To directly examine the association between neonatal vitamin D status and risk of schizophrenia. Individually matched case-control study drawn from a population-based cohort. Danish national health registers and neonatal biobank. A total of 424 individuals with schizophrenia and 424 controls matched for sex and date of birth. The concentration of 25 hydroxyvitamin D(3) (25[OH]D3) was assessed from neonatal dried blood samples using a highly sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy method. Relative risks were calculated for the matched pairs when examined for quintiles of 25(OH)D3. Compared with neonates in the fourth quintile (with 25[OH]D3 concentrations between 40.5 and 50.9 nmol/L), those in each of the lower 3 quintiles had a significantly increased risk of schizophrenia (2-fold elevated risk). Unexpectedly, those in the highest quintile also had a significantly increased risk of schizophrenia. Based on this analysis, the population-attributable fraction associated with neonatal vitamin D status was 44%. The relationship was not explained by a wide range of potential confounding or interacting variables. Both low and high concentrations of neonatal vitamin D are associated with increased risk of schizophrenia, and it is feasible that this exposure could contribute to a sizeable proportion of cases in Denmark. In light of the substantial public health implications of this finding, there is an urgent need to further explore the effect of vitamin D status on brain development and later mental health.
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... Previous studies have indicated an increased risk for Vit D deficiency in psychiatric patients, mainly those with depressive symptoms, cognitive impairment, or schizophrenia spectrum disorders [40][41][42][43][44][45]. In the present study, we included patients with several psychiatric diagnoses in the inpatient subgroup, which was different from other authors who selected patients based on a single mental disorder diagnosis [27,46,47], according to a transdiagnostic approach to mental disorders [48][49][50][51][52]. Furthermore, some cross-sectional studies reported only low serum levels of 25-OH-Vit D in hospitalized psychiatric patients [52][53][54][55][56][57], while others compared serum levels of 25-OH-Vit D of psychiatric inpatients with those of controls with no psychiatric illness [38,[58][59][60][61]. ...
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... The underlying mechanisms mediating the month-of-birth effect in schizophrenia births is not well understood. Previous studies have postulated that latitude and vitamin D levels could play a role in schizophrenia (Eyles et al., 2018;McGrath et al., 2010). In line with this, Davies and colleagues showed that higher latitude countries had more schizophrenia births in the winter months as well as longer periods of risk within the year (Davies et al., 2003a). ...
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... Moreover, there is growing evidence for vitamin D deficiency as a risk factor for the development of schizophrenia [7] and its aggravating impact on psychopathology [20,21]. In particular, neonatal vitamin D deprivation is associated with increased risk of developing schizophrenia [22,23]. Accordingly, as adults, rodent models of developmental vitamin D deficiency exhibit a phenotype mimicking some aspects of schizophrenia and show altered dopaminergic neurotransmission [24]. ...
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... SNA: sistema nervioso autónomo; SNC: sistema nervioso central; SNE: sistema nervioso entérico. neonatal se han vinculado con un mayor riesgo de desarrollar esquizofrenia (29) . ...
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