Population-based Survival of Cancer Patients Diagnosed Between 1993 and 1999 in Japan: A Chronological and International Comparative Study

Population-Based Cancer Registry Section, Cancer Information Services and Surveillance Division, Center for Cancer Control and Information Services, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045, Japan.
Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology (Impact Factor: 2.02). 01/2011; 41(1):40-51. DOI: 10.1093/jjco/hyq167
Source: PubMed


The purpose of the present study was to collect data from population-based cancer registries and to calculate relative 5-year survival of cancer patients in Japan. We also sought to determine time trends and to compare the results with international studies.
We asked 11 population-based cancer registries to submit individual data for patients diagnosed from 1993 to 1999, together with data on outcome after 5 years. Although all these registries submitted data (491 772 cases), only six met the required standards for the quality of registration data and follow-up investigation. The relative 5-year survival calculated by pooling data from 151 061 cases from six registries was taken as the survival for cancer patients in Japan.
Relative 5-year survival (1997-99) was 54.3% for all cancers (males: 50.0%, females: 59.8%). Survival figures for all sites changed slightly over the 7-year period, from 53.2% for the first 4 years of the study (1993-96) to 54.3% for the last 3 years (1997-99), however, a major improvement was observed in several primary sites. Some overall survival was lower in Japan than in the USA, but similar to that in European countries. Specifically, survival for uterine cancer, prostate cancer, testis cancer, lymphoma and leukemia was much lower in Japan than in other countries. However, survival was better in Japan mainly for cancers of the esophagus, stomach, colon, liver and gallbladder.
The study suggests an improvement in cancer survival in several primary sites in Japan, which is consistent with the development of treatments and early detection.

  • Source
    • "The clinical outcome for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients is often poor because of the invasive nature of this tumor type and the prevalence of lymph node metastasis (Matsuda et al. 2011). Lymph nodes metastasis can occur from the cervical to abdominal lymph node regions (Akiyama et al. 1981). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The clinical outcome for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients is often poor because of the invasive nature of this tumor type. AT-rich interactive domain 1A (ARID1A) functions as a tumor suppressor, and its gene mutation has been reported in various human malignancies. ARID1A is a non-catalytic subunit of the SWItch/Sucrose Non Fermentable (SWI/SNF) chromatin-remodeling complex that regulates gene transcription. Decreased expression of ARID1A protein has been reported to decrease the expression of E-cadherin, an adhesion protein. However, the correlation between ARID1A and E-cadherin expression status in ESCC remains largely unknown. To address this issue, we examined the expression of ARID1A and E-cadherin in tumor specimens excised from 83 ESCC patients using immunohistochemical analysis. The intensity of the ARID1A immunoreactivity was significantly lower in tumors with a growth pattern characterized by ill-defined borders than that in tumors with an expansive growth pattern having a well-demarcated border or tumors with an intermediate growth pattern. Thus, decreased ARID1A immunoreactivity correlated with infiltrative growth of ESCC. In contrast, E-cadherin status did not correlate with the infiltrative growth pattern of ESCC. Moreover, ARID1A expression status did not significantly correlate with any of other clinicopathological factors, E-cadherin expression levels, or the clinical outcome of the patients. On the other hand, the patients with tumors expressing low levels of E-cadherin exhibited significantly lower survival rates than those with high expression. In conclusion, reduced ARID1A expression in tumor tissues contributes to infiltrative growth of ESCC, irrespective of E-cadherin expression levels.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
  • Source
    • "In recent years, more attention has been placed on survival, for example by a collaborative group in selected registries in East Asia[38]. Data on population based survival have been published from Japan[23,39] and Korea where cancer patients showed relatively favorable stage and 5-year survival, suggesting a potential contribution of the national cancer screening program (NCSP)[40]. No changes were detected in the mortality for colorectal, female breast or cervical cancers after the establishment of national screening programs for these cancers[36]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cancer is a major cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the world, including the countries of North-East and South-East Asia. Assessment of burden through cancer registration, determination of risk and protective factors, early detection and screening, clinical practice, interventions for example in vaccination, tobacco cessation efforts and palliative care all should be included in comprehensive cancer control programs. The degree to which this is possible naturally depends on the resources available at local, national and international levels. The present review concerns elements of cancer control programs established in China, Taiwan, Korea, and Japan in North-East Asia, Viet Nam, Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia as representative larger countries of South-East Asia for comparison, using the published literature as a guide. While major advances have been made, there are still areas which need more attention, especially in South-East Asia, and international cooperation is essential if standard guidelines are to be generated to allow effective cancer control efforts throughout the Far East.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
  • Source
    • "Even though the five-year survival rate of cervical cancer in Korea is higher than those of the USA (70.4%), Canada (72%), and Japan (73.4%), it has not been significantly improved over the last two decades in spite of increasing cancer screening and advancement of treatment strategies [21-23]. It is uncertain whether this observation results from time lag between the screening and survival outcomes, a significant proportion of loco-regionally advanced cervical cancer, the increasing cancer incidence in the elderly or other factors. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cervical cancer is the most common female genital tract malignancy in Korean women. Although age-standardized cancer incidence rate of cervical cancer has decreased from 18.6 per 100,000 women in 1999 to 12.3 per 100,000 women in 2010 in Korea with widespread routine screening, several epidemiologic characteristics are still present. Incidence of cervical cancer still varies according to geographic area, and a significant portion of cases are detected at a locoregionally advanced stage, without significant improvement of five-year survival rate.2014-01-15 Cervical screening techniques such as the Pap smear should be the gold standard strategy to decrease incidence and to improve the survival outcomes of patients with cervical cancer. In addition, screening programs for cervical cancer should be designed, organized and directed within the context of a nationwide program for cancer control.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Journal of Gynecologic Oncology
Show more