Myocardial Fibrosis as an Early Manifestation of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

Cardiovascular Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
New England Journal of Medicine (Impact Factor: 55.87). 08/2010; 363(6):552-63. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1002659
Source: PubMed


Myocardial fibrosis is a hallmark of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and a proposed substrate for arrhythmias and heart failure. In animal models, profibrotic genetic pathways are activated early, before hypertrophic remodeling. Data showing early profibrotic responses to sarcomere-gene mutations in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are lacking.
We used echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and serum biomarkers of collagen metabolism, hemodynamic stress, and myocardial injury to evaluate subjects with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and a confirmed genotype.
The study involved 38 subjects with pathogenic sarcomere mutations and overt hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, 39 subjects with mutations but no left ventricular hypertrophy, and 30 controls who did not have mutations. Levels of serum C-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PICP) were significantly higher in mutation carriers without left ventricular hypertrophy and in subjects with overt hypertrophic cardiomyopathy than in controls (31% and 69% higher, respectively; P<0.001). The ratio of PICP to C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen was increased only in subjects with overt hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, suggesting that collagen synthesis exceeds degradation. Cardiac MRI studies showed late gadolinium enhancement, indicating myocardial fibrosis, in 71% of subjects with overt hypertrophic cardiomyopathy but in none of the mutation carriers without left ventricular hypertrophy.
Elevated levels of serum PICP indicated increased myocardial collagen synthesis in sarcomere-mutation carriers without overt disease. This profibrotic state preceded the development of left ventricular hypertrophy or fibrosis visible on MRI. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.)

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    • "Given that only eight cats had LVH in the screened cohort, comparison between cats with and without LVH was not carried out, but this may represent an area for future study. The inverse correlation between PIIINP and LA size over all 48 cats in the study should be interpreted with caution, due to the correlation being weak and possibly affected by the influence of a small number of outlier cats. of PICP:CITP were significantly higher in G+ than G− patients, but there was no significant difference in CITP concentration (Ho et al. 2010). Unlike in human patients, where recent controversy has been highlighted (Ellims et al. 2014), there is no evidence that the results presented here directly relate to changes in the collagen content of the feline myocardium. "
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    ABSTRACT: Human carriers of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy associated sarcomeric mutations have abnormal collagen metabolism before overt left ventricular hypertrophy is detectable. This study investigated whether differences in collagen biomarkers were present in blood samples of ragdoll cats positive for the MYBPC3:R820W mutation compared with negative controls. Cats were recruited for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy screening using echocardiography and genotyping. Circulating markers of collagen turnover (C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen [CITP; type I collagen degradation] and N-terminal propeptide of type III procollagen [type III collagen synthesis]) and cardiac biomarkers (N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide and cardiac troponin I) were measured. Correlation between concentrations of collagen biomarkers and echocardiographic variables was analysed, and collagen biomarker concentrations were compared between MYBPC3 mutation positive and negative cats, without left ventricular hypertrophy. Linear regression analyses showed that genotype was independently associated with CITP concentration. CITP was higher in mutation carriers (25 · 4 µg/L, interquartile range 16 · 0-29 · 2 µg/L) than non-carriers (14 · 6 µg/L, interquartile range 9 · 38-19 · 2 µg/L; P = 0 · 024). Circulating CITP was higher in MYBPC3-positive ragdoll cats than negative controls and may indicate altered collagen metabolism. Further studies are necessary to determine whether alterations in circulating collagen biomarker concentration relate to an early stage of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.
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