Elements of male body image: Prediction of depression, eating pathology and social sensitivity among gay men

ArticleinBody image 7(4):310-6 · September 2010with56 Reads
DOI: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2010.07.006 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
The aim of the current study was to assess the relative uniqueness of three components of male body image (i.e., muscle, body fat, and height dissatisfaction) in the prediction of indices of psychological distress (i.e., depression, eating restraint, eating concerns, and social sensitivity) among a community sample of 228 gay men. Results indicated that body fat dissatisfaction was predictive of all four criterion variables (controlling for muscle dissatisfaction). Conversely, muscle dissatisfaction was only associated with social sensitivity, while height dissatisfaction failed to significantly predict any of the criterion variables. These findings highlight the relative importance of body fat dissatisfaction among gay men and suggest that researchers and clinicians working with this population should utilize measures which include assessment of both muscularity and body fat.
    • "BD assessed by the MBAS offers a more comprehensive picture of men's body image by including muscle, body fat, and height dimensions, each one of them being associated with different aspects of men's psychological well-being (Blashill 2010). It consists of twenty-four items grouped into three subscales measuring muscularity (ten items), low body fat (eight items), and height (two items). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to examine the factor structure of the Male Body Attitudes Scale (MBAS) among a sample of 212 adolescent males by conducting a confirmatory factor analysis. The data revealed that while muscularity and low body fat factors were appropriate for the male sample, the height factor was not supported. The composite MBAS-Spanish version (MBAS-S) and its two factors had high internal consistency and were not significantly related to the traditionally used measure of body image (Eating Disorder Inventory–Body Dissatisfaction [BD]), confirming that this subscale only appears to evaluate female body concerns. Correlations with psychological well-being variables (anxiety, emotional regulation, and self-esteem) supported the concurrent validity of the instrument. These findings provide further evidence in support of the hypothesis that BD in males has been inappropriately evaluated by measures designed specifically for females. Despite the fact that our results did not replicate the original factorial structure of the instrument, the MBAS-S presents adequate psychometric properties and can be considered as a valuable assessment tool for BD among adolescent males.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2016
    • "La falta de sensibilidad de la actual concepción de los TCA podría explicar por qué la insatisfacción muscular y la motivación por la musculatura no son asociaciones confiables para la categorización de un trastorno . Así, estudios en hombres hetero y homosexuales han demostrado que la insatisfacción con la grasa corporal predice fuertemente un TCA, pero no se ha pesquisado tal asociación con la insatisfacción muscular (Blashill, 2010; Smith, Hawkeswood, Bodell y Joiner, 2011; Tylka, 2011; Tylka y Andorka, 2012). Aunque la tipificación del TDM ya se encuentra establecida en el DSM-5 (American Psychiatric Association, 2013), es válido mantener el planteamiento controversial de posible futura modificación. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Among body image disorders, anorexia nervosa (AN) in females and muscle dysmorphia (MD) in males, emerge as the more representative. Objective To describe the relationship of clinical characteristics between AN and MD. Method A review of specialised textbooks and the available literature in Medline/PubMed and SciELO was made. Results There are similarities and differences between both disorders. They begin in adolescence, show a great diagnostic crossover, use/abuse of pharmacological drugs, similar co-morbidities, improvement with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and behavioural-cognitive psychotherapy, they are focused in body image, but AN pursuits thinness while MD muscle development. From a psychosocial perspective, body image disorders come out due to western socio-cultural pressures related to gender role stereotypes, which emphasise a slim feminine figure versus a vigorous masculine one. The nosological classification of MD is controversial and it has been including within the obsessive-compulsive spectrum of the DSM-5. Conclusions Both disorders imply body dissatisfaction with different degrees of body image distortion, even reaching delusional dimensions. Future studies are required which can lay the foundations of new categorisations of these disorders that better clarify their essence. © 2015 Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Estudios Superiores Iztacala.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015
    • "Similarly, a meta-analysis of 27 studies (d 0.74) investigating body image satisfaction among heterosexual men and women, lesbians, and gay men confirms that gay men (n 984) are more vulnerable to body image dissatisfaction compared to heterosexual men (n 1,397; Morrison, Morrison, & Sager, 2004). Body image dissatisfaction among GBM has been associated with symptoms of depression (Blashill, 2010; Olivardia, Pope, Borowiecki, & Cohane, 2004), appearance-related anxiety (Blashill, 2010), and disordered eating symptomology (Blashill, 2010). A study of GBM (n 304) suggests that men who reported more symptoms of muscle dysmorphia also reported lower self- 1 Rhodes et al. (2011) use the term men who have sex with men (MSM) in their paper. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous research has highlighted the association between HIV sexual risk behaviors, muscularity concerns, and masculinity among gay and bisexual men (GBM). A few studies that explored these issues, however, have used relatively small sample sizes and predominantly White GBM samples. In addition, little is known about whether a drive for muscularity and perceptions of masculinity are associated with HIV sexual risk behaviors among GBM of color. This community-based study examined the association between drive for muscularity, masculinity, and HIV sexual risk among a sample of 389 GBM of color in Toronto. In multivariable analyses, drive for muscularity and masculinity were significantly associated with HIV sexual risk, after controlling for sociodemographic variables and internalized homophobia. Findings suggest that a desire to be more muscular or a disappointment with one's musculature, as well as an endorsement of body image and penis size as indicators of masculinity may play a role in HIV sexual risk behaviors. This study is among the first to examine the role of drive for muscularity and notions of masculinity in relation to HIV sexual risk exclusively among an ethnoracially diverse sample of GBM. Further research is needed to better understand the link between body image and masculinity to reduce HIV risk among GBM of color.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015
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