Highfill, S.L. et al. Bone marrow myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) inhibit graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) via an arginase-1-dependent mechanism that is up-regulated by interleukin-13. Blood 116, 5738-5747

University of Minnesota Masonic Cancer Center, Minneapolis, MN, USA.
Blood (Impact Factor: 10.45). 12/2010; 116(25):5738-47. DOI: 10.1182/blood-2010-06-287839
Source: PubMed


Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a well-defined population of cells that accumulate in the tissue of tumor-bearing animals and are known to inhibit immune responses. Within 4 days, bone marrow cells cultured in granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor resulted in the generation of CD11b(+)Ly6G(lo)Ly6C(+) MDSCs, the majority of which are interleukin-4Rα (IL-4Rα(+)) and F4/80(+). Such MDSCs potently inhibited in vitro allogeneic T-cell responses. Suppression was dependent on L-arginine depletion by arginase-1 activity. Exogenous IL-13 produced an MDSC subset (MDSC-IL-13) that was more potently suppressive and resulted in arginase-1 up-regulation. Suppression was reversed with an arginase inhibitor or on the addition of excess L-arginine to the culture. Although both MDSCs and MDSC-IL-13 inhibited graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) lethality, MDSC-IL-13 were more effective. MDSC-IL-13 migrated to sites of allopriming. GVHD inhibition was associated with limited donor T-cell proliferation, activation, and proinflammatory cytokine production. GVHD inhibition was reduced when arginase-1-deficient MDSC-IL-13 were used. MDSC-IL-13 did not reduce the graft-versus-leukemia effect of donor T cells. In vivo administration of a pegylated form of human arginase-1 (PEG-arg1) resulted in L-arginine depletion and significant GVHD reduction. MDSC-IL-13 and pegylated form of human arginase-1 represent novel strategies to prevent GVHD that can be clinically translated.

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    • "Thus, functional dissection of MDSCs is a type of ''Schrö dinger's Cat'' scenario where suppression is monitored using an assay that induces the functional property for which it is testing (Haverkamp et al., 2011). Because the specific MDSC subpopulations required for T cell suppression remains controversial, efforts to engineer MDSCs have not yet advanced to the point at which a defined cell type is used therapeutically (Highfill et al., 2010; Yin et al., 2010). Similarly, inhibiting the key suppressive subtype(s) of MDSCs to enhance T cell function might be an avenue to improve antitumor immunity via interruption of the tumor-induced immunosuppressive milieu (Gajewski et al., 2013; McAllister and Weinberg, 2014; Restifo et al., 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: Nonresolving inflammation expands a heterogeneous population of myeloid suppressor cells capable of inhibiting T cell function. This heterogeneity has confounded the functional dissection of individual myeloid subpopulations and presents an obstacle for antitumor immunity and immunotherapy. Using genetic manipulation of cell death pathways, we found the monocytic suppressor-cell subset, but not the granulocytic subset, requires continuous c-FLIP expression to prevent caspase-8-dependent, RIPK3-independent cell death. Development of the granulocyte subset requires MCL-1-mediated control of the intrinsic mitochondrial death pathway. Monocytic suppressors tolerate the absence of MCL-1 provided cytokines increase expression of the MCL-1-related protein A1. Monocytic suppressors mediate T cell suppression, whereas their granulocytic counterparts lack suppressive function. The loss of the granulocytic subset via conditional MCL-1 deletion did not alter tumor incidence implicating the monocytic compartment as the functionally immunosuppressive subset in vivo. Thus, death pathway modulation defines the development, survival, and function of myeloid suppressor cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Immunity
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    • "Indeed, Dey et al demonstrated that IL-12 is protective against GvHD by inhibiting activation of alloreactive CD4+ T cells [20]. In addition, it has been reported that STAT3 signaling is essential for myeloid-derived suppressor cells [21], which may have an important role in the suppressing the proliferation of alloreactive T cells [22]. Furthermore, the Blazar group reported that constitutive activation of STAT5b reduces GvHD [23], suggesting that inhibition of STAT5 by these compounds could aggravate GvHD. "
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    ABSTRACT: We have recently reported that interferon gamma receptor deficient (IFNγR-/-) allogeneic donor T cells result in significantly less graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) than wild-type (WT) T cells, while maintaining an anti-leukemia or graft-versus-leukemia (GvL) effect after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). We demonstrated that IFNγR signaling regulates alloreactive T cell trafficking to GvHD target organs through expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR3 in alloreactive T cells. Since IFNγR signaling is mediated via JAK1/JAK2, we tested the effect of JAK1/JAK2 inhibition on GvHD. While we demonstrated that pharmacologic blockade of JAK1/JAK2 in WT T cells using the JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor, INCB018424 (Ruxolitinib), resulted in a similar effect to IFNγR-/- T cells both in vitro (reduction of CXCR3 expression in T cells) and in vivo (mitigation of GvHD after allo-HSCT), it remains to be determined if in vivo administration of INCB018424 will result in preservation of GvL while reducing GvHD. Here, we report that INCB018424 reduces GvHD and preserves the beneficial GvL effect in two different murine MHC-mismatched allo-HSCT models and using two different murine leukemia models (lymphoid leukemia and myeloid leukemia). In addition, prolonged administration of INCB018424 further improves survival after allo-HSCT and is superior to other JAK1/JAK2 inhibitors, such as TG101348 or AZD1480. These data suggest that pharmacologic inhibition of JAK1/JAK2 might be a promising therapeutic approach to achieve the beneficial anti-leukemia effect and overcome HLA-barriers in allo-HSCT. It might also be exploited in other diseases besides GvHD, such as organ transplant rejection, chronic inflammatory diseases and autoimmune diseases.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    • "In this regard, Greifenberg et al. originally demonstrated that LPS + IFN-γ combination considerably augmented the suppressive capacity of MDSC by impairing DC differentiation [42]. Similarly, Highfill et al. showed that addition of IL-13 in BM cells cultured with GM-CSF and G-CSF resulted in the production of potently suppressive MDSC that efficiently inhibited graft-versus-host disease [43]. Thus, amongst other strategies that have been reported to promote MDSC activation/expansion [5], our results support the relevance of this approach since a single injection of LPS-activated MDSC was sufficient to induce a significant prolongation of graft survival. "
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    ABSTRACT: Therapeutic use of immunoregulatory cells represents a promising approach for the treatment of uncontrolled immunity. During the last decade, myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) have emerged as novel key regulatory players in the context of tumor growth, inflammation, transplantation or autoimmunity. Recently, MDSC have been successfully generated in vitro from naive mouse bone marrow cells or healthy human PBMCs using minimal cytokine combinations. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the potential of adoptive transfer of such cells to control auto- and allo-immunity in the mouse. Culture of bone marrow cells with GM-CSF and IL-6 consistently yielded a majority of CD11b+Gr1hi/lo cells exhibiting strong inhibition of CD8+ T cell proliferation in vitro. However, adoptive transfer of these cells failed to alter antigen-specific CD8+ T cell proliferation and cytotoxicity in vivo. Furthermore, MDSC could not prevent the development of autoimmunity in a stringent model of type 1 diabetes. Rather, loading the cells prior to injection with a pancreatic neo-antigen peptide accelerated the development of the disease. Contrastingly, in a model of skin transplantation, repeated injection of MDSC or single injection of LPS-activated MDSC resulted in a significant prolongation of allograft survival. The beneficial effect of MDSC infusions on skin graft survival was paradoxically not explained by a decrease of donor-specific T cell response but associated with a systemic over-activation of T cells and antigen presenting cells, prominently in the spleen. Taken together, our results indicate that in vitro generated MDSC bear therapeutic potential but will require additional in vitro factors or adjunct immunosuppressive treatments to achieve safe and more robust immunomodulation upon adoptive transfer.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · PLoS ONE
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