Tetrasomy 18p: Report of the Molecular and Clinical Findings of 43 Individuals

Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA.
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A (Impact Factor: 2.16). 09/2010; 152A(9):2164-72. DOI: 10.1002/ajmg.a.33597
Source: PubMed


Thus far, the phenotype of tetrasomy 18p has been primarily delineated by published case series and reports. Findings reported in more than 25% of these cases include neonatal feeding problems, growth retardation, microcephaly, strabismus, muscle tone abnormalities, scoliosis/kyphosis, and variants on brain MRI. Developmental delays and cognitive impairment are universally present. The purpose of this study was to more fully describe tetrasomy 18p at both the genotypic and the phenotypic levels. Array CGH was performed on 43 samples from individuals with tetrasomy 18p diagnosed via routine karyotype. The medical records of 42 of these 43 individuals were reviewed. In order to gain additional phenotypic data, 31 individuals with tetrasomy 18p underwent a series of clinical evaluations at the Chromosome 18 Clinical Research Center. Results from the molecular analysis indicated that 42 of 43 samples analyzed had 4 copies of the entire p arm of chromosome 18; one individual was also trisomic for a section of proximal 18q. The results of the medical records review and clinical evaluations expand the phenotypic description of tetrasomy 18p to include neonatal jaundice and respiratory distress; recurrent otitis media; hearing loss; seizures; refractive errors; constipation and gastroesophageal reflux; cryptorchidism; heart defects; and foot anomalies. Additional findings identified in a small number of individuals include hernias, myelomeningocele, kidney defects, short stature, and failure to respond to growth hormone stimulation testing. Additionally, a profile of dysmorphic features is described. Lastly, a series of clinical evaluations to be considered for individuals with tetrasomy 18p is suggested.

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    • "Tetrasomy 18p demonstrates various characteristic features; low birth weight, microcephaly, low-set ears, short palpebral fissures, high nasal bridge, abnormal muscle tone, feeding difficulties, developmental delay, and mental retardation [2,8]. There could be occurrence of strabismus, recurrent otitis media, cryptorchidism, scoliosis/kyphosis [2-5,8,9]. In the present report, the fetus showed IUGR, dextrocardia with cardiomegaly, anemia and imperforate anus. "
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    ABSTRACT: Tetrasomy 18p, one of the most commonly observed isochromosomes, consists of two copies of the p arms on chromosome 18[i(18p)]. It is known as a de novo occurrence of non-disjunction or centromeric mis-division during meiosis II in the vast majority of cases. It has a prevalence of 1/140,000-180,000 live births and affects both genders equally. A 28-year-old woman was referred at 33+2 weeks gestation to rule out fetal congenital heart disease. Her prenatal ultrasonography showed intrauterine growth retardation, cardiomegaly, and imperforate anus. Doppler ultrasonographic finding showed fetal anemia. Tetrasomy 18p was confirmed by conventional karyotyping and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Because of its very low prevalence rate, only several cases of tetrasomy 18p has been reported worldwide and it has not yet been reported in Korea before. Therefore, we report a case of prenatally diagnosed tetrasomy 18p.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Tetrasomy 18p is a very rare chromosomal disorder and is the result of a spontaneous mutation early in embryonic development in most of the cases. This condition is characterised by the presence of a supernumerary 18p isochromosome (i(18p)) in all or some cells of the affected individual. It has a prevalence of 1/180000 live births and affects both genders equally.Materials and methods: In this paper we report a de novo tetrasomy 18p in a 3 months old female dysmorphic child. The clinical features were distinctive with a particular facies, strabismus, microcephaly, growth delay, neonatal hypertonia and talipes varus. An additional small metacentric marker chromosome has been identified after standard cytogenetic analysis, without recognized parental origin of the supplementary genetic material. The child's parents were also tested and their karyotype results were normal. The characterization of the marker chromosome was performed in our genetics laboratory using conventional cytogenetic methods and Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (FISH) analysis. Also, our patient was compared with other published cases with the same diagnosis.Conclusion: Cytogenetic investigation is an essential step towards the accurate diagnosis of individuals with clinical suspicion of a genetic anomaly. Also, this type of investigation could offer critical information to the practitioner for prognosis of patient and the correct appreciation of the recurrence risk of a certain genetic condition.With current advances in preventive and interventional procedures, patients with rare chromosomal disorders can live longer. Therefore, proper medical and behavioural management of each case is important for the enhancement of the quality of life for the patients and their families.
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