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Comparative Study on the Chemical Composition of Syrian Sumac ( Rhus coriaria L.) and Chinese Sumac ( Rhus typhina L.) Fruits

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Comparative Study on the Chemical Composition of Syrian Sumac ( Rhus coriaria L.) and Chinese Sumac ( Rhus typhina L.) Fruits

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In this article, two different sumac species, namely Syrian sumac ( Rhus coriaria L.) and Chinese sumac ( Rhus typhina L.) were investigated in order to determine and compare the chemical compositions of their fruits. The proximate analysis revealed a significant difference (p<0.05) between the two sumac species, with Chinese sumac exhibiting higher contents in ash, protein, fat and fiber. Gas Chromatography (GC) revealed that Chinese sumac contains higher percentage of total unsaturated fatty acids than that of Syrian sumac, with oleic and linoleic acids being predominant. The amounts of potassium and calcium were found to be higher in the fruit of Syrian sumac than in that of Chinese sumac. However, both sumac fruits exhibited also appreciable quantities of magnesium, phosphorous, sodium and iron. Syrian sumac contained much more vitamins than that of Chinese sumac, which in contrast exhibited higher amounts of essential and non-essential amino acids than that of Syrian sumac. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) indicated that Syrian sumac contains higher concentrations of organic acids than Chinese sumac and malic acid is the most abundant. Results from this study suggested that both Syrian and Chinese sumac fruits are potential sources of food ingredients and/or additives.
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Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 8 (10): 1570-1574, 2009
ISSN 1680-5194
© Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2009
1570
Comparative Study on the Chemical Composition of Syrian Sumac
(Rhus coriaria L.) and Chinese Sumac (Rhus typhina L.) Fruits
Rima Kossah, Consolate Nsabimana, Jianxin Zhao, Haiqin Chen, Fengwei Tian, Hao Zhang and Wei Chen
State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University,
1800 Lihu Avenue, Wuxi 214122, Jiangsu, China
Abstract: In this article, two different sumac species, namely Syrian sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) and Chinese
sumac (Rhus typhina L.) were investigated in order to determine and compare the chemical compositions
of their fruits. The proximate analysis revealed a significant difference (p<0.05) between the two sumac
species, with Chinese sumac exhibiting higher contents in ash, protein, fat and fiber. Gas Chromatography
(GC) revealed that Chinese sumac contains higher percentage of total unsaturated fatty acids than that of
Syrian sumac, with oleic and linoleic acids being predominant. The amounts of potassium and calcium were
found to be higher in the fruit of Syrian sumac than in that of Chinese sumac. However, both sumac fruits
exhibited also appreciable quantities of magnesium, phosphorous, sodium and iron. Syrian sumac
contained much more vitamins than that of Chinese sumac, which in contrast exhibited higher amounts of
essential and non-essential amino acids than that of Syrian sumac. High-Performance Liquid
Chromatography (HPLC) indicated that Syrian sumac contains higher concentrations of organic acids than
Chinese sumac and malic acid is the most abundant. Results from this study suggested that both Syrian
and Chinese sumac fruits are potential sources of food ingredients and/or additives.
Key words: Chemical composition, Rhus coriaria, Rhus typhina, sumac fruit
INTRODUCTION
The Anacardiaceae (or sumac family) consists of trees,
shrubs, or woody vines belonging mainly to the genus
Rhus, with about 250 species, which occur mostly in the
tropics and subtropics but also into the temperate areas
of the world (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2008). The sumac
name is derived from “sumaga”, meaning red in Syriac
(Wetherilt and Pala, 1994). They have stems with milky
or resinous juice; simple or compound leaves; small
flowers, with parts in fours or sixes and small dry, one-
seeded, often hairy, sometimes highly colored fruits,
usually in dense clusters.
Syrian sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) is famously used in the
Mediterranean region and Middle East as a spice, sauce
and drink. The spice, produced by grinding dried fruitsMATERIALS AND METHODS
with salt, is used as a condiment and sprinkled overPlant materials: Mature and dry fruits of Syrian sumac
fish, chicken, grilled meat and the salad often(Rhus coriaria L.) and Chinese sumac (Rhus typhina L.)
accompanying these dishes (Shelef, 1983). The fruitswere collected in autumn from Latakia (Syria) and
have been reported to possess antimicrobial andLanzhou (China), respectively. Before chemical analysis,
antioxidant activities (Nasar-Abbas and Halkman, 2004;the fruits were ground into powder using a household
Fazeli et al., 2007; Kosar et al., 2007; Özcan, 2003). Inflourmill (Tianjin, China) and stored at 5C for further
addition, they are also used as a remedy for reducinguse.
fever, diarrhea, dermatitis and stomach diseases
(Brunke et al., 1993). Proximate composition: Sumac fruit samples were
Chinese sumac (Rhus typhina L.), indigenous to theanalyzed for moisture, ash, crude protein, fat and fiber
Eastern area of North America, is now extensivelycontents using the methods described by AOAC (1990)
cultivated in China's North, Northwest and many otherand results were expressed on a dry weight basis.
regions such as Lanzhou, Beijing, Hebei, Shanxi, where
it is usually called “huojushu”. This species can growFatty acids: Fatty acids were converted into their methyl
under a wide array of conditions, but is most often found esters (FAME) according to the method of Hartman and
in dry and poor soil on which other plants cannot survive.
In North America, the fruits are used to make a beverage
termed “sumac-ade” or “Indian lemonade” or “rhus juice”
(Peterson, 1977). The plant serves also as a traditional
medicine, which has pharmacological functions such as
antihaemorrhoidal, antiseptic, blood purifier, diuretic,
stomachic and tonic (Foster and Duke, 1990; Moerman,
1998).
Up to now, no reports exist on the nutritional properties
of either Syrian sumac or Chinese sumac. The aim of
this study was to determine and compare the chemical
compositions of both sumac species with regard to their
extensive utilization in the food industry.
o
Pak. J. Nutr., 8 (10): 1570-1574, 2009
1571
Lago (1973) with some modifications. A gassodium acetate buffer, pH 7.2, containing 0.018%
chromatography system (GC-2010, Shimadzu, Japan)triethylamine and 0.3% tetrahydrofuran and (b) 100 mM
equipped with a flame ionization detector was used; 0.5sodium acetate buffer, pH 7.2 containing 40%
µl of FAME sample were injected and separation wasacetonitrile and 40% methanol, both of HPLC grades.
carried out on a capillary column (CP-WAX 52 CB; 30 m Double pre-derivatization of the amino acids was
x 0.32 mm x 0.50 µm). The carrier gas was nitrogen and achieved by reacting with Orthophtaldialdehyde (OPA),
the column flow rate was 2.5 ml/min. The ovenexcept for proline which was derivatized with 9-
temperature was held initially at 180 C for 1 min,fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC). The carrier gas
o
increased by 3C/min up to 220 C and then maintainedwas maintained at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min in a gradient
o o
at 220 C for 20 min. The temperatures of the injectionof buffer a to buffer b. The identification of the amino
o
port and detector were 250 C and 260 C, respectively.acids in the samples was carried out by comparing their
o o
FAME samples were identified by matching theirretention times with those of the standards from Sigma.
retention time data with those of standards from Sigma.
The percentage of each fatty acid was calculated fromOrganic acids: Organic acids (malic, citric, tartaric and
the ratio of individual peak area to total definable peakfumaric) were determined according to the method
area. described by Usenik et al. (2008). Sumac fruit samples
Minerals: For the analysis of mineral elements such asand left at room temperature for 30 min. The mixture was
potassium, magnesium, calcium, phosphorous, iron,centrifuged at 12,000 g for 7 min at 10 C (Eppendorf
zinc, copper, sodium and manganese, samples were 5810 R centrifuge, Hamburg, Germany). The
digested with pure HNO in a microwave oven (MARS,supernatant was filtered through a 0.45 µm cellulose
3
CEM, USA). The oven temperature was initially set andester filter and transferred into a vial.
held at 100 C for 5 min, then increased and held atOrganic acids were analyzed with HPLC system (Agilent
o
150C for 10 min and finally increased and maintained1100, USA), using a diamonsil column C (4.6 x 250
o
at 170 C for 10 min. The concentration of each elementmm) and a UV detector set at 210 nm and were
o
was determined with an atomic absorption spectrometer identified by their retention time characteristics. The
(Spectra AA 220, VARIAN, USA). concentrations were expressed as mg per kg dry weight.
Vitamins: Vitamins were analyzed using the methodStatistical analysis: Results were subjected to the
described by Erbas et al. (2005) with slight modification. analysis of variance (ANOVA) using the SAS System for
Three grams of sample were mixed with 5 ml n-hexaneWindows, Version 8.0. Duncan’s multiple-range test
and 20 ml HPLC grade water. The mixture was firstwas used to compare means at a significance level of
homogenized by vortex and then centrifuged at 12,0005%.
rpm for 30 min. The aqueous phase was filtered through
filter paper and 0.45 µm membrane filter sequentially.
The supernatant (10 µl) was injected into HPLC system
(Agilent 1100 Technologies, USA) equipped with a UV-
Vis detector, which was set to 260 nm in absorbance
mode. Peaks were verified by adding the standard
vitamins to samples and individual peak area was
calculated according to the peak area of corresponding
standard vitamin. Results were calculated on a dry
weight basis.
Amino acids: Amino acids were determined following
the method described by He and Xia (2007). The
hydrolysis was carried out with 6M HCl at 110 C for 24 h,
o
except for tryptophan analysis, using 6M NaOH
separately, in vacuum hydrolysis tubes. Filtered
hydrolyzate was dried in a vacuum desiccator and
redissolved in 0.1 M HCl containing sarcosine and
norvaline as internal standards. One microliter of the
solution was injected directly into an amino acid analyzer
(Agilent 1100, USA) with reverse phase column (4 x 125
mm) C at 40 C, a UV detector at 338 nm and a
18 o
fluorescence detector at 450 nm, using (a) 20 mM
(10 g) were dissolved with 50 ml of HPLC grade water
o
18
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Proximate composition: The proximate composition of
Syrian and Chinese sumac fruits is presented in Table
1. A significant difference (p<0.05) was found between
the two sumac species, with Chinese sumac showing
higher contents in protein, fat, fiber and ash (4.31, 11.56,
32.90 and 5.37%, respectively). However, the fiber and
fat contents exhibited by Syrian sumac were higher than
those reported by Özcan and Haciseferogullari (2004)
and Akinci et al. (2004) on Rhus coriaria and Juniperus
drupacea, respectively. Results showed that both sumac
species can be considered as potential sources of
dietary fiber which is helpful in alleviating gastro-
intestinal disorders.
Fatty acid composition: The fatty acid composition of
Syrian and Chinese sumac fruits is given in Table 2.
Most of the fatty acids were unsaturated and saturated
fatty acids (mainly palmitic acid) contributed little to the
total fatty acids. In both plant materials, the percentage
of total unsaturated fatty acids was higher than that of
total saturated fatty acids. Moreover, Syrian and Chinese
Pak. J. Nutr., 8 (10): 1570-1574, 2009
1572
Table 1: Proximate composition of Syrian and Chinese sumacTable 3: Mineral elements of Syrian and Chinese sumac fruits
fruits (%, dry weight)
Syrian Chinese
Components sumac sumac
Moisture 11.80±0.53 6.64±0.03
a b
Protein 2.47±0.12 4.31±0.27
b a
Fat 7.51±0.44 11.56±0.66
b a
Fiber 22.15±0.14 32.90±0.89
b a
Ash 2.66±0.33 5.37±0.14
b a
Data are means of three determinations±SD. Means with different
superscripts within the same row are significantly different (p<0.05)
Table 2: Fatty acid composition of Syrian and Chinese sumac
fruits (% total fatty acids)
Syrian Chinese
Fatty acid sumac sumac
Myristic acid (C )0.36±0.07 0.19±0.05
14:0 a b
Palmitic acid (C )27.41±0.55 16.28±0.16
16:0 a b
Palmitoleic acid (C )0.68±0.23 2.11±0.10
16:1 b a
Stearic acid (C )2.92±0.37 2.60±0.13
18:0 a a
Oleic acid (C )36.95±0.28 52.31±0.10
18:1 b a
Linoleic acid (C )30.38±0.54 25.57±0.20
18:2 a b
Linolenic acid (C )1.27±0.15 0.94±0.16
18:3 a a
TUFA 69.28±1.20 80.93±0.56
TSFA 30.69±0.99 19.07±0.32
TUFA = Total Unsaturated Fatty Acids, TSFA = Total Saturated
Fatty Acids. Data are means of three determinations ± SD. Means
with different superscripts within the same row are significantly
different (p<0.05)
sumac fruits differed significantly (p<0.05) with regard to
their composition in fatty acids. Indeed, the total amount
of unsaturated fatty acids (80.93%) in Chinese sumac
was higher than that found in Syrian sumac (69.28%).
The levels of total unsaturated fatty acids exhibited by
sumac species growing in Syria and China are
comparable with those reported by Dogan and Akgül
(2005) on sumac growing in Turkey. Results indicated
that either Syrian or Chinese sumac can be good
sources of unsaturated fatty acids.
Mineral elements: The content in minerals of Syrian and group including B , B , B and B are the most important
Chinese sumac fruits are shown in Table 3. In both(Moreno and Salvado, 2000). The amount of pyridoxine
sumac species, potassium was the most abundantin Syrian sumac was found to be higher than those
mineral, followed by calcium. However, the amounts ofobserved for spices such as chili, cayenne, paprika and
potassium and calcium in Syrian sumac weregarlic (Leonard et al., 2001). Moreover, both sumac
significantly (p<0.05) higher than those in Chinesespecies contained other vitamins, including
sumac. On the other hand, the contents in phosphorous, cyanocobalamin, nicotinamide and biotin in
magnesium and sodium of Chinese sumac wereconsiderable quantities. In general, the amount of
significantly (p<0.05) higher than those of Syrian sumac. vitamins detected in Syrian sumac was significantly
Many dietary essential minerals, such as iron, zinc,(p<0.05) higher than that in Chinese sumac.
copper and manganese were found in both sumac
species. Moreover, copper and zinc contents in SyrianAmino acid profile: The amino acid profile of protein in
sumac were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those inSyrian and Chinese sumac fruits is given in Table 5.
Chinese sumac. Nevertheless, the concentrations ofBoth sumac species were found to contain eighteen
iron, zinc and copper exhibited by sumac growing eitheramino acids including eight essential amino acids
in Syria or in China seemed to be higher than those(leucine, isoleucine, lysine, methionine, threonine,
reported on sumac growing in Turkey (Özcan andphenylalanine, valine and tryptophan) and ten non-
Haciseferogullari, 2004). Similarly, the amounts ofessential amino acids. Results showed that the amount
(mg/kg)
Mineral Syrian sumac Chinese sumac
K7441.25±0.07 5576.00±0.68
a b
Na 101.04±0.15 183.00±0.26
b a
Mg 605.74±0.51 871.00±0.42
b a
Ca 3155.53±0.41 3098.00±0.52
a b
Fe 174.15±0.18 180.00±0.67
b a
Cu 42.68±0.45 9.56±0.19
a b
Zn 55.74±0.38 17.20±0.38
a b
Mn 10.57±0.39 11.60±0.35
b a
P327.70±0.35 1032.00±0.21
b a
Data are means of three determinations±SD. Means with different
superscripts within the same row are significantly different (p<0.05)
Table 4: Vitamin content of Syrian and Chinese sumac fruits
(mg/kg)
Vitamin Syrian sumac Chinese sumac
Thiamin (B )30.65±0.57 23.99±0.54
1a b
Riboflavin (B )24.68±0.42 24.41±0.33
2a a
Pyridoxine (B )69.83±0.31 20.28±0.28
6a b
Cyanocobalamin (B )10.08±0.24 3.51±0.37
12 a b
Nicotinamide (PP) 17.95±0.28 2.39±0.13
a b
Biotin (H) 4.32±0.23 1.13±0.08
a b
Ascorbic acid (C) 38.91±0.27 13.90±0.20
a b
Data are means of three determinations±SD. Means with different
superscripts within the same row are significantly different (p<0.05)
calcium and iron contained in both sumac species were
found to be higher than those observed for wolfberry
(Wikipedia, 2008). Results showed that both Syrian and
Chinese sumac fruits could be used in the human diet
to supply the required mineral elements.
Vitamin content: The vitamins of Syrian and Chinese
sumac fruits are presented in Table 4. In Syrian sumac,
pyridoxine was the most abundant, followed by ascorbic
acid, thiamine and riboflavin, respectively. In contrast, the
most abundant vitamin in Chinese sumac was
riboflavin, followed by thiamine, pyridoxine and ascorbic
acid, respectively. Among water-soluble vitamins, the B
1 2 6 12
Pak. J. Nutr., 8 (10): 1570-1574, 2009
1573
Table 5: Amino acid profiles of Syrian and Chinese sumac fruits as
compared to the FAO/WHO/UNU reference pattern (mg/g
protein) Syrian Chinese
Amino acid sumac sumac FAO/WHO/UNU
Essential
Leucine 1.25±0.16 3.16±0.19 19
b a
Isoleucine 0.63±0.08 1.79±0.17 13
b a
Lysine 0.98±0.02 2.65±0.07 16
b a
Phenylalanine 0.75±0.13 2.00±0.13 19
b a
Threonine 0.70±0.08 1.57±0.06 9
b a
Methionine 0.15±0.07 0.05±0.02 17
a a
Valine 0.71±0.06 2.24±0.30 13
b a
Tryptophan 0.51±0.18 3.10±0.15 5
b a
Non-essential
Arginine 1.09±0.10 2.79±0.25
b a
Histidine 0.68±0.01 1.03±0.12
b a
Cysteine 0.18±0.04 0.10±0.03
a a
Aspartic acid 1.70±0.34 3.68±0.49
b a
Glutamic acid 2.45±0.15 7.46±0.40
b a
Serine 0.93±0.17 2.26±0.16
b a
Glycine 0.60±0.26 2.17±0.12
b a
Alanine 0.96±0.26 1.98±0.18
b a
Tyrosine 0.51±0.33 1.27±0.19
b a
Proline 1.43±0.27 2.26±0.24
b a
Data are means of three determinations±SD. Means with different
superscripts within the same row are significantly different (p<0.05)
Table 6: Organic acid content of Syrian and Chinese sumacAkinci, I., F. Ozdemir, A. Topuz, O. Kabas and M. Canakci,
fruits (mg/kg)
Organic Syrian Chinese
acid sumac sumac
Malic acid 1568.04±0.05 377.59±0.26
a b
Citric acid 56.93±0.35 30.54±0.54
a b
Tartaric acid 2.15±0.13 1.20±0.06
a b
Fumaric acid 3.40±0.46 0.41±0.07
a b
Data are means of three determinations±SD. Means with different
superscripts within the same row are significantly different (p<0.05)
of amino acids in Chinese sumac was significantly
(p<0.05) higher than that in Syrian sumac. Nevertheless,
the amount of each essential amino acid in both Syrian
and Chinese sumac fruits was found to be lower than
that reported by FAO/WHO/UNU (1985). Both sumac
species contained non negligible amounts of amino
acids, especially leucine, arginine, aspartic acid,
glutamic acid and proline.
Organic acid content: The content of organic acids in
Syrian and Chinese sumac fruits is shown in Table 6.
The fruit of Syrian sumac contained higher amounts of
organic acids than that of Chinese sumac. Moreover, the
predominant acid in both species was malic acid,
whose quantity was found to be lower than that present
in white grapes (Soyer et al., 2003). Furthermore, the
fruits of Syrian and Chinese sumac exhibited moderate
amounts of citric acid with relatively small concentrations
of tartaric and fumaric acids. Results revealed that
Syrian sumac fruit is more acidic than Chinese sumac
fruit.
Conclusion: Results from this study indicated that Syrian
and Chinese sumac fruits are significantly different from
each other in terms of chemical composition. Chinese
sumac was found to be rich in protein, fat, fiber and ash.
In addition, its oil can be regarded as a potential source
of unsaturated fatty acids, especially oleic acid. On the
other hand, Syrian sumac was found to contain
appreciable amounts of minerals and vitamins.
Furthermore, the content of individual organic acids was
higher in Syrian sumac fruit than in Chinese sumac fruit,
with malic acid being the major organic acid. The two
sumac species can be considered as good sources of
additives and/or ingredients for the food industry. These
findings would be useful for food scientists and
nutritionists interested in the nutritive value of non-
conventional plants such as sumac.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors would like to thank Jiangnan University for
providing financial support and Lanzhou Peony
Horticulture Development Company for supplying
Chinese sumac.
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... In addition, R. coriaria seeds contain 7.51% of lipids, principally oleic acid (C18:1) followed by linoleic acid (C18:2), palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), palmitoleic acid (C16:1), linolenic acid (C18:3), and myristic acid (C14:0) at the concentrations of 52.31, 25.57, 16.28, 2.60, 2.11, 0.94, and 0.19 % of the total fatty acids, respectively (Kosar, Bozan, Temelli, & Baser, 2007). R. coriaria contains also minerals that are mostly K, Na, Mg, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, P, and vitamins including: thiamin, riboflavin, pyridoxine, nicotinamide, biotin, and ascorbic acid (Kossah, 2009). ...
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Interest in plant-based food has grown in recent years due to their primary prevention potential. Za’atar, an ancient and popular Lebanese herbal mixture, might disclose relevant clinical interest, due to the well-known intrinsic properties of its individual components. Za’atar mixture contain Origanum syriacum (Lebanese thyme), Thymbra spicata (Wild thyme), Rhus coriaria (Sumac), and Sesamum indicum (Sesame). Here we explored the history, composition, general employment, and bio-active aspects of Za’atar through available in vitro, animal, and clinical trials evidence to depict its possible role as an innovative nutraceutical tool. The combined action of Za’atar constituents is able to generate comprehensive beneficial effects on several common pathogenic pathways underlying chronic cardio-metabolic diseases and cancer. However, main available evidence derives from animal and in vitro studies. Thus, further human studies are needed to fully characterize Za’atar as a preventive and curative tool.
... Oleic acid (ranging from 32.30 to 47.41%), palmitic acid (ranging from 18.90 to 36.29%), linoleic acid (ranging from 10.31 to 35.39%), stearic acid (ranging from 2.41 to 3.81%), palmitoleic acid (ranging from 0.23 to 0.71%), arachidic acid (ranging from 0.35 to 1.79%) and gondoic acid (ranging from 0.14 to 1.49%) were characterized as main fatty acids present in the extracted oils from the different populations (Table 3). Our findings were consistent with other studies on profiling oil of sumac fruits populations collected from Turkey, China, and Iran (Hosseini, Ramezan, & Arab, 2020;Nayebpour & Asadi-Gharneh, 2019;Kossah et al., 2009;Dogan, & Akgul, 2005). A study in turkey showed that sumac oil contains a considerable amount (56.60-61.56%) of linoleic acid (Matthaus, & Ö zcan, 2015). ...
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... Sumac, a natural source of bioactives; contains components such as organic acids, fatty acids, essential and non-essential amino acids, vitamins, carbohydrates, minerals, tannins, anthocyanins, flavonoids, terpeneoids and phenolics. Sumac shows a strong anti-oxidant effect due to the phenolic compounds it contains, in particular gallic acid and its derivatives (Chakraborty et al. 2009, Kossah et al. 2009, Kossah et al. 2010, Abu-Reidah et al. 2015, Demchik et al. 2015. ...
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