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Nutritional Evaluation and Physiochemical Properties of Processed Pumpkin ( Telfairia occidentalis Hook) Seed Flour

Authors:
  • King Saud University/ National Center for Reseach, Sudan

Abstract

The effect of roasting on proximate composition and the levels of antinutritional factors, protein digestibility, minerals extractability and physiochemical properties of pumpkin seeds consumed in Sudan were determined. Results showed that processing significantly (p < 0.05) reduced protein content. Roasting of pumpkin seeds significantly (p < 0.05) reduced tannin and phytic acid content to 125.01 and 56.1 mg 100<sup>-1</sup> g with a concomitant improvement in protein digestibility. Roasting of pumpkin seeds significantly (p < 0.05) improve total and extractable minerals as well as physicochemical properties of the seeds flour with few exceptions.
... Tendrils are green, thin and hair-like structure; while the plant is growing, the tendrils twist around objects on the ground to help anchor the vine and protect it from elements, like the wind; when you cut a pumpkin (for carving) around the stem to open it, lid is found. Pumpkin shells refers to both the ski and the pulp of the fruit [13], [19]. ...
... and carbohydrate 10.37±0.079 as it was shown in Table 2. Findings from [32], [33], [19], [34], [35] and [ 38] presented that the composition of pumpkin seed, moisture content, fat, protein, ash and total carbohydrate are in the range 3.8-7.0, 35-60, 20.85-31.2, ...
... The S.aureus was more sensitive than E.coli, which showed more zone of inhibition with respective to concentration. This result was closer to the other literatures reported by [ 31], [19]. ...
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The main aim of this research work was extraction, characterization and optimization of essential oil from pumpkin seed, cucurbita pepo variety using ethanol as a solvent. The extraction was carried out by using a Soxhlet, leaching method and oil was separated from solvents by using rotary evaporator. Pumpkin seed was analyzed for proximate analysis and found that moisture content of 5.21 ± 0.12%, crude proteins content of 22.5±0.31%, crude fat content of 50.5±0.112%, crude fiber content of 7±0.09% ash content of 4.5±0.19%, and carbohydrate content of 10.37±0.079%. A full factorial experimental randomized design with three factors two levels with triplicate six center points with a total of 30 experimental runs was carried out to optimize the operational process factors on the yield of essential oil. The factors and their operating ranges were: extraction time from 2 to 6 hours, particle size from 0.25 mm to 2mm, and solvent to pumpkin seed meal ratio of 0.05mg/ml to 0.1 mg/ml under constant temperature of 80℃. Physic-chemical properties of extracted essential oil analyzed and found that specific gravity of 0.91178, pH of 5.16±0.1kinematic viscosity 35, density 911.78, moisture content 0.07%, volatile contents 1.468, refractive index 0.62±0.61, free fatty acid 97.5I2g/100g, saponification value of 1.23±0.23mg/KOH/g oil and 189.8±0.31mgKOH/g oil, which is in close agreement with the literature values. The FT-IR analysis shown that the presence of functional group of carbohydrate, carbonyl, alkene, aromatics, alkane, aliphatic amine, carboxylic acid, alcohol and methyl ester which is closest to essential oil composition in the literature. Gas-Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy analysis shown that the presence of five major free fatty acids: linoleic acid of 57.5%, oleic acid of 20.2%, palmitic acid 19.1%, stearic acid 2.97%, and miystiric acid 0.23%. The pumpkin seed essential oil also showed better antimicrobial activity against both S. aureus and E. coli with maximum zone of inhibition 15.5±0.23 mm and 13.5±0.51 mm, respectively. Therefore, pumpkin seed essential oil, it is feasible to be used as antimicrobial and other applications.
... Some authors studied how this affects the nutritional value and the properties of the flour, used as additive in bakery products. It has been found that roasting of pumpkin seeds significantly improves total and extractable minerals as well as physicochemical properties of the seed flour (Hamed et al. 2008). Among mineral elements, pumpkin seed contain especially phosphorus, magnesium and potassium (Alfawaz 2004;El-Adawy and Taha 2001), while other authors emphasize that they are known as good source of elements such as zinc (Glew et al. 2006), iron and magnesium (Lim 2012). ...
... Probably it depends on how the PSF is obtained. Hamed et al. (2008) study the effect of roasting on the mineral composition of pumpkin seeds. Authors emphasize that Fe content significantly (p < 0.05) decreased when seeds are roastedbefore roasting the iron content in pumpkin seeds is 23.97 mg/100g, and after roasting its amount decreases by 27.60%. ...
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The incorporation of various flours from seeds into wheat bread can improve its nutritional value. Pumpkin seeds flour can be a good alternative for nutritional enrichment of food products because of its high content of protein, oil, dietary fibers and minerals. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of pumpkin seed flour (PSF), added in the amount of 5% and 10% by the weight of flour, on the content of minerals in wheat bread. It was found that wheat bread with pumpkin seed flour had a significantly higher levels of minerals as compared to the control; except for sodium. Moreover, the minerals content of bread was found to increase markedly with increasing the substitutions ratio. The most pronounced was the effect of enrichment on the content of iron-at the addition of 10% PSF it was 8.98 mg/kg, which is 6.7 times higher than the control sample (1.34 mg/kg). A considerable increase in the content of magnesium and phosphorus was also found. Regarding the microelements, the amount of zinc increased most significantly-5.09 mg/kg in the control sample; 9.27 mg/kg into the sample with 5% PSF; 12.7 mg/kg in the bread with 10% PSF added.
... Some authors studied how this affects the nutritional value and the properties of the flour, used as additive in bakery products. It has been found that roasting of pumpkin seeds significantly improves total and extractable minerals as well as physicochemical properties of the seed flour (Hamed et al. 2008). Among mineral elements, pumpkin seed contain especially phosphorus, magnesium and potassium (Alfawaz 2004;El-Adawy and Taha 2001), while other authors emphasize that they are known as good source of elements such as zinc (Glew et al. 2006), iron and magnesium (Lim 2012). ...
... Probably it depends on how the PSF is obtained. Hamed et al. (2008) study the effect of roasting on the mineral composition of pumpkin seeds. Authors emphasize that Fe content significantly (p < 0.05) decreased when seeds are roastedbefore roasting the iron content in pumpkin seeds is 23.97 mg/100g, and after roasting its amount decreases by 27.60%. ...
Article
The incorporation of various flours from seeds into wheat bread can improve its nutritional value. Pumpkin seeds flour can be a good alternative for nutritional enrichment of food products because of its high content of protein, oil, dietary fibers and minerals. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of pumpkin seed flour (PSF), added in the amount of 5% and 10% by the weight of flour, on the content of minerals in wheat bread. It was found that wheat bread with pumpkin seed flour had a significantly higher levels of minerals as compared to the control; except for sodium. Moreover, the minerals content of bread was found to increase markedly with increasing the substitutions ratio. The most pronounced was the effect of enrichment on the content of iron-at the addition of 10% PSF it was 8.98 mg/kg, which is 6.7 times higher than the control sample (1.34 mg/kg). A considerable increase in the content of magnesium and phosphorus was also found. Regarding the microelements, the amount of zinc increased most significantly-5.09 mg/kg in the control sample; 9.27 mg/kg into the sample with 5% PSF; 12.7 mg/kg in the bread with 10% PSF added.
... These results are in agreement with those of Mada et al. (2012); Onyeike and Oguike (2003), who reported that the protein content of peanut decreased after heat processing. Similarly, the reduction in protein content after processing was observed by Mohamed et al. (2013), Hamed et al. (2008) and Hainida et al. (2008). The reduction in protein content after thermal processing could probably be due to the solubilization of protein by heating, resulting in losses and/or denaturation of protein in the final product (Deman, 1999). ...
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This study was conducted to investigate the effect of boiling, roasting and boiling followed by roasting treatments on the nutritional quality of two Sudanese peanut cultivars, Sodari and Madani. Both cultivars are rich in fat content, protein content and bioavailability of macroelements and microelements. The thermal treatments were critical, reduced the antinutrients factors, and significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced the in vitro protein digestibility of the peanut samples. The highest values 78% and 79.2%, for Madani and Sodari cultivars, were obtained after boiling and roasting processing. However, the thermal processing caused a reduction in the vitamin E content of peanuts. In general, boiled and roasted peanuts could serve as a critical, underutilized by‐product, particularly after combining boiling and roasting treatments, for potential applications in food formulations.
... Dispersibility is linked to tiny particle size, according to [54]. A high dispersibility value, according to [55], improves the emulsifying and foaming capabilities of proteins. ...
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High post-harvest food losses, owing to insufficient food preservation capabilities, are a key constraint to food and nutrition security in West African developing nations, where seasonal food shortages and nutritional deficiency disorders remain a big concern. Due to post-harvest physiological degradation, cassava roots have a shelf life of just 1-2 days after harvest. The end-use qualities of cassava flour, such as composition, physico-chemical, and functional properties, dictate its usage in product development and food formulations. The purpose of this study was to learn more about the chemical functioning of cassava flour from three Nigerian varieties. The functional qualities of cassava flour were determined, and significant differences were found between the various criteria assessed and were judged as having acceptable organoleptic properties. The flours developed showed acceptable quality characteristics in terms of swelling and water absorption capacity, resulting in increased production volume of items such as bread, cakes, doughnuts, meat pies, and biscuits with shorter processing times. In terms of appearance, flavor, and texture, cassava flour grade was satisfactory, with sample C being more acceptable than the other samples.
... This vegetable can be processed in different ways. It can be baked, frozen, dried, crystallized, marinated, lyophilized (Hamed et al., 2008). The fruits of pumpkins have a lot of biologically active compounds -vitamin C, vitamin E, minerals, pectins, carotenoids. ...
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The study is based on the field experiment, carried out between 2009-2012 in Żyznów, in randomized blocks with 3 replications. The factors of experiment were, firstly the varieties of sweet potato: Carmen Rubin, Goldstar, White Triumph, and secondly the three various cultivation technologies: a) traditional farming method without protection, b) cultivation with use of PE-foil, c) cultivation with use of PP-non-woven fabric. The level of fertilization was kept on the constant level. The cultivation with use of protection caused brightening of the apical part, both the stolon parts, compared with the cultivated in traditional ways. The specific genetic features of different varieties of sweet potato were influencing the browning of flesh of cooked and raw potatoes.
... This vegetable can be processed in different ways. It can be baked, frozen, dried, crystallized, marinated, lyophilized (Hamed et al., 2008). The fruits of pumpkins have a lot of biologically active compounds -vitamin C, vitamin E, minerals, pectins, carotenoids. ...
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In 2009–2011 there was investigated the effect of Asahi SL on crop and chemical composition of some potato cultivars: Denar, Irys, Satina. Studies were carried out in field experiment station in the central-eastern part of Polish on the soil of light loamy sand content. The experiment was set by the means of randomized sub-blocks in dependent system. The primary factors were: sub-blocks with Asahi SL; control group with distilled water. The secondary factors were three potato cultivars. Growth regulator Asahi SL contributed to the increase in the total yield and commercial tuber yield by modifying the structure. Asahi SL caused the increase of total and commercial crop of tubers as well as phenolic compounds content. The content of starch and vitamin C did not change, and levels of soluble, reductive sugars and sacharose decreased under this synthetic growth regulator influence. Among investigated varieties the most prolific was very early cultivar – Denar, the least prolific – middle early Satina. The highest levels of starch, soluble and reductive sugars as well as vitamin C was characterized Satina cultivar, the highest concentration of sacharose – Irys, and the phenolic compounds – Denar. The reaction of investigated varieties towards Asahi SL application – regarding the soluble, reductive sugars, sacharose, vitamin C and phenols – was differentiated . It was found positive interaction of this preparation with the crop and its quality. The most prolific cultivar appeared to be Denar, the richest in analyzed compounds – Satina.
... Total carbohydrates were calculated by difference according to the following equation differences as follows: % carbohydrates = 100 -(% moisture + % protein + % actual ash + % Fiber). According to Sara et al., 2008 carbohydrate content was estimated by difference. ...
... Several studies have reported the presence of various elements in plant extracts. These elements are present at varying concentrations in different parts of the plants, especially in roots, seeds and leaves which are used as a dietary item as well as ingredient in the medicinal preparation (Hamed et al., 2008). Potassium is very vital in regulation of water and electrolyte balance and acid-base balance in the body, as well as responsible for nerve action and functioning of the muscles. ...
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The species Mentha piperita L. (Peppermint tea) is an aromatic perennial glabrous and strongly scented herb. It is one of the most popular and widely consumed single ingredient herbal teas, or tisanes. This study evaluate the phytochemicals constituents and elemental compositions of methanolic leaves extract of peppermint tea. Qualitative phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloid, flavonoids, glycosides, saponin, steroids, tannins, terpenoids and total phenolic compounds, while quantitative analysis shows terpenoids>total phenolic compounds>flavonoids>alkaloids>glycosides>tannins>steroids>saponins. Elemental analysis revealed the presence of potassium (K) 116.67±0.00mg/kg, Calcium (Ca) 96.67±9.95mg/kg, Sodium (Na) 93.33±0.00mg/kg, Iron (Fe) 77.53± 0.50mg/kg, Copper (Cu) 49.13±5.15mg/kg, Manganese (Mn) 15.33±0.75mg/kg, Magnesium (Mg) 9.33±4.00mg/kg, and Zinc (Zn) 0.80±0.30mg/kg. Thus this study shows peppermint plant to be of high nutritional value and contain medicinally important bioactive compounds.
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UPAS-120, a high yielding and early maturing variety of pigeon peas released by the Department of Plant Breeding, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar contained a significant amount of phytic acid, i.e. 886 mg/100 g. When it was subjected to various domestic processing and cooking methods viz. soaking (6, 12, 18 h), dehulling, ordinary as well as pressure cooking and germination (24, 36 and 48 h), a drastic decrease in level of phytic acid with a remarkable increase in the HCl-extractability of mono, divalent, and trivalent ions, like calcium, phosphorus, and iron occurred. Germination (48 h) was found to be the best method for decreasing the phytic acid content, i.e. 35 to 39 percent less than the control and significantly (p < 0.05) increasing the non-phytate phosphorus and HCl-extractable phosphorus. Pressure cooking of soaked-dehulled pigeon pea also rendered equally good results. The calcium, phosphorus, and iron contents of pigeon pea seeds were 197.3, 473.1, and 9.91 mg/100 g, respectively; some losses varying from 3 to 9 percent were noticed when the legume was subjected to soaking, cooking, and germination but the maximum losses, i.e. 23 percent, occurred when the seeds were dehulled. However, HCl-extractability of Ca, P, and Fe improved to a significant extent when the pigeon pea seeds were soaked, soaked-dehulled, cooked and sprouted which may have been due to decrease in the phytate content followed by processing and cooking. The significant negative correlations between the phytic acid and HCl-extractability of minerals of processed pigeon pea strengthens these findings.