Effect of Dietary Garlic on Serum Antibody Titer Against Newcastle Disease Vaccine in Broiler Chicks
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of garlic, in powder form, on serological response of broilers to NDV (Newcastle Disease Virus) vaccine. Two hundred and eighty, day-old, Ross chicks were randomly divided into groups A, B (52 each), C and D (88 each). The birds in groups A and B received control diet during the experiment, but those in groups C and D were given control diet supplemented with 1 and 3% garlic powder, respectively. After 2nd bleeding, half of the chicks in groups C and D were separated as groups E and F and fed control diet afterwards. At 9 days of age, all groups except A were inoculated with a killed NDV vaccine (Merial, France) subcutaneously and with B1 strain (Merial, France) by eye drop. Fifteen chicks were bled from each group on days 14, 24 and 34 post vaccination and also five just before vaccination. The sera were assayed for antibody against NDV by both HI and ELISA tests. The results showed that antibody titers were significantly higher in vaccinated chicks than in non-vaccinated chicks (p<0.05), but there were no significant effects of treatment on antibody level (p>0.05). Furthermore, the removal of garlic from diet had no effect on serum titer (p>0.05). It is concluded that diet supplementation with garlic powder can not enhance the serological response of broilers to NDV vaccine.
Available from: Rozbeh Fallah
- "Another study on the effects of A. vera gel powder on antibody titre against SRBC found a significant increase in antibody titre for the groups treated with 0.75 and 1% A. vera gel powder compared to the control group and the group receiving 0.5% (Mahdavi et al., 2012). Jafari et al. (2008) reported that the inclusion of 1 and 3% of garlic powder did not enhance the serological response of broilers to Newcastle vaccine. The finding of this investigation is in agreement with results reported by Valle-Paraso et al., 2005, Mahdavi et al., 2012, Darabighane et al., 2012 and Alemi et al.2012. "
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ABSTRACT: The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of supplementing different levels of Aloe vera
gel and garlic powder on blood biochemical parameters and immune response of broiler. For this
purpose, one hundred and sixty, one-day-old, Ross chicks were used, in completely randomized design,
in four treatments and each with four replicates. The treatment groups consisted of: control group fed
only with non-supplemented basal diet, group 2 supplemented with 3% aloe vera in drinking water,
group 3 supplemented with 3% garlic powder in diet and group 4 supplemented with 1.5% aloe vera in
drinking water + 1.5% garlic powder in diet, which were reared for 42 days. The result of this experiment
showed no significant difference in heterophil to lymphocyte ratio at 42 days of age between control and
treated groups. The other results of this investigation showed that broilers receiving Aloe vera gel and
garlic powder had lower blood glucose, uric acid, total cholesterol, High-density lipoprotein (HDL), Lowdensity
lipoprotein (LDL) and Triglycerides concentrations compared to control group. However, higher
total protein concentrations were observed with supplementation of Aloe vera gel and garlic powder
than control group. Although, there was no significant difference between the control and treated
groups in antibody titres against Newcastle and Influenza, the highest amount of anti body titres for
Newcastle and Influenza were observed in group - 4 on 18 and 28 days.
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ABSTRACT: Phase noise can vary dramatically over the tying range of a VCO, but the published literature often obscures this fad by reporting phase noise measurements at only a small number of selected turning voltages. It is diffcult to obtain simultaneously a large tuning range, low phase noise, and small phase noise variation, particularly while accommodating manufacturing and packaging tolerances. This work describes the first use of native EPROM devices (available in every standard CMOS technology) and switched reactances to relax these tradeoffs. In addition to permitting post-packaging compensation for manufacturing variations, the inherent reprogrammability of they cells also enables the rapid prototyping and optional
reconfiguration of RF and mixed-signal systems. This
technology allows the realization of a fully-integrated
oscillator in 0.25μm CMOS with a phase noise variation of
under lOdB (compared with 40dB variation in a conventional
implementation) over a 1.25GHz to 1.92GHz (42%) tuning
range. The oscillator consumes 23mW from a 3V supply
while exhibiting a phase noise of better than -93dBdHz at
100kHz offset from a nominal 1.58GHz center frequency.
Available from: Shahin Eghbalsaied
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ABSTRACT: This study was performed to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with cinnamon and garlic powder as growth promoter agents on performance, carcase traits, immune responses, serum biochemistry, haematological parameters and thigh meat sensory evaluation in broilers. A total of 288, day-old male broilers (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to six treatments with four replicates. The dietary treatments consisted of the basal diet as control, antibiotic group receiving 3mg/kg flavophospholipol, 2 and 4g/kg cinnamon or garlic powder added to the basal diet. Body weights of broilers were measured at 1, 14, 28 and 42days, feed intake was measured at the same periods and feed conversion was calculated, accordingly. At day 42 two birds per replicate were slaughtered for determination of carcase and organ weights and also meat sensory evaluation. Supplementing 2g/kg cinnamon increased body weight of broilers at 28 and 42days of age (P
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