The Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire: Differential Correlates of Reactive and Proactive Aggression in Adolescent Boys

Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States
Aggressive Behavior (Impact Factor: 2.28). 04/2006; 32(2):159-171. DOI: 10.1002/ab.20115
Source: PubMed


This study reports the development of the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ), and the differential correlates of these two forms of aggression. Antisocial, psychosocial and personality measures were obtained at ages 7 and 16 years in schoolboys, while the RPQ was administered to 334 of the boys at age 16 years. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated a significant fit for a two-factor proactive-reactive model that replicated from one independent subsample to another. Proactive aggression was uniquely characterized at age 7 by initiation of fights, strong-arm tactics, delinquency, poor school motivation, poor peer relationships, single-parent status, psychosocial adversity, substance-abusing parents, and hyperactivity, and at age 16 by a psychopathic personality, blunted affect, delinquency, and serious violent offending. Reactive aggression was uniquely characterized at age 16 by impulsivity, hostility, social anxiety, lack of close friends, unusual perceptual experiences, and ideas of reference. Findings confirm and extend the differential correlates of proactive-reactive aggression, and demonstrate that this brief but reliable and valid self-report instrument can be used to assess proactive and reactive aggression in child and adolescent samples.

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    • "Twelve items make up the proactive subscale, and 11 items make up the reactive subscale. Earlier studies have shown good internal reliabilities for total RPQ, reactive and proactive subscales (Raine et al., 2006; Cima et al., 2013). In the current sample internal consistency for the whole scale (α ¼ .76), "
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    ABSTRACT: It is still not clear what the unique contribution of particular psychopathological factors is in explaining aggression in schizophrenia. The current study examined whether persecutory ideations, psychopathy and substance use are associated with different measures of aggressive behavior. We expected that persecutory ideations are associated with reactive aggression, and psychopathic traits are more associated with proactive aggression of inpatients. 59 inpatients with schizophrenia were included. Persecutory ideations we assessed using the Persecutory Ideation Questionnaire (PIQ), psychopathic traits with the revised version of Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI-R) and substance use was assessed using the Comprehensive Assessment of Symptoms and History (CASH). In addition, aggression was measured with the Reactive and Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ), in an experimental task using the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP) and on the ward using the Social Dysfunction and Aggression Scale (SDAS). Results showed that psychopathy explains most of the variance in self-reported proactive and reactive aggression. In contrast, persecutory ideations explain most of the variance in observed aggression on the ward. Results implicate that it is important to acknowledge comorbid factors in patients with schizophrenia for more precise risk assessment and appropriate treatment for aggressive patients with schizophrenia.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Psychiatry Research
    • "A number of studies have found a robust association between lowactivity MAOA variants (and particularly 2-repeat alleles) and psychopathy and criminal behavior (Guo et al., 2008;Beaver et al., 2010aBeaver et al., , 2010bBeaver et al., , 2013Beaver et al., , 2014Armstrong et al., 2014;Stetler et al., 2014;Tiihonen et al., 2015). The link with psychopathy, which has garnered this allele the questionable moniker of " psycho gene, " is particularly surprising, given the consolidated link of this trait with proactive aggression and callous-unemotional traits, rather than reactive aggression (Raine et al., 2006;Nouvion et al., 2007). Nevertheless, it is worth noting that the definition of psychopathy is not entirely aligned with that of proactive aggression; for example, this trait is associated with several aspects of impulsivity (Morgan et al., 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: Drawing upon the recent resurgence of biological criminology, several studies have highlighted a critical role for genetic factors in the ontogeny of antisocial and violent conduct. In particular, converging lines of evidence have documented that these maladaptive manifestations of aggression are influenced by monoamine oxidase A (MAOA), the enzyme that catalyzes the degradation of brain serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine. The interest on the link between MAOA and aggression was originally sparked by Han Brunner's discovery of a syndrome characterized by marked antisocial behaviors in male carriers of a nonsense mutation of this gene. Subsequent studies showed that MAOA allelic variants associated with low enzyme activity moderate the impact of early-life maltreatment on aggression propensity. In spite of overwhelming evidence pointing to the relationship between MAOA and aggression, the neurobiological substrates of this link remain surprisingly elusive; very little is also known about the interventions that may reduce the severity of pathological aggression in genetically predisposed subjects. Animal models offer a unique experimental tool to investigate these issues; in particular, several lines of transgenic mice harboring total or partial loss-of-function Maoa mutations have been shown to recapitulate numerous psychological and neurofunctional endophenotypes observed in humans. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the link between MAOA and aggression; in particular, we will emphasize how an integrated translational strategy coordinating clinical and preclinical research may prove critical to elucidate important aspects of the pathophysiology of aggression, and identify potential targets for its diagnosis, prevention and treatment.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry
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    • "RPQ 是用于区分主动性攻击和反应性攻击的自陈报告量表(Raine et al., 2006),该量表由 23 个项目组 成,采用 0~2 三点计分,其中 11 个项目用于测量反应性攻击,如 " 当被别人挑衅时就愤怒地回应 " ;12 个项目用于测量主动性攻击,如 " 为了赢得比赛而弄伤他人 " 。主动性攻击或者反应性攻击各个项目的 总分代表攻击性的大小。主动性攻击和反应性攻击分量表的克伦巴赫 α 系数分别为 0.79 和 0.76。 "

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