Interaction and nanotoxic effect of ZnO and Ag nanoparticles on mesophilic and halophilic bacterial cells

Enzyme and Microbial Biochemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, New Delhi, India.
Bioresource Technology (Impact Factor: 4.49). 01/2011; 102(2):1516-20. DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2010.07.117
Source: PubMed


The toxicity of two commonly used nanoparticles, silver and zinc oxide on mesophilic and halophilic bacterial cells has been investigated. Enterobacter sp., Marinobacter sp., Bacillus subtilis, halophilic bacterium sp. EMB4, were taken as model systems. The nanotoxicity was more pronounced on Gram negative bacteria. ZnO nanoparticles reduced the growth of Enterobacter sp. by 50%, while 80% reduction was observed in halophilic Marinobacter sp. In case of halophiles, this may be attributed to higher content of negatively charged cardiolipins on their cell surface. Interestingly, bulk ZnO exerted minimal reduction in growth. Ag nanoparticles were similarly cytotoxic. Nanotoxicity towards Gram positive cells was significantly less, possibly due to presence of thicker peptidoglycan layer. The bacterium nanoparticle interactions were probed by electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The results indicated electrostatic interactions between nanoparticles and cell surface as the primary step towards nanotoxicity, followed by cell morphological changes, increase in membrane permeability and their accumulation in the cytoplasm.

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    • "For example, growth can be negatively affected by ENPs exposure (Lin and Xing, 2007; Sinha et al., 2011; Bandyopadhyay et al., 2012a,b; Gaiser et al., 2012; Hawthorne et al., 2012; Mukherjee et al., 2014b; Rico et al., 2014). There are several reports on the toxicity of different ENPs on food crops (Lin and Xing, 2007; Lee et al., 2008; Navarro et al., 2008; Sinha et al., 2011; Bandyopadhyay et al., 2012a,b; Gaiser et al., 2012; Hawthorne et al., 2012; Zhao et al., 2013a, 2014a; Rico et al., 2014; Mukherjee et al., 2014a,b). However, a mechanistic understanding of the impact of ENPs on edible/crop plants is needed for accurate exposure and risk assessment, but this knowledge remains elusive. "
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    • "Although, the mechanism of antimicrobial action of MO-NPs is still not understood completely, it mainly depends on composition, surface modification and intrinsic properties of nanomaterials along with the prevalent bacterial species. NPs were found to be attached to the microbial cell with electrostatic interactions resulting in the cell wall damage along with an increase in permeability of the cell [38] [39] [40]. Pan et al. (2010), investigated the mutagenic potential of MO-NPs (Al 2 O 3 , Co 3 O 4 , CuO, TiO 2 and ZnO) and reported significant colony inhibition activity of CuO-NPs [41]. "
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    • "The toxicity of metal and metal oxidized NPs to microorganisms has been observed by others (Kumar et al. 2011a; Karn et al. 2011; Sinha et al. 2011). Moreover, Baek and An (2011) and Jiang et al. (2009) estimated the relevant free dissolved ion concentrations from the NP surfaces, including nNiO and nZnO to bacterial toxicity and found that these dissolved metal ion induced insignificant toxicity, especially in cell viability. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and growth inhibition effects of four different inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) such as aluminum (nAl), iron (nFe), nickel (nNi), and zinc (nZn) on a dibenzofuran (DF) degrading bacterium Agrobacterium sp. PH-08. NP (0-1,000 mg L(-1)) -treated bacterial cells were assessed for cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, growth and biodegradation activities at biochemical and molecular levels. In an aqueous system, the bacterial cells treated with nAl, nZn and nNi at 500 mg L(-1) showed significant reduction in cell viability (30-93.6 %, p < 0.05), while nFe had no significant inhibition on bacterial cell viability. In the presence of nAl, nZn and nNi, the cells exhibited elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA damage and cell death. Furthermore, NP exposure showed significant (p < 0.05) impairment in DF and catechol biodegradation activities. The reduction in DF biodegradation was ranged about 71.7-91.6 % with single NPs treatments while reached up to 96.3 % with a mixture of NPs. Molecular and biochemical investigations also clearly revealed that NP exposure drastically affected the catechol-2,3-dioxygenase activities and its gene (c23o) expression. However, no significant inhibition was observed in nFe treatment. The bacterial extracellular polymeric materials and by-products from DF degradation can be assumed as key factors in diminishing the toxic effects of NPs, especially for nFe. This study clearly demonstrates the impact of single and mixed NPs on the microbial catabolism of xenobiotic-degrading bacteria at biochemical and molecular levels. This is the first study on estimating the impact of mixed NPs on microbial biodegradation.
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