Strain and Torsion Quantification in Mouse Hearts Under Dobutamine Stimulation Using 2D Multiphase MR DENSE

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.
Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (Impact Factor: 3.57). 11/2010; 64(5):1315-22. DOI: 10.1002/mrm.22530
Source: PubMed


In this study, a 2D multiphase magnetic resonance displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE) imaging and analysis method was developed for direct quantification of Lagrangian strain in the mouse heart. Using the proposed method, <10 ms temporal resolution and 0.56 mm in-plane resolution were achieved. A validation study that compared strain calculation by displacement encoding with stimulated echoes and by magnetic resonance tagging showed high correlation between the two methods (R(2) > 0.80). Regional ventricular wall strain and twist were characterized in mouse hearts at baseline and under dobutamine stimulation. Dobutamine stimulation induced significant increase in radial and circumferential strains and torsion at peak systole. A rapid untwisting was also observed during early diastole. This work demonstrates the capability of characterizing cardiac functional response to dobutamine stimulation in the mouse heart using 2D multiphase magnetic resonance displacement encoding with stimulated echoes.

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    • "A number of different CMR tissue tracking methods may be used to assess cardiac mechanics, including myocardial tagging [10,11], harmonic phase analysis (HARP) [12], velocity encoded phase contrast (PC) [13,14], and displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE) [15,16]. Furthermore, all of these methods are applicable to both humans [10-17] and mice [18-33]. Among these techniques, tagging is the most widely used, but has the significant disadvantage that image analysis is cumbersome and time consuming. "
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    ABSTRACT: Quantitative noninvasive imaging of myocardial mechanics in mice enables studies of the roles of individual genes in cardiac function. We sought to develop comprehensive three-dimensional methods for imaging myocardial mechanics in mice. A 3D cine DENSE pulse sequence was implemented on a 7T small-bore scanner. The sequence used three-point phase cycling for artifact suppression and a stack-of-spirals k-space trajectory for efficient data acquisition. A semi-automatic 2D method was adapted for 3D image segmentation, and automated 3D methods to calculate strain, twist, and torsion were employed. A scan protocol that covered the majority of the left ventricle in a scan time of less than 25 minutes was developed, and seven healthy C57Bl/6 mice were studied. Using these methods, multiphase normal and shear strains were measured, as were myocardial twist and torsion. Peak end-systolic values for the normal strains at the mid-ventricular level were 0.29 ± 0.17, -0.13 ± 0.03, and -0.18 ± 0.14 for E(rr), E(cc), and E(ll), respectively. Peak end-systolic values for the shear strains were 0.00 ± 0.08, 0.04 ± 0.12, and 0.03 ± 0.07 for E(rc), E(rl), and E(cl), respectively. The peak end-systolic normalized torsion was 5.6 ± 0.9°. Using a 3D cine DENSE sequence tailored for cardiac imaging in mice at 7 T, a comprehensive assessment of 3D myocardial mechanics can be achieved with a scan time of less than 25 minutes and an image analysis time of approximately 1 hour.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) tagging has been established as an essential technique for measuring regional myocardial function. It allows quantification of local intramyocardial motion measures, e.g. strain and strain rate. The invention of CMR tagging came in the late eighties, where the technique allowed for the first time for visualizing transmural myocardial movement without having to implant physical markers. This new idea opened the door for a series of developments and improvements that continue up to the present time. Different tagging techniques are currently available that are more extensive, improved, and sophisticated than they were twenty years ago. Each of these techniques has different versions for improved resolution, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), scan time, anatomical coverage, three-dimensional capability, and image quality. The tagging techniques covered in this article can be broadly divided into two main categories: 1) Basic techniques, which include magnetization saturation, spatial modulation of magnetization (SPAMM), delay alternating with nutations for tailored excitation (DANTE), and complementary SPAMM (CSPAMM); and 2) Advanced techniques, which include harmonic phase (HARP), displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE), and strain encoding (SENC). Although most of these techniques were developed by separate groups and evolved from different backgrounds, they are in fact closely related to each other, and they can be interpreted from more than one perspective. Some of these techniques even followed parallel paths of developments, as illustrated in the article. As each technique has its own advantages, some efforts have been made to combine different techniques together for improved image quality or composite information acquisition. In this review, different developments in pulse sequences and related image processing techniques are described along with the necessities that led to their invention, which makes this article easy to read and the covered techniques easy to follow. Major studies that applied CMR tagging for studying myocardial mechanics are also summarized. Finally, the current article includes a plethora of ideas and techniques with over 300 references that motivate the reader to think about the future of CMR tagging.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2011 · Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
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    Preview · Article · Nov 2011 · AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology
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