Impaired Orthotopic Glioma Growth and Vascularization in Transgenic Mouse Models of Alzheimer's Disease

The Roskamp Institute, Sarasota, Florida 34243, USA.
The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 6.34). 08/2010; 30(34):11251-8. DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2586-10.2010
Source: PubMed


Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia among the aging population and is characterized pathologically by the progressive intracerebral accumulation of beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptides and neurofibrillary tangles. The level of proangiogenic growth factors and inflammatory mediators with proangiogenic activity is known to be elevated in AD brains which has led to the supposition that the cerebrovasculature of AD patients is in a proangiogenic state. However, angiogenesis depends on the balance between proangiogenic and antiangiogenic factors and the brains of AD patients also show an accumulation of endostatin and Abeta peptides which have been shown to be antiangiogenic. To determine whether angiogenesis is compromised in the brains of two transgenic mouse models of AD overproducing Abeta peptides (Tg APPsw and Tg PS1/APPsw mice), we assessed the growth and vascularization of orthotopically implanted murine gliomas since they require a high degree of angiogenesis to sustain their growth. Our data reveal that intracranial tumor growth and angiogenesis is significantly reduced in Tg APPsw and Tg PS1/APPsw mice compared with their wild-type littermates. In addition, we show that Abeta inhibits the angiogenesis stimulated by glioma cells when cocultured with human brain microvascular cells on a Matrigel layer. Altogether our data suggest that the brain of transgenic mouse models of AD does not constitute a favorable environment to support neoangiogenesis and may explain why vascular insults synergistically precipitate the cognitive presentation of AD.

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    • "Despite increases in several pro-angiogenic factors in the AD brain, evidence for increased vascularity in AD is lacking. On the contrary, it has been suggested the angiogenic process is delayed and/or impaired in aged tissues, with several studies showing decreased microvascular density in the AD brain (Buee et al., 1994; 1997; Edelber and Reed, 2003; Paris et al., 2010,). Therefore, lack of vessel formation despite the increase in pro-angiogenic factors evoked by hypoxia suggests these angiogenic factors are not sufficient for the completion of the angiogenic process and the development of new vessels by brain endothelial cells. "
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    ABSTRACT: Hypoxia is increasingly recognized as an important contributing factor to the development of brain diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the periphery, hypoxia is a powerful regulator of angiogenesis. However, vascular endothelial cells are remarkably heterogeneous and little is known about how brain endothelial cells respond to hypoxic challenge. The objective of this study is to characterize the effect of hypoxic challenge on the angiogenic response of cultured brain-derived microvascular endothelial cells. Brain endothelial cell cultures were initiated from isolated rat brain microvessels and subjected to hypoxia (1% O(2)) for various time periods. The results showed that hypoxia induced rapid (≤ 0.5h) expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and that cell viability, assessed by MTT assay, was unaffected within the first 8h. Examination of brain endothelial cell cultures for pro- and anti-angiogenic proteins by western blot, RT-PCR and ELISA revealed that within 0.5 to 2h of hypoxia levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and endothelin-1 mRNA and protein were elevated. The expression of heme oxygenase-1 also increased but only after 8h of hypoxia. In contrast, similar hypoxia exposure evoked a decrease in endothelial nitric oxide synthase and thrombospondin-2 levels. Exposure of brain endothelial cell cultures to hypoxia resulted in a significant (p<0.001) decrease (94%) in tube length, an in vitro index of angiogenesis, compared to control cultures. The data indicate that, despite a shift toward a pro-angiogenic phenotype, hypoxia inhibited vessel formation in brain endothelial cells. These results suggest that in brain endothelial cells expression of angiogenic factors is not sufficient for the development of new vessels. Further work is needed to determine what factors/conditions prevent hypoxia-induced angiogenic changes from culminating in the formation of new brain blood vessels and what role this may play in the pathologic changes observed in AD and other diseases characterized by cerebral hypoxia.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2011 · Microvascular Research
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    • "Whether blocking/blunting angiogenic mediators in AD is beneficial or detrimental is controversial [17] [67] [68]. Despite increases in pro-angiogenic factors no new blood vessel growth is evident in AD; however, epidemiologic studies show that drugs with antiangiogenic effects are beneficial in AD [69- 72].On the other hand, recent studies suggest that the brain milieu in AD transgenic mice does not support angiogenesis [68]. Further work is urgently needed to determine whether inhibition of hypoxia-mediated effects such as angiogenesis is useful as a therapeutic strategy for AD. "
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    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive, neurodegenerative disease of increasing incidence. The pathologic processes that underlie this disorder are incompletely understood, however, hypoperfusion/hypoxia is thought to contribute to disease pathogenesis. Hypoxia inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α), a key regulator of cellular responses to hypoxia, is elevated in the microcirculation of AD patients. Cerebral hypoxia is a potent stimulus for vascular activation and angiogenesis. Microvessels isolated from the brains of AD patients express a large number of angiogenic proteins. Despite considerable data in human tissues regarding vascular expression of hypoxia-related angiogenic proteins, there is little information regarding these proteins in the brain vasculature of transgenic AD mice. The objectives of this study were to determine expression of HIF-1α, angiogenic proteins, angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2), and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2), and survival/apoptotic proteins (Bcl-xL, caspase 3) in the cerebromicrovasculature of AD transgenic mice and to determine the direct effect of hypoxia on cerebral endothelial expression of these proteins in vitro. Cultured brain endothelial cells were subjected to hypoxia for 4-6 h and analyzed by western blot and immunofluorescence. Our results demonstrated that HIF-1α is induced in cultured brain endothelial cells exposed to hypoxia and that expression of Ang-2, MMP2 and caspase 3 was elevated and the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL decreased. Brain sections from AD and control mice showed that HIF-1α, Ang-2, MMP2 and caspase 3 are elevated and Bcl-xL decreased in the microvasculature of AD mice. These data suggest the cerebromicrovasculature is an important target for the effects of hypoxia in the AD brain.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2011 · International journal of clinical and experimental pathology
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    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by extracellular cerebral accumulation of amyloid β peptide (Aβ). Heparan sulfate (HS) is a glycosaminoglycan that is abundant in the extracellular space. The state of sulfation within the HS chain influences its ability to interact with a variety of proteins. Highly sulfated domains within HS are crucial for Aβ aggregation in vitro. Here, we investigated the expression of the sulfated domains and HS disaccharide composition in the brains of Tg2576, J20, and T41 transgenic AD mouse models, and patients with AD. RB4CD12, a phage display antibody, recognizes highly sulfated domains of HS. The RB4CD12 epitope is abundant in the basement membrane of brain vessels under physiological conditions. In the cortex and hippocampus of the mice and patients with AD, RB4CD12 strongly stained both diffuse and neuritic amyloid plaques. Interestingly, RB4CD12 also stained the intracellular granules of certain hippocampal neurons in AD brains. Disaccharide compositions in vessel-enriched and nonvasculature fractions of Tg2576 mice and AD patients were found to be comparable to those of non-transgenic and non-demented controls, respectively. The RB4CD12 epitope in amyloid plaques was substantially degraded ex vivo by Sulf-1 and Sulf-2, extracellular HS endosulfatases. These results indicate that formation of highly sulfated HS domains may be upregulated in conjunction with AD pathogenesis, and that these domains can be enzymatically remodeled in AD brains.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · American Journal Of Pathology
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