Article

Growth and Yield Response of Tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum L . ) to Organic and Inorganic Mulches

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

A field experiment was carried out at the Vegetable Research Farm of University of Arid Agriculture, Rawalpindi, during March, 2004 to evaluate the performance of tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum L . ) under effect of organic and inorganic mulches. The treatments selected were control (control), mulching with 4 inch thick grass, mulching with 4 inch wheat straw, black polyethylene mulch (160 μm gauge) and transparent polyethylene mulch (150 μm gauge). The result reveled that maximum plant height 93 cm and maximum number of leaves 160 was observed in plot mulching with 4 inch wheat straw. Where as, maximum leaf area plant <sup>-1</sup> 65 cm<sup>2</sup> was produced with transparent polythene mulch 150 μm gauge. Maximum number of flower cluster and fruit plant<sup>-1</sup> were recorded in plot with mulches 4 inch thick grass. Maximum yield 96.45 t ha<sup>-1</sup> of tomato was obtained with mulching of 4 inch wheat straw while; minimum yield 55.41 t ha<sup>-1</sup> was obtain in control. Wheat straw increases 43% tomato yield when compared with control. There was non-significant variation among different treatment as for as soil physical and chemical parameters are concerned. However, mulching treatment conserved 27% more moisture as compare to control. Economic comparison indicates that wheat and grass mulch were more efficient than expansive polythene mulch.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... They are considered to be slow decomposers, as their tissues are rich in lignin, suberin, tannins, and other decomposition-resistant, natural compounds. Thus, wood chips supply nutrients slowly to the system; at the same time, they absorb significant amounts of water that is slowly released to the soil (Khan et al., 2005). ...
... The increasing plant height was due to favorable soil moisture and a favorable temperature condition for proper plant growth (Yu, et al., 1981). Maximum plant height and number of leaves have also been observed in mulched plot (Khan et al., 2005). Sawdust also enhanced soil fertility, but the enhancement was slow due to slow release of nitrogen as a result of its high Carbon/Nitrogen ratio (C:N) but according to Johnson, et al., (2004) Sawdust may negatively affect crops by drying up soil Nitrogen due to a wide C:N ratio. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study was conducted to determine the effect of mulching materials on upland rice variety, FARO 57, at the Faculty of Agriculture Teaching and Research Farm located at the University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. Three mulch types-Coconut husk, Dry Guinea grass, and Sawdust were compared with control where no mulch was used in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Growth and yield parameters were recorded, and were significantly influenced by the treatments. Rice mulched with coconut husk produced significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher grain yield of 142.16kg/ha followed by dry guinea grass mulch (122.66kg/ha), Sawdust mulch (72.33kg/ha) and control (65.16kg/ha), while the highest dry tiller weight (2,333.33kg/ha) and fresh tiller weight (4,750kg/ha) was obtained in coconut husk followed by dry guinea grass which had 2,250kg/ha and 4,583kg/ha respectively. The result showed highest plant height in dry guinea grass mulched plot (77.9cm). Early application of mulch facilitates faster decomposition and quicker release of nutrient for plant growth. Application of coconut husk and dry guinea grass at the rate of 2kg per plant in each case is recommended for rice cultivation in the study area.
... Ghosh et al. (2003) reported that soils covered with wheat straw mulch and black polythene retained higher amount of available soil moisture at 0 to 10 cm soil depth continuously through the crop growth period than the non-mulched plots. Khan and Chatta (2005) also reported that straw conserved higher soil moisture up to 55% more than non-mulched plots. Application of wheat straw mulch at a rate of 6730 kg ha -1 increased the available soil moisture significantly up to 1.5 m soil depth as compared to the bare soil (Khan and Chatta, 2005). ...
... Khan and Chatta (2005) also reported that straw conserved higher soil moisture up to 55% more than non-mulched plots. Application of wheat straw mulch at a rate of 6730 kg ha -1 increased the available soil moisture significantly up to 1.5 m soil depth as compared to the bare soil (Khan and Chatta, 2005). The present result is in agreement with the observation of Bhatt et al. (2004) who reported that mulching significantly enhanced soil moisture content with maximum (17.0%) soil moisture content at harvest in mulched plot as compared to nonmulched soil (14.0%). ...
... Plant tallness is a role of many factors like influences of environmental interactions, soil condition and genetic makeup. [16] reported that the differences in plant height among different cultivars may be attributes by the variation in genetic makeup of the different cultivars and its adaptation ability to the environment. [21] reported that there were significant differences noted in melon cultivars in term of plant height. ...
Article
Full-text available
To evaluate the effect of different mulching materials on the weeds and yield of chili cultivars, an experiment was conducted at Horticulture Research Farm at University of Agriculture, Peshawar, during the year 2014. The experiment was carried out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replication.. There were two factors i.e. mulching materials (Wheat straw, Saw dust, Transparent plastic, Black plastic, Unmulched) and chili cultivars (PusaJawala, Sky Star, Hot Green, Green Star).Minimum weed density m-2 (19), maximum yield tons ha-1 (3.07) were found when black plastic was used, while maximum weed density m-2 (209), were found, when transparent plastic was used. Highest soil moisture content (%) was found under black and transparent plastic mulch. Wheat straw and saw dust also increase growth and yield components of chili as compare to Unmulched plots. Lowest soil moisture content (16.1 %) and minimum yield tons ha-1 (0.70) were recorded from Unmulched plots. In case of cultivars maximum yield tons ha-1 (2.33) were noted in cultivar Sky Star. It is concluded from the results that cultivar Sky star along with black plastic mulch proved better with respect to weed control and yield and should be used for higher production of chili under the agro climatic conditions of Peshawar.
... No mineral fertilizers were added, and farmyard manure was added at 10 t ha À1 every 2 years. Results show that improved management significantly increased soil porosity, infiltration rate, and carbon content compared to traditionally managed fields Khan et al. 2005;Olaposi et al. 2013. Such changes in biophysical properties also led to change in hydrological cycle as runoff was reduced in BBF fields and stored more rainfall into green water form. ...
Chapter
Available evidences from natural resource management suggest that building resilience into ecological ecosystems is the ideal way to deal with future shocks as well as emerging climate risks especially in drylands. However, there are diverse views on how these evidences have implications for policies and strategies for responding to climate change. We attempt to address this gap by using different case studies on natural resource management (NRM) interventions in drylands. Drylands are characterized by water scarcity, land degradation, and poor crop and livestock productivity. Increasing uncertainty in rainfall behavior/other meteorological parameters increases the challenges of the region further. Despite such challenges, large scope exists for bridging yield gaps through various land, water, nutrient, and crop management interventions. This chapter shows how these NRM interventions have helped different stakeholders in different agroecological regions for building system resilience through positive impact on land- and water-use efficiency. Moreover, the chapter also describes different institutional approaches for achieving the system-level outcomes.
... flowers and fruits in tomato crop over control 21 . Maximum plant height and a maximum number of leaves are observed in plots mulched with 4-inch wheat straw 22 . A maximum number of fruits per plant is observed in mulching with grass. ...
Article
Full-text available
In the present situation of globalization and health awareness demand of the virtuous horticultural crops has increased worldwide. The increasing demand for the fruits and vegetables and market competition has forced the farmers to produce more and high-quality fruits and vegetables for sustaining in the international market. Use of organic mulching is one of the suitable methods which could help the horticultural growers to increase the production with good quality of produce. Looking to the water scarcity and the challenges that arise due to climate change, adoption of organic mulching at large scale by the Indian farmers would help the farmers to overcome several problems considering the advantages of organic mulching. From the findings of the several studies shown that mulching with organic materials increases the soil nutrients, maintains the optimum soil temperature, restricts the rate of evaporation from the soil surface, restricts the weed growth and prevents the soil erosion. It also helps to improve the soil health. Organic mulches are cheap materials; therefore, the cost of mulching is also economical. In this paper, an attempt has been made to overview on the various types of mulching, mulching techniques, benefits and limitations of mulching.
... Plant tallness is a role of many factors like influences of environmental interactions, soil condition and genetic makeup. [16] reported that the differences in plant height among different cultivars may be attributes by the variation in genetic makeup of the different cultivars and its adaptation ability to the environment. [21] reported that there were significant differences noted in melon cultivars in term of plant height. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
The present investigation entitled “Effect of transplanting dates and mulching on Yield and Quality of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)” was undertaken, during the two consecutive Rabi seasons of 2016-17 and 2017-18. The field experiments were conducted at Vegetable Farm. Department of Vegetable Science, Kalyanpur, Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agricultural and Technology, Kanpur. The study was consisted for four different dates of transplanting (D1-15th October, D2-31st October, D3-15th November and D4-30th November) and four treatments of mulch (M1-Black polyethylene, M2- White polyethylene, M3- Bio-Mulch (Paddy straw) and M4-control) the experiments were laid out in Factorial Randomized Block Design with four objectives, to find out the effect of different dates of transplanting on growth, yield and quality of tomato, to observe the effect of mulching on growth, yield and quality, to find out interaction effect of different transplanting dates and mulching on growth, yield and quality and to work out the economics of various treatments. The present investigation revealed that the crop transplanted on 30th October and application of bio-mulch significantly increases the growth attributes (Plant height, number of primary & secondary branches) phonological parameters (days to 50 % flowering, number of flowers per inflorescence, inflorescence per plant, days taken to first and last harvest), yield attributes (number of fruits per plant, fruit weight, marketable, un-marketable and total fruit yield), quality parameters (fruit firmness, total soluble solids, acidity and ascorbic acid content) and reduces the weed intensity, weed bio mass (Fresh & dry weight), individual weed species at harvest stage and disease intensity during both the years of experimentation. The crop planted on 30th October and application of bio-mulch found economic as compared to other treatments. Maximum benefit cost ratio was also calculated with same treatment during both the years.
Thesis
Full-text available
This study was conducted in one of Al-maameer Private field ,about 50 km west of Baghdad at east longitude 43° 88´ 80" and north in latitude 33°27´ 42" during autumn 2010 . The soil texture was silt loam and classified to the sub-great group,Typic Torrifluvent.The purpose of this study was to know the effect of drip irrigation ,organic fertilization and coverage on wetness and salt distributions , some soil physical properties and the growth and yield of potato (Solanum tuberosum L). Split- split with R.C.B.D design was applied with three replications. Deficient drip irrigation occupied the main treatments which included three levels of the deficient irrigation,Full drip irrigation , 75% of Epan and 50% of Epan . The secondary sections included the use of organic fertilizers Contain an equall mixture of, sheep, cows and poultry percent 1:1:1 both of type with three replication, without adding organic fertilizers, adding half of the organic fertilizer 5 tons.ha-1 and adding all organic fertilizer 10 tons.ha-1.The sub secondary treatments included soil coverage by plant residues Peatmoss+sawdust and without coverage. Plant residues were added as 30 ton.ha-1 mixture percent 1:1 %.Potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.) cv , Desiree class B (which is locally produced of the previous fall season ,stored in alocal coolant under 4°C and taken out 2 weeks before planting date)were used in this study.The tubers were planted at 14th of Sept.2010 by making aslot into furrow ,10-18 cm depth and the distance between the slots was 25 cm,each one experimental unit contained 16 plants .Evaluation for drip irrigation system was conducted before the planting through measuring the homogeneity coefficient and the range of drippers flow by giving different operational pressures,50,100,150 kpa .Wetness and salt distributions were studied vertically and horizontally from the source of dripping in three stages of crop growth ,vegetative growth (40-45 days at the beginning of planting), tubers initiation stage (45-60 days),and tubers enlargement stage (60-100 days) of planting .Surfer program was used for drawing counter lines.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.