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Comparative Analysis of Quality of Milk Collected from Buffalo, Cow, Goat and Sheep of Rawalpindi/Islamabad Region in Pakistan

Authors:
  • CCRD, COMSATS University Islamabad

Abstract

Milk is nearly complete food and contains all the essential components in nearly balanced form. In the present study, the milk of four different species like goat, cow, buffalo and sheep milk, was analyzed compositionally and results showed that the cow milk have highest LR and specific gravity i.e., 30.0 and 1.03, respectively than other three species i.e. buffalo, goat and sheep. The cow milk showed maximum pH value (6.65) while sheep milk samples showed maximum titratable acidity (0.181%). The minimum pH value (6.58) was of sheep milk while the minimum titratable acidity (0.15%) was of the cow milk samples. The results of fat (%) showed that buffalo, cow, goat milk are non-significantly different from each other but sheep milk is significantly different from other three species. However, the results of SNF found in this study showed significant difference (P<0.05) among the milk of buffalo (8.79%) and of goat milk (8.92%). In contrast, the SNF of milk samples obtained from cow and sheep (9.17 and 9.71%, respectively). The results showed that the sheep milk had the good range (5.32-7.74%) of protein and the highest average protein contents (6.57%). However the milk of cow (5.23%) and buffalo (3.87%) were significantly different from each other and from sheep milk. The milk of goat showed the lowest protein contents (2.38%) as compare to other species. Sheep milk has highest%age of total nitrogen (1.035) contents as compared to other three species and hence significantly different from them and in %age non-protein nitrogen values of sheep milk showed the highest value (0.0059) and goat milk showed the least value (0.0013). Sheep milk showed the lowest lactose contents (3.57%) while goat milk showed highest value (4.66%). Sheep milk had highest value (0.58%) of ash contents while the goat milk showed the lowest value (0.28%). Cow milk was found best according to this study as compared to the milk samples of other three species i.e. Buffalo, goat and sheep.
... The overall average Protein percent in present study was observed as 3.99±0.02% which was in agreement with the finding of Kanwal et al. (2004) in local buffalo; Khan et al. (2007) in water and swamp buffaloes; Misra et al. (2008) observed in Bhadawari, Mehsana, Murrah and Surti; Khosroshahi et al. (2011) in Iranian buffaloes ...
... which was found to be in agreement with the findings by Sharma et al. (1980) The overall average lactose percent observed was 3.96±0.02% which was close to the value that reported by Kanwal et al. (2004) and lower than that reported by Zhou et al. (2018) in et al., 1983;Jenness, 1985), because of this function lactose remains the most constant constituent in milk. The overall average total solid (TS) percent was found to be 17.23±0.08% ...
... Mehsana, Surti and Murrah buffaloes, Nateghi et al. (2014); Kanwal et al. (2004) in local buffaloes. ...
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The present study was designed to observe the effect of season and stage of lactation on milk components of Purnathadi buffaloes. Total 346 milk samples were collected, from three different seasons (winter, summer and rainy) and stage of lactation (early, mid and late) for the study. Overall milk fat, protein, lactose, solid not fat (SNF) and total solids (TS) were observed as 8.44±0.07, 3.99±0.02, 3.96±0.02, 8.78±0.04, and 17.23±0.08% respectively. There was significantly higher fat and total solids percent during winter (9.01±0.23 and 17.62±0.26% respectively) and lower during summer (8.25±0.14 and 16.73±0.14% respectively) season, but milk SNF percent was significantly higher during rainy (9.00±0.04%) and lower during summer (8.48±0.05%). Stage of lactation had also significant effect on milk components; milk fat, protein, SNF, and TS percent increased significantly with the advancement of lactation stage, whereas milk lactose was nonsignificant. Milk fat during early, mid and late lactation was 7.43±0.10, 8.40±0.07 and 8.79±0.12%; protein was 3.83±0.06, 3.94±0.02 and 4.06±0.02%; SNF was 8.36±0.14, 8.70±0.04 and 8.96±0.05% and TS was 15.61±0.17, 17.10±0.08 and 17.75±0.12%, respectively. Thus, results of the present investigation indicated that season and stage of lactation affect certain milk components in Purnathadi buffaloes and could be minimized by better farm management practices.
... The overall average Protein percent in present study was observed as 3.99±0.02% which was in agreement with the finding of Kanwal et al. (2004) in local buffalo; Khan et al. (2007) in water and swamp buffaloes; Misra et al. (2008) observed in Bhadawari, Mehsana, Murrah and Surti; Khosroshahi et al. (2011) in Iranian buffaloes ...
... which was found to be in agreement with the findings by Sharma et al. (1980) The overall average lactose percent observed was 3.96±0.02% which was close to the value that reported by Kanwal et al. (2004) and lower than that reported by Zhou et al. (2018) in et al., 1983;Jenness, 1985), because of this function lactose remains the most constant constituent in milk. The overall average total solid (TS) percent was found to be 17.23±0.08% ...
... Mehsana, Surti and Murrah buffaloes, Nateghi et al. (2014); Kanwal et al. (2004) in local buffaloes. ...
... Gul et al. (2015) analyzed the camel milk and reported pH was from 6.2 to 6.5%. 21 Kanwal et al. (2004) found that the pH value of buffalo milk (6.5%) was higher than cow milk (6.3%). 22 Ash content was higher in camel milk and lower in buffalo milk. ...
... 21 Kanwal et al. (2004) found that the pH value of buffalo milk (6.5%) was higher than cow milk (6.3%). 22 Ash content was higher in camel milk and lower in buffalo milk. The values of lactose contents were 3.27%, 4.73% and 4.75% of camel, buffalo and cow milk, respectively. ...
... 20 Gul et al. (2015) analyzed the camel milk and reported pH was from 6.2 to 6.5%. 21 Kanwal et al. (2004) found that the pH value of buffalo milk (6.5%) was higher than cow milk (6.3%). 22 In our study the average lactoferrin contents were 0.46mg/ml, 0.33mg/ml and 0.25 mg/ml in camel, buffalo and cow milk respectively (table 2). ...
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Introduction: One third of the world population currently suffers from tuberculosis and Pakistan ranks 5th in global tuberculosis burden. These health issues are currently creating an alarming situation in Pakistan due to poor eating habits, unhealthy and unhygienic living conditions, immune-compromised status of the health. Objective: This study was conducted to compare the therapeutic potential of camel, buffalo and cow milk on the human subjects suffering from tuberculosis. Methodology: The camel, buffalo and cowmilk analysis were carried out in Dairy Technology Laboratory. Chemical analysis of milk was done by proximate analysis. The efficacy study was conducted at District TB Hospital Faisalabad. After chemical analysis milk was offered to the patients suffered with tuberculosis and several parameters (age, body weight, BMI, ESR, Chest X-Ray and Sputum Smear Test) were recorded. Twenty-four patients diagnosed with tuberculosis were selected and divided into four groups. Group one was control group. Three treatments were framed (camel milk, buffalo milk and cow milk) and provided with 250ml of milk twice a day for forty days. Several parameters (body weight, Body Mass Index, Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), chest X-Ray and sputum smear test) were recorded. Results: A significant increase in BMI of three groups (camel, buffalo and cow milk group) was observed. The significant decrease in ESR from 47.00 to 25.50 mm/hour was seen in P1 group while in P2 and P3 it was decreased from 49.17 to 40.83 mm/hour and 55.00 to 47.83 mm/hour respectively. Five patients were recovered by camel milk while only half patient showed negative report in sputum smear test in cow and buffalo milk fed group. Conclusion: Camel milk had beneficial effect on reduction of tuberculosis in human. However, due to short duration of study the effect of camel milk on sputum conversions and chest X-ray was not significant
... The concentration of total solids in Damani sheep milk was also higher than that in goat. The concentration of total solids found in goat milk was similar to that reported by Kanwal et al. (2004) [20] and Imran et al. (2008) [18] . The concentration of total solids found in sheep milk was similar to the findings of Talevski et al. (2009) [36] . ...
... The concentration of total solids in Damani sheep milk was also higher than that in goat. The concentration of total solids found in goat milk was similar to that reported by Kanwal et al. (2004) [20] and Imran et al. (2008) [18] . The concentration of total solids found in sheep milk was similar to the findings of Talevski et al. (2009) [36] . ...
Article
The Research work was designed to study and compare the physico-chemical Characteristics of milk samples of two different species like Damani goat and sheep. 300 Milk samples were collected from the Damani Goat and Sheep maintained at Livestock Research and development station Paharpur, Dera Ismail khan and its surroundings areas. The milk samples were analyzed for different physio-chemical parameters, including pH, specific gravity, titratable acidity, total solids, ash, fat, protein and lactose. It was recorded that Damani Goat milk had 0.17±0.01% titratable acidity, 1.030±0.001 specific gravity, 6.52±0.07 pH, 12.86±0.57% total solids, 0.76±0.14% ash, 3.98±0.52% fat, 3.17±0.33% protein and 4.37±0.34% lactose. Damani Sheep milk contained 0.23±0.01% titratable acidity, 1.035±0.002 specific gravity, 6.62±0.05 pH, 18.16±0.22% total solids, 6.50±0.24% fat, 5.32±0.30% protein, and 4.74±0.31% lactose and 0.89±0.07% ash. All the parameters tested were higher in Damani Sheep milk to Damani Goat milk.
... The concentration of total solids in Damani sheep milk was also higher than that in goat. The concentration of total solids found in goat milk was similar to that reported by Kanwal et al. (2004) [20] and Imran et al. (2008) [18] . The concentration of total solids found in sheep milk was similar to the findings of Talevski et al. (2009) [36] . ...
... The concentration of total solids in Damani sheep milk was also higher than that in goat. The concentration of total solids found in goat milk was similar to that reported by Kanwal et al. (2004) [20] and Imran et al. (2008) [18] . The concentration of total solids found in sheep milk was similar to the findings of Talevski et al. (2009) [36] . ...
Article
Full-text available
The Research work was designed to study and compare the physico-chemical Characteristics of milk samples of two different species like Damani goat and sheep. 300 Milk samples were collected from the Damani Goat and Sheep maintained at Livestock Research and development station Paharpur, Dera Ismail khan and its surroundings areas. The milk samples were analyzed for different physio-chemical parameters, including pH, specific gravity, titratable acidity, total solids, ash, fat, protein and lactose. It was recorded that Damani Goat milk had 0.17±0.01% titratable acidity, 1.030±0.001 specific gravity, 6.52±0.07 pH, 12.86±0.57% total solids, 0.76±0.14% ash, 3.98±0.52% fat, 3.17±0.33% protein and 4.37±0.34% lactose. Damani Sheep milk contained 0.23±0.01% titratable acidity, 1.035±0.002 specific gravity, 6.62±0.05 pH, 18.16±0.22% total solids, 6.50±0.24% fat, 5.32±0.30% protein, and 4.74±0.31% lactose and 0.89±0.07% ash. All the parameters tested were higher in Damani Sheep milk to Damani Goat milk.
... The results are in accordance with a similar study conducted by Shah et al., (1983) where average lactation fat percent was found to be (6.55 ±.06) and fat percent slightly decreases with increased lactation milk yield. The results of late lactation stage are similar to findings of Kanwal et al., (2004) who showed that the buffalo milk fat increased significantly during early, middle and late lactation. In her study the results of solid not fat (SNF) were found significantly different (p≤0.05) ...
... Miller and Lu (4) have revealed that goats' milk contains a higher percentage of fat and ash, compared to cows' milk. However, Kanwal, Ahmed (5) have indicated that sheep's milk contains a higher percentage of protein, fat, as well as minerals, and a lower percentage of lactose, in comparison with the cows, buffalos, and goats' milk. Hamad and Baiomy (6) have found that buffalos' milk is characterized by its higher content of total solids, fat, protein, and ash, compared to local cows' milk. ...
Article
In recent years, the consumption of milk and dairy products has dramatically increased in several parts of the world. Different livestock plays an essential role in global milk production. This study was designed to evaluate different chemical and physical components of milk in four groups of livestock, including cows, buffalos, sheep, and goats. To this end, 200 raw milk samples were collected from cows, buffalos, sheep, and goats (n=50) across Dhi-Qar Governorate, Iraq, for a period of one year (from 01.10.2018 to 01.06.2019). The findings showed sheep and buffalos' milk samples had a significantly higher percentage of total solids (TS%), compared to cows and goats' milk samples (P<0.05). However, there were no significant differences in the TS% between sheep and buffalos' milk samples. Furthermore, the mean TS% values in cows, buffalos, sheep, and goats' milk samples were determined at 11.14%, 12.87%, 13.26%, and 11.33%, respectively. As for fat percentage (F%), buffalos' milk samples had significantly higher F% (4.80%), compared to milk samples of cows, sheep, and goats (P<0.05). Additionally, sheep's milk samples had significantly higher F% (P<0.05) than cows and goats' milk samples determined at 2.78%, 4.20%, and 2.98%, respectively. The findings showed the percentage of solids not fat (SNF%) was significantly higher in sheep's milk (8.97%), compared to milk samples of cows, buffalos, and goats (P<0.05). Additionally, it was found that the SNF% was significantly higher (P<0.05) in Buffalos' milk samples, compared to cows and goats' milk samples determined at 8.36%, 8.60%, and 8.35%, respectively. Moreover, the results revealed that the percentage of milk protein content in sheep's milk was significantly higher than the cows, buffalos, and goats' milk (P<0.05). Recorded data also showed no significant differences in the percentage of milk lactose among cows, buffalos, sheep, and goats' milk samples (P<0.05). Furthermore, the findings illustrated that the percentage of milk ash (Ash%) in sheep's milk samples was significantly higher than the cows, buffalos, as well as goats' milk samples (P<0.05), and no significant differences were observed among cows, buffalos, and goats' milk samples in the Ash% (P<0.05). In addition, there were no significant differences in the specific gravity among different milk samples (P<0.05). Finally, the results displayed no significant differences between cows and goats' milk samples in all the studied traits (P<0.05).
... Proteolysis was highest in cow milk ( Figure 3a) followed by buffalo ( Figure 3b) and goat milk (Figure 3c). The highest proteolytic activity in cow milk and cow's milk fermented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus PTCC 1637 and Lactobacillus fermentum PTCC 1638, respectively, were also reported earlier (Kanwal et al., 2004;Moslehishad et al., 2013). ...
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NCDC 252, potential probiotic, was studied for starter properties. It exhibited proteolytic activity in cow, buffalo and goat milk and acidified skim milk and cheese by lowering their pH. It survived heat treatment and also in presence of salt and ethanol. This suggests its fermentation ability for dairy products and beverages. Presence of genes for heavy metal tolerance and vitamins' biosynthesis in it's genome suggests its ability of heavy metal detoxification and de‐novo vitamin synthesis, respectively. HPLC studies confirmed vitamin B12 production. These studies suggest NCDC 252 to be a potential starter culture that can be used for foods' fortification.
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This study was carried out to determine the chemical and microbiological quality of buffalo milk. A total of 120 buffalo raw milk samples were collected monthly from beed district, throughout the year for this study. In the chemical analysis of buffalo milk samples the mean total solid value, non-solid fat, lipid, protein, lactose, ash and pH values were detected as 16.38%, 8.56%, 7.04%, 4.36%, 4.19%, 0.72% and 6.55, respectively. Total bacteria count (TCA), coliform, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and yeast-mold (log10 cfu/ml) levels in the milk samples were detected as 6.36, 2.95, 5.74, 1.10, 2.46 and 2.63, respectively.
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Triacylglycerols (TAGs) are the major component of milk lipids and play important technological, nutritional and physiological roles. In this study, ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC–Q-TOF–MS) was used to characterise TAGs in cow, yak, donkey, goat, and camel milk fat. TAG separation based on partition number was achieved through an acetonitrile-isopropanol gradient elution. A total of 47, 52, 61, 75, and 87 TAGs were identified in camel, goat, donkey, cow, and yak milk fat, respectively, by UPLC–Q-TOF–MS. The most abundant TAG species in cow, yak, donkey, goat, and camel milk fat was 38:1, 40:3, 38:1, 40:1, and 52:2, respectively. TAG analysis using UPLC–Q-TOF–MS proved its potential to analyse different kinds of milk fat. This work contributes to a better understanding of the TAGs found in milk from various species.
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