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A 2-year on-farm experiment was conducted under rainfed condition to study the effect of Rhizobium inoculation (with or without chemical fertilizer) and chemical fertilizer ( 0 and 50-30-20 Kg ha <sup>-1</sup> P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>, K<sub>2</sub>O and S) on cowpea. Two sources of biofertilizer were used. Biofertilizer showed significantly higher yield attributes and seed yield of cowpea as compared to control. Biofertilizer of BARI source gave the highest cowpea seed yield (880 Kg ha <sup>-1</sup>) and the lowest seed yield (658 Kg ha <sup>-1</sup>) was obtained without biofertilizer. No significant difference was found between the two sources of bio-fertilizer. Chemical fertilizer showed better performance than control in case of seed yield and all yield contributing characters of cowpea. Interaction of bio-fertilizer and chemical fertilizer also showed statistically significant difference. PKS with biofertilizer of both BAU and BARI sources gave the highest seed yield (987 Kg ha <sup>-1</sup>) and the lowest seed yield (525 Kg ha <sup>-1</sup>) was obtained from control treatment. Though the highest average rate of return (4556%) was found using biofertilizer of BARI source but on consideration of net return and also soil health, PKS with biofertilizer of BARI source where ARR was the second highest may be suggested for growing cowpea under rainfed condition.

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... Micro-dose of NPK significantly increased the final seed yield ton/ ha, in both locations as demonstrated in table 4. The highest yield was observed in the 1 st and the 2 nd season at Eldomokia whereas the lowest yield was observed at Faris in control plots in both seasons. Similar results were obtained by Nyoki and Ndakidemi [22] and Sarker., et al. [23] who reported that, increased in grain yield of cowpea is due to inoculation. ...
... Inoculation of the cowpea resulted in 22% increase in grain yield. Other authors (Sarker et al., 2001;Martins et al., 2003;Nyoki and Ndakidemi, 2013) have also reported significant increase in grain yield with inoculation. This increase in yield may be attributed to the effectiveness of the inoculant in fixing nitrogen thereby meeting the nutrient requirement of the plant (Nyoki and Ndakidemi 2013). ...
Conference Paper
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In sub-Saharan Africa, there is significant concern about the potential impacts of climate change and future variability on the productivity of agricultural crops. Assessing the magnitude of such impacts on crop yields in the future remains challenging due to the confounding influence of other more potent drivers of change. In this study, we discuss yield projections generated under the Agricultural Model Inter-comparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) for a distribution of farms and agricultural practices representative of the Koutiala district in Mali's cotton belt. Our analysis focused on two local sorghum genotypes (CSM335 'Ceblen' and CSM63E 'Jakunben') calibrated in three contrasted process-based models (APSIM, DSSAT, Samara) driven by the climate projections of five GCMs for the mid-century period (2040-2069) at 571ppm CO2 concentration. The results of the climate change projections indicate a consistent pattern of increase in the mean growing season temperatures and little or no change in precipitation with high agreement, which is expected for temperature but unusual for precipitation in that region. On the average, sorghum yields decline in the absence of any adaptation measures. Simple plant adaptation options such as lengthened crop duration and altered root distribution are usually sufficient to offset this decline. Simpler models such as Samara performed better at mimicking the observed distribution of yields than complex ones such as APSIM in data scarce environments. Randomization procedures required allocating farms across a discrete and limited sample of soil types and fertility management practices can however have a very significant effect on simulated yield distributions and on the uncertainty associated with yield projections.
Food legumes, such as the cowpea [Vigna unguiculata subsp. unguiculata (L.) Walp.], and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) are important crops in the developing countries of the tropics and subtropics, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and Central and South America, and in some temperate areas, including the Mediterranean region and the southern states of the USA. Cowpea and peanut seeds possess high nutritive value. The plants are well adapted to grow under high temperature, drought and low soil fertility owing to their nitrogen fixation ability and their potential to form effective symbiotic associations. Therefore, the cowpea and peanut can play an important role in sustainable agricultural development, particularly in the Maghreb and sub-Saharan regions, where drought and salinity frequently limit crop production. Here, ongoing projects launched in recent years are described, whose aims are to define a dynamic conservation strategy and a reasoned exploitation of the genetic diversity embedded in food legume landraces collected across the Algerian territory. The main results are presented concerning the prospection, collection and conservation of local populations and ecotypes of food legumes, broad bean, chickpea, cowpea and peanut – and rhizobacterial strains associated with them, the behaviour of plant-rhizobia systems in front of water and salt stress, and the development of a screening test to identify drought/salinity tolerant associations.
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