Delayed Onset of Clozapine-Induced Leucopenia
Psychiatry Department, Central Institute of Psychiatry, Kanke, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India.American journal of therapeutics (Impact Factor: 1.13). 08/2010; 19(3):e118-9. DOI: 10.1097/MJT.0b013e3181ebb268
Primary renal extraskeletal Ewing sarcoma (EES) is rare but well known to be aggressive, less responsive to the treatment, and has early predilection for metastases. Metastases at the time of diagnosis to the lungs or bones are associated with poor outcome. We present a case of primary renal EES in 57-year-old woman with multiple metastases to the lungs at the time of diagnosis with complete remission of the disease for the last 8 years following multimodality treatment Multidisciplinary approach for the management of EES has definitely improved the quality of life and the survival of the patients.
Article: Clozapine Safety, 35 Years Later[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Clozapine is the best treatment option in several clinical circumstances, including treatment-resistant schizophrenia, non treatment-resistant schizophrenia, suicide risk in schizophrenia spectrum disorders, aggressiveness or violence in psychiatric patients, psychosis in Parkinson's disease, prevention and treatment of tardive dyskinesia. However, clozapine is associated with many serious side effects. Furthermore, monitoring requirements, i.e., frequent blood draws and frequent visits, discourage clozapine use. Therefore, the drug is underused. The only way to avoid the underuse of clozapine is full awareness of its side effects and competence to minimize them. The aim of the paper is reviewing the safety profile of clozapine and the suggested strategies in the management of its side effects, including neutropenia, eosinophilia, seizures, myocarditis, weight gain, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, hypersalivation, fever, constipation, ileus, urinary incontinence, sweating. The neuropsychiatric side effects of clozapine are not discussed in this review.
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ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Atypical antipsychotics provide broad-spectrum effectiveness for the acute and/or preventative treatment of disparate psychiatric disorders. Atypical antipsychotics offer improved efficacy in some psychopathological domains when compared with typical antipsychotics. Notwithstanding, atypicals are not a catholicon and are associated with clinically significant and treatment-limiting side effects (e.g., extrapyramidal symptoms and weight gain). AREAS COVERED: This article reviews commonly encountered adverse events attributable to the use of atypical antipsychotic agents. This review aims to provide a current overview of common adverse events associated with atypical agents with a particular emphasis on adverse events that frequently lead to treatment discontinuation (e.g., changes in weight, metabolism, extrapyramidal side effects, neuroendocrine changes, blood dyscrasias, and cardiovascular toxicity). EXPERT OPINION: Atypicals are not a catholicon and are associated with clinically significant and treatment-limiting side effects (e.g., extrapyramidal symptoms and weight gain). Improving the utility of these agents requires a familiarity and understanding of the heterogeneous tolerability and safety profiles of atypical agents as well as the therapeutic evidence for their efficacy.
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ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Lurasidone is a benzisothiazol derivative, approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the acute treatment of adults with schizophrenia. Lurasidone's binding affinities are highest for the 5-HT(2A), 5-HT(7), and D(2) receptors; with lower and similar binding affinities for the norepinephrine α(2C) and 5-HT(2C) receptor subtypes. It has demonstrated efficacy in fixed-dose studies across a variable dose range (i.e., 40 - 160 mg), with a recommended starting dose of 40 mg and a maximum recommended dose of 80 mg. Lurasidone's preclinical profile is predictive not only of efficacy against psychotic and negative symptoms but also of affective symptomatology and cognitive deficits. Controlled trials are currently underway to evaluate lurasidone's efficacy in bipolar depression as well as its procognitive effects in individuals with schizophrenia. Lurasidone is administered once a day with ≥ 350 calories of food, regardless of fat content. Lurasidone is not known to adversely affect body composition, anthropometrics, metabolic and/or electrocardiographic parameters. Although prolactin elevation might be observed, prolactin-related adverse events are rarely reported. AREAS COVERED: This paper presents the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of lurasidone, and discusses its efficacy, safety and tolerability data. EXPERT OPINION: Lurasidone's simplicity of use and favorable metabolic profile are distinct advantages relative to several other agents (e.g., olanzapine). Outcomes in cognitive data analyses are awaited to determine if there is a key differentiator between lurasidone and other atypical agents with respect to efficacy. Moreover, lurasidone's efficacy in bipolar depression is awaited to determine whether this agent can be considered as a treatment alternative for depressive symptoms in adults with bipolar disorder.
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