Article

Cigarette dependence questionnaire: Development and psychometric testing with male smokers

Department of Nursing, Chang Jung Christian University, Tainan, Taiwan.
Journal of Advanced Nursing (Impact Factor: 1.74). 10/2010; 66(10):2341-9. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2010.05393.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

This paper is a report of a study conducted to develop and test a theoretically derived Cigarette Dependence Questionnaire for adult male smokers.
Fagerstrom questionnaires have been used worldwide to assess cigarette dependence. However, these assessments lack any theoretical perspective. A theory-based approach is needed to ensure valid assessment.
In 2007, an initial pool of 103 Cigarette Dependence Questionnaire items was distributed to 109 adult smokers in Taiwan. Item analysis was conducted to select items for inclusion in the refined scale. The psychometric properties of the Cigarette Dependence Questionnaire were further evaluated 2007-08, when it was administered to 256 respondents and their saliva was collected and analysed for cotinine levels. Criterion validity was established through the Pearson correlation between the scale and saliva cotinine levels. Exploratory factor analysis was used to test construct validity. Reliability was determined with Cronbach's alpha coefficient and a 2-week test-retest coefficient.
The selection of 30 items for seven perspectives was based on item analysis. One factor accounting for 44.9% of the variance emerged from the factor analysis. The factor was named as cigarette dependence. Cigarette Dependence Questionnaire scores were statistically significantly correlated with saliva cotinine levels (r = 0.21, P = 0.01). Cronbach's alpha was 0.95 and test-retest reliability using an intra-class correlation was 0.92.
The Cigarette Dependence Questionnaire showed sound reliability and validity and could be used by nurses to set up smoking cessation interventions based on assessment of cigarette dependence.

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    ABSTRACT: Although the effect of gene-gene interaction on nicotine-dopamine metabolism for smoking behavior has been reported, polymorphisms of dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) and monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) have not been simultaneously examined among smokers. In this study, 481 young Taiwanese men completed a self-report questionnaire on smoking status, and data were obtained on polymorphisms of DRD2 rs1800497, DRD2 rs1079597, MAOA rs309850, and MAOA rs1137070, urinary nicotine, and urinary cotinine. In a comparison of 261 current smokers and 220 never smokers, odds ratios (ORs) for the development of smoking in all genotypes were not statistically significant. Among smokers with DRD2 rs1079597 GG//MAOA rs309850 3-repeat, the OR of heavier smoking was 2.67 times higher (95% confidence interval [CI]: [1.08, 6.59], p = .031) and the score on the Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence was higher (4.26 vs. 2.83) than in those with DRD2 rs1079597 AA//MAOA rs309850 3-repeat. Adjusted urinary cotinine concentration was significantly different between those two groups (median value: 95.83 ng/μl vs. 133.24 ng/μl, respectively, p = .045). These findings suggest that the interaction of DRD2 rs1079597 and MAOA rs309850 3-repeat affects smoking intensity in young Taiwanese men. © The Author(s) 2015.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Biological Research for Nursing